This paper is concerned with the rape of young girls which is one of the main elements in Greco-Roman New Comedy equally used by Greek and Roman authors. It concentrates on Terence and examines where and when these sexual assaults against young girls happen, trying to show that place and (dramatic and real) time have actually considerable function and significance into the Terentian comedies. More specifically, place is always associated with the excuses which the assailant uses in order to justify his sexual assault and subsequent attitude towards the victim. Instead, time is related to the victim’s pregnancy that sets the violent act before the play’s action and legitimate the assault through marriage-children (i.e. dramatic time); and finally, it is always night (i.e. real time) that along with wine constitutes a strong incitement to sex, which is what adulescentes used to do this time within the conventions of Greco-Roman Comedy.
The creation of comic books has traditionally been the domain of men. It is, however, a comic book story about a young girl written in French by a Polish woman author that seems to be one of the more significant comic book titles describing the Poland of the second half of the twentieth century. Written by Marzena Sowa and illustrated by Sylvain Savoia, Marzi is an autobiographical account of life in the socialist reality of the 1980s recounted from the perspective of a young Polish girl, carefully observing and analyzing the world of adults. Originally created in French in 2004, the comic book in focus has been translated into several languages, including English, Italian, Spanish, German, Chinese, Korean as well as the author’s native language, Polish. The paper concentrates on the notions of translation, foreignization and localization. The notion of translation is crucial to understanding Marzi and may be regarded as a keyword that sheds more light on the very process of creating the book. The strategy of foreignization is observable both in the French and the American editions with regard to the depiction of Polish cultural specificity. Finally, the French, Polish and American editions, which are the focus of the present paper, may be used to illustrate the concept of localization, applied to the sphere of comics translation by Federico Zanettin (2008).
Liszt followed the education of his own children through letters, but he rarely saw them while they were young. The education that Marie Sayn-Wittgenstein received in Weimar, when her mother settled there with Liszt, was completely different. The young princess was only ten years old and she read many classic and modern writers; she even translated some of them. Greek mythology had a privileged place in her education. She attended several concerts. Private teachers gave her lessons in drawing, history, and art history. She travelled with her mother to Berlin and Paris in order to visit artists’ ateliers, art galleries, and museums. Liszt gave them names and addresses of personalities to visit. Special orders of portraits sometimes followed these visits. The young princess served as a model for some of these painters. Princess Carloyne Sayn-Wittgenstein possessed a personal collection of drawings and paintings, and the young girl was encouraged to do the same. This can be seen in the letters that Liszt wrote to the young princess before her marriage.
The scenes depicted in Bertalan Székely’s Women of Eger can be traced to 16th century historical sources. The Italian historiographer reporting on the Ottoman siege of Eger in 1552, Ascanio Centorio degli Hortensi presented two episodes to illustrate the valiance and heroism of the women of Eger: one story was about a woman who went on fighting with her husband’s sword after he was slain by her side, and the other was of a young girl who hurled the heavy stone that killed her mother at the enemy and killed several Turks. Having become tropes of the bravery of Hungarian women, the two motifs were elaborated in several Hungarian and foreign historical and literary works up to the mid-19th century, and they appear in book illustrations and art works as well.
As the surviving sketches reveal, Bertalan Székely first experimented with depicting these two episodes. The centre of the final composition features the woman revenging her husband’s death, but the story of the mother and daughter was changed: the sketches still show a collapsing mother and a girl throwing the stone, while in the completed painting the two are fighting side by side against the Turks.
The 16–19th century historical and literary sources that emphasize the heroism of the women of Eger demonstrate that there was general agreement in society about women’s behavior: women would only leave the private sphere traditionally reserved for them to adopt male behavioral patterns in the public sphere dominated by men in extreme situations, on the battleground. Unlike the image of pugnacious, masculine, sometimes cruel and blood-thirsty women prevalent in the historical sources, Székely’s women are more feminine, in accord with the social expectations and concept of the woman in the 19th century.
Authors:Katalin Eszter Müller, Katalin Müller, Antal Dezsőfi, Éva Kis, István Máttyus, Gábor Veres, András Arató and László Szőnyi
., Hashizume, K., Kitano, Y. és mtsai:
Congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunt (Abernethy type II), huge liver mass, and patent ductus arteriosus – a case report of its rare clinical presentation in a younggirl. J. Pediatr. Surg., 2003,
whole composition I am discussing) condemned by Riedl (95): "the narrative suddenly stops and we are in Zsolna, listening to the story of a younggirl, Apollónia. Then Mikszáth connects the two plots with a not at all probable incident." But he raised