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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Blazenka Bertic, Zdenko Loncaric, Vladimir Vukadinovic, Zelimir Vukobratovic, and Vesna Vukadinovic

408 Horvat D.— Lončarić Z.— Vukadinović V.— Drezner G.— Bertić B.— Dvojković K.: 2006. The influence of mineral fertilization on winter wheat yield and quality. Cereal Research Communications

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Wheat is the second most important field crop on arable lands in Hungary and Croatia. Yield variations between years are high in both countries. In the short term these variations are mainly the result of the weather parameters specific to individual growing seasons. The aim of this study was to compare variations in winter wheat yields over years in four counties in Hungary and five in Croatia, with the emphasis on the impact of rainfall and mean air temperature regimes. The results showed that rainfall in spring was most decisive for winter wheat yields. The highest winter wheat yields were obtained when the rainfall in the winter half-year ranged from 230–260 mm and the spring rainfall from 180–230 mm. The precipitation in the growing season is much higher in eastern Croatia than in eastern Hungary, so water shortage is a more pronounced environmental problem for wheat in Hungary. This is probably why wheat yields were lower in eastern Hungary than in eastern Croatia in the period tested. Pearson correlation analysis on the yields and meteorological data between 1990 and 2009 revealed a positive correlation between spring rainfall and the yield, and a negative correlation between spring temperature and the yield. The results proved that yields were determined not only by weather conditions, but by many other factors (crop rotation, tillage, fertilization, variety, crop protection, etc.).

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Woodard, H. J. & Bly, A. (1998): Relationship of nitrogen managements to winter wheat yield and grain protein in South Dakota. J. Plant Nutr. , 21 , 217-233. Relationship of nitrogen

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Drago Kraljević, Luka Šumanovac, Goran Heffer, and Zvonko Horvat
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Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is an important disease of wheat production areas throughout the world, causing a great reduction in wheat and barley yields. The most effective way of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties in infested areas. In this study, the effects of SBWMV on yields and some yield components of eight susceptible, one moderately susceptible/resistant and nine resistant varieties were evaluated using data from 9 virus-infested and 6 non-infested sites in Eskisehir, Turkey over 6 years. The susceptible varieties yielded 5.35% more than resistant varieties in non-infested sites, while they gave 28.98% lower yield in infested sites. Significant yield loss differences were observed between the varieties in infested sites. Decreases were also observed in yield components at various levels. This study showed that SBWMV is an important disease, which survives in soil for long periods and causes significant yield decreases in wheat. Recently developed varieties have good resistance to the disease and are recommended to farmers in infested areas.  Abbreviations: SBWMV, soil-borne wheat mosaic virus

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Daniela Horvat, Zdenko Loncaric, Vladimir Vukadinovic, Georg Drezner, Blazenka Bertic, and Kresimir Dvojković

The effect of the N, P and K fertilisation on yield and quality parameters of cultivar Žitarka during two growing seasons (2002/03 and 2003/04) was studied. Fertilization increased yield, although only treatment with 200 kg N ha −1 yielded significantly higher than treatments with 80 kg N ha −1 . Protein content increased significantly (P<0.001) with the application of 80 kg N ha −1 , 120 kg N ha −1 and 160 kg N ha −1 . The highest N applications with 200 kg N ha −1 and 240 kg N ha −1 increased protein content on the same level as with 160 kg N ha −1 . Wet gluten and sedimentation value were also significantly (P<0.001) affected by N fertilizer treatments. Although increment of N fertilization increased values of these quality parameters, 120 kg N ha −1 , 160 kg N ha −1 and 200 kg N ha −1 treatments showed similar effect, while treatment with 240 kg N ha −1 resulted with significantly higher values. Gluten index increased only with applying 80 kg N ha −1 while the highest N levels (200 kg N ha −1 and 240 kg N ha −1 ) showed dramatically gluten weakening. Considering grain hardness only treatment with 80 kg N ha −1 had significant (P<0.001) influence. Simultaneously, P and K did not affect grain yield and quality, neither comparing PK to controle, or N 2 P 1 K 1 to N 2 P 2 K 2 .

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The effects of regular NPK fertilization on the amounts of winter wheat yield and the amounts and proportion of different N forms (NO 3 -N, NH 4 -N, N org , N total ) of a Luvic Phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl 2 were studied in the B1740 variant of the National Long-Term Fertilization Experiment at Karcag. According to the yield data, N and P fertilization increased winter wheat yield significantly. When applying the 200 kg N·ha -1 dose, P fertilization resulted in a more than 2 t·ha -1 yield increase, as compared to the treatments without P fertilization. K fertilization had no effect on the yield, similarly to preceding years. These findings may be adapted to fields of the Middle-Tisza Region with similar conditions to the trial site. The N forms of the soil determined in CaCl 2 reflected fertilization well. All of the fractions, but especially NO 3 -N and N total , increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Close relationships (r = 0.87–0.88) were found among the NO 3 -N and N total fractions and the N balance, which means that the amounts of NO 3 -N and N total are suitable for assessing both the N deficit and the N surplus. The strength of the correlation between the NH 4 -N content and N balance was moderate (r = 0.65). The N org fraction increased significantly as a function of N and P fertilization. These results can be explained with the yield increase. A significant correlation (r = 0.55) was found between the N org fraction and yield amounts. It can be established that organic residuals remaining on the site resulted in a significant increase in the N org content of soils. The gained results confirm that the N org fraction is suitable for the characterization of the readily mobilizable N reserves previously ignored in fertilization practice. On the basis of the presented results the CaCl 2 method is recommended for the precise estimation of nutrient requirements.

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The field research was conducted on hypogley in Vrbanja, Croatia, during four growing seasons from 1992/1993 to 1995/1996. They included five soil tillage systems and three nitrogen fertilization levels in four replications for winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) after soybeans ( Glycine max L. ) as a preceding crop. Tillage treatments were: PL=conventional tillage (ploughing to 20 cm depth, diskharrowing and standard sowing); DS=diskharrowing and standard sowing; MC=tillage by multitiller and chisel, standard sowing; RS=soil tillage and sowing by RAU-Rotosem; PR=ploughing to the depth of 20 cm + RS. Nitrogen fertilization treatments were 140 (N1), 170 (N2) and 200 kg N ha −1 ) (N3). Wheat grain yields effects by tillage were as follows: 6.00 (PL), 5.79 (DS), 5.65 (MC), 5.61 (RS) and 5.90 t ha −1 (PR). Significant differences of yields were found only in the first year of testing. Nitrogen fertilization resulted by non-significant differences of yields as follows: 5.56 t ha −1 (N1), 5.85 t ha −1 (N2) and 5.96 t ha −1 (N3). The conclusion is that under certain environmental conditions it is possible to apply reduced soil tillage and moderate N fertilization.

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