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, but laid emphasis on the training of the members. The vernacular decorative traditions of certain representative regions (Matyóföld, Kalocsa etc.) have remained in practice between the two World Wars ( Flórián 2009 :593). Albeit life conditions of the

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For further details see my "Hungary and the Second World War," 15-21; and "Thousand Years of Hungarian Survival," 41-47. My research into Hungary's wartime history has been supported by various

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. Journal of PlanningHistory 6 ( 2007 ) 2 . 138 – 165 . Horák 2019 Horák , Peter : Bratislava’s Changing Urban Fabric after World War II . In: Benkő , Melinda – Kissfazekas , Kornélia (eds.): Understanding Post-Socialist European Cities

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Upon the restoration of the Constitution in the Ottoman State, on 23 July 1908, which guaranteed the freedoms of thought and associations, many non-governmental organisations were established. One of these was the Türk Derneği (Turkish Association). Founded to promote research into the language, literature, history and culture of the Turks and related fields, the Society also published a periodical under the same name. In addition to works of Turkish scholars, some of the best achievements of Hungarian Turcology were translated into Turkish and published in this journal. By doing so, both the Society and the journal considerably contributed to the emergence and flourishing of scientific and cultural co-operation between the two countries in the pre-World War I period.

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Most armed forces of the world do employ military chaplains to increase the willingness of the troops, and to provide the necessary spiritual support on the battlefield or even during the peacetime service. Austria-Hungary acted likewise by setting up its own system, which has been proven to be extremely useful during World War I. It is not commonly known, but a large number of Jewish soldiers were enlisted in the different armed forces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and they were supported by field rabbis from the very beginning of the conflict. This institution was unique among the armies of the Central Powers in such an extended form. In my study I would like to provide a resume of this structure and offer an insight into the very important work conducted by military chaplains — rabbis, in this particular case — in state of war.

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The labelling system, the projection and the datum parameters of the sheets of the 1:75 000 scale Romanian topographic map series completed prior to World War I, are described in order to integrate them to GIS databases. The series has two zones, eastern and western, both on the Bonne projection with different parameters. The sheets from each zone should be handled in a slightly different way in order to rectify them. The eastern sheets can be rectified using the grid coordinates computed from the sheet labels of the corner points. In the case of the western zone sheets, the geographic coordinates are computed from the sheet labels or directly from the graticule corners reprojected on the respective Bonne projection. The abridged Molodenskyparameters for the datums of the two zones are also given. The rectified sheets integrated to a GIS database provide an interesting source of the natural and built environment of the early 20th century Romania.

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The one hundredth anniversary of the end of World War I and the subsequent peace negotiations will inevitably become a historical focal point. Accordingly, this article will deal with American involvement in Europe, but especially in Hungarian affairs with regards to the private realm rather than the official spectrum. American participation always bordered official yet unofficial conduct, which is even truer for the successor countries in Central Europe. A few Americans visited Hungary during the Peace Conference in various capacities. Although their official work has been to a large degree uncovered by historians, their private work still remains elusive. Hence, the diary of such an American officer will shed light on various interesting angles of American thinking of the era and the relationship between American representatives and various Hungarians of the day. The article will introduce Charles Moorfield Storey’s journal, a significant part of which was written while he was in Hungary in the first few weeks of 1919. Storey was a member of the famous Coolidge Mission, whose headquarters was in Vienna. From here Americans set out to visit and gather information on the various countries in their purview, Hungary among them. Based upon the diary entries, one can learn about daily work of the Americans at the Paris Peace Conference, the Coolidge Mission, and Storey’s experience in Hungary shortly after the conclusion of the war.

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Jean Sibelius and Béla Bartók, two composers from the fringe of Europe, had to create space for themselves in the midst of Austro-German dominance of turn-of-the-century music. Both encountered in the hitherto unknown folk music of their respective countries an “Other” that enabled them to develop an idiom different from the mainstream but equally coherent. Sibelius became in Finland's a national hero due to his patriotic music from the turn-of-the-century. As a consequence, his figure grew into mountainous dimensions, and many of his successors were doomed to live under his shadow. After World War II a new beginning was needed. Anxious of the influence of Sibelius and searching for a new starting point young composers encountered the music of Bartók, Prokofiev and Shostakovich, the otherness of which enabled them to “misread” the Sibelian tradition in a creative manner. Especially important was Bartók, notably for Joonas Kokkonen (1921-96). Some later composers, for whom Sibelius was not a problem anymore, were looking in Bartók's works for new patterns of misprision.

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A két világháború közötti időszakban intenzív kapcsolat alakult ki Olaszország és Magyarország között az építészet terén is. Ez főképpen a politikai szövetségnek köszönhető, valamint annak, hogy a kultúrát meghatározó személyiségek közül néhányan nem csak a német, hanem az olasz modernitásra is felhívták a figyelmet. A Római Magyar Akadémia (1928) megalapítása számos művész számára lehetőséget adott, hogy állami ösztöndíjjal egy-két évet Rómában töltsön, így az építészek a helyszínen követhették a modern olasz építészet kialakulását és felvirágzását. A két ország építészeinek közvetlen és személyes kapcsolatán kívül (utazások, olasz építészek részvétele kiállításokon és konferenciákon Magyarországon és magyaroké Olaszországban), a magyar építészek a Tér és forma hasábjain, a főszerkesztőnek, Bierbauer Virgilnek köszönhetően rendszeres tájékoztatást kaptak a modern olasz építészet eredményeiről. Az olasz építészeti újságok is beszámoltak a magyar építészek munkáiról, ami elsősorban Bierbauer személyes ismeretségeinek köszönhető, valamint az Olaszországban olasz kollégáikkal közös munkát végző magyar építészeknek (Faludi Jenő, Kovács László, Visontai Miklós, Vedres János). Bár a kapcsolatok kétoldalúak voltak, nem nevezhetők kölcsönösnek: a modern olasz építészet ismerte ugyan a többi ország eredményeit, így a magyart is, saját modern építészetét a több évszázados elvekre támaszkodva belső fejlődés során alakította ki, viszont a magyar építészet a két világháború között és a háborút követő első években, főképpen a középületek és az egyházi épületek terén, erős olasz hatást mutat.

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-201. Heppner, E. G. (1993): Shanghai Refuge. A Memoir of the World War II Jewish Ghetto. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press. Shanghai Refuge. A Memoir of the World War II Jewish Ghetto

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