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. Conti , S. , Villari , G. , Amico , E. & Caruso , G. ( 2015 ): Effects of production system and transplanting time on yield, quality and antioxidant content of organic winter squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) . Sci. Hortic

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Alojzije Lalic, Josip Kovacevic, Georg Drezner, Dario Novoselovic, Darko Babic, Kresimir Dvojkovic, and Gordana Simic

The objective of research was to determine grain yield, hectoliter weight, grain proteins and starch content of 17 winter barley cultivars from trials at four locations (Tovarnik, Nova Gradiska, Pozega and Osijek) and during three years (2002 to 2005). All traits were significantly influenced by year (Y), location (L) and genotype (G) while sowing rate (300 and 450 seeds per m 2 ) and genotype*sowing rate (G*D) did not affect trait means (P>0,05). Interactions as year* sowing rate (Y*D), location*sowing rate (L*D) and year*location*sowing rate caused significant influence to grain yield and proteins and starch content in grains. Regression coefficient “bi”, ecovalence “W i ” and variance of deviations from regressions “S 2 d i ” pointed out best performance of cultivars Barun, Bingo and Gvozd in more intensive growing conditions due to its top yielding, lowest proteins and rich starch content of grains. Opposite to this, best yield and quality performance of cultivars at low input production could be expected from cultivars Plaisant, Vanessa, Favorit, Lord and Heraklo.

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The appearance of Fusarium species and the micronutrient content of pea varieties were investigated in different plant development periods. Field experiments were carried out for three years on six dry pea varieties grown without irrigation on a soil infected with Fusarium species. Green and dry plants divided into shoots (including stems and leaves), pods and seeds were used to determine the presence of Fusarium species and the concentration of micro- and macroelements. In the green shoots and seeds of varieties registered as susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum, other species such as F. solani and F. culmorum were also detected. F. oxysporum and F. solani were found in the dry seeds not only in varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum but in resistant ones as well. In the case of susceptible varieties the phosphorus and nickel contents in the flowering plants decreased significantly compared to those in varieties registered as resistant to F. oxysporum. In later stages of plant development the K and Mo contents increased significantly in the green shoots and the accumulation of Mn and Mo in the green seeds intensified. The very low B concentration in the dry pods contributed to the internal infection of dry seeds by decreasing the stability of the cell wall. In the dry seeds of varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum a considerable decrease in the S content was found parallel with marked increases in the Mo and Mn contents. The sugar content of green seeds decreased significantly in peas susceptible to F. oxysporum, but neither the protein, nor the starch or sugar contents of the dry seeds decreased in comparison to the resistant ones.

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Soil-born diseases often cause problems in vegetable forcing; this is because growers use greenhouses for the longest time possible. During the years several solutions have been found to displace chemical control. Grafting is a possible chemical free solution that shows several changes in plants thanks to the vigorous rootstock. In this study we examined the effect of grafting on the yield and fruit characteristics in tomato cultivar. Lemance F1was used as scion and Beaufort as rootstock. Earliness, total yield, fruit weight and number of each graft combination were recorded. Moreover, the main fruit components such as Brix°, carbohydrate, acid and the carbohydrate/acid ratio were analysed. We harvested more yield from the grafted plants. The increase of yield was mainly caused by higher average fruit weight. Brix° and carbohydrate content were lower in the fruits on grafted plants than on ungrafted ones but there was no significant difference in acid content.

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investigations were made on the relationship between plant density and plant height, and on the yield, thousand seed mass, and ratio of diseased and broken seeds of varieties with different seed sizes. Experiments were carried out to analyse the effects of potassium on the yield, bacterial diseases and nutritive quality of the seed of bean varieties. Three dry bean cultivars representing the small, medium and large seed size groups were investigated. Six plant density treatments were chosen based on theoretical seed norms, taking the germinative value of the seeds into consideration. The correlation between plant density and yield average showed that the volume of yield increased for varieties with large and medium-sized seeds up to a plant density of 285-400 thousand/ha, after which it declined. On the basis of the results, yield averages at plant densities of 285-334 thousand plants/ha were 0.17 t/ha higher than those achieved at low density (200 thousand plants/ha). At greater plant density the plant height increased in the case of large-seeded varieties and there was a considerable decrease in the thousand seed mass. With an adequate water supply a high level of potassium decreased the number of pods and seeds per plant compared with the basic level, which gave a yield of 2.5 t/ha. The use of high rates of potassium fertilizer decreased the number of infected seeds, but the differences were only significant for the small-seeded variety. A moderately high potassium level was advantageous for food quality, particularly during drought.

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A long-term experiment was started in 2005 in the Agricultural Research Institute to monitor the effects of extreme climatic events on the grain yield, quality and disease resistance of cereals. The yield was poor in 2007 due to the long dry period from autumn till spring, while it was high in 2006 and 2008 when there was more precipitation. The grain quality was the highest in 2007, however, despite the extreme weather events. Fungicide treatment generally resulted in higher yield potential and better grain quality in every year.

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. Georgikon Napok. Keszthely. 2005. CD kiadvány. Szentpétery Z. — Hegedűs Z. — Jolánkai M.: 2005. Impact of agrochemicals on yield quality and pesticide residues of winter wheat varieties. Cereal Research Communications

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