which a modifier is located directly after the noun. This particular wordorder raises some challenging questions, which can be answered only through an accurate analysis of Latin instances and their Hebrew patterns. Discontinuous phrases can be best
This paper gives a
syntactic overview and analysis of exclamative constructions in Hungarian. Its
main purpose is to describe word order variation in exclamative clauses, in
comparison with other sentence types. The formal properties of exclamatives
that will be discussed here have important consequences for the theories of
exclamatives and exclamativity in general. The empirical findings will force
one to reconsider the syntactic theory of exclamatives put forward by Portner
and Zanuttini (2003). The key modification affects the role focus plays in
exclamatives: it will be shown that languages can use available syntactic means
of focusing in the expression of exclamatives.
This article revisits
the (non)configurationality debate of the 80s and early 90s concerning
Hungarian, a `free word order' language, which was shown during that period to
be characterized by an articulate and, crucially, hierarchical preverbal
domain, with A-bar positions dedicated to discourse functions such as topic and
focus. What this debate did not conclusively settle, however, is the question
whether or not the structure of A-positions in Hungarian is also
configurational. The most prevalent, and indeed empirically most well-argued
and elaborated analysis that has emerged is that of É. Kiss's (1987a, b; 1991,
1994a, 2002, 2003), according to which the answer is negative: arguments are
base-generated in the verb phrase in a free order in a flat structure. The
present paper challenges this view by demonstrating systematically that the
arguments put forward to back it up are inconclusive, and in fact it fails
descriptively as well. The alternative proposed here is based on a hierarchical
verb phrase (vacated by the raised verb) and a Japanese-type local scrambling
movement that operates in the post-verbal domain of the clause. The scrambling
movement analysis, besides being theoretically more desirable than the
nonconfigurational verb phrase approach, makes available a superior descriptive
coverage by accounting for a varied set of structural symmetries and
asymmetries holding between subject and object. Modulo scrambling, Hungarian is
configurational all the way down.
The author claims that word-order shifts take place in the course of the translation of almost every sentence of translated texts, regardless of language-pair and direction of translation. Some of these shifts are obligatory, since without them we would not get a grammatically correct TL sentence. Another class of word-order shifts is not obligatory but optional. Optional word-order shifts are performed in order to ensure the cohesion of the TL text. Obligatory word-order shifts which lead to a grammatically correct TL sentence may distort the communicative structure: cohesive ties get loose, unimportant elements get highlighted and important elements are blurred. Many optional word-order changes are performed in order to preserve the communicative structure of the sentences, and thus the cohesion of the text. The present paper will discuss the different types of optional word-order shifts in translation from Hungarian into IE languages and vice versa.
In this paper we argue that Mandarin VdeO focus clefts (e.g., Tā shì zuò huŏchē qù de Běijīng ‘It was by train that he went to Beijing’ and Shì tā zuò huŏchē qù de Běijīng ‘It was he who went to Beijing by train’) originate from bi-clausal copulative constructions in Early Modern Chinese with the interaction between particular word order (SVO order, but the relative clause before the head noun) and the adjacency effect commonly observed in the focus clefts of SVO languages. The adjacency effect is locally constrained by the presupposition effect of the particular relative clause to produce a special head-noun focus cleft in Mandarin (Tā shì qù de Běijīng ‘It was Beijing that he went to’). The past time meaning, the negation restriction, and the TAM (tense, aspect, and modality) restrictions that Mandarin VdeO focus clefts exhibit all come from the syntactic requirement that O in a Mandarin VdeO focus cleft should be specific in reference.
Gyuris, Beáta 2002. The semantics of contrastive topic in Hungarian. Doctoral dissertation, ELTE, Budapest.
É. Kiss, Katalin 1994. Sentence structure and wordorder. In: Katalin É. Kiss - Ferenc Kiefer (eds): The