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"devianciák" [Youth subcultures and "deviancies" in youth]. Budapest: Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság. Ifjúsági szubkultúrák és fiatalkori "devianciák" THORNTON, Sarah 1996: Club Cultures. Music, Media and Subcultural Capital

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In the paper we seek to trace and better understand the surprising sociological components of the '56 revolution. The paradox lying in the heart of the revolutionary events concerns the fact that the social groups most closely involved in the political mobilization included the formerly faithful communist, later “revisionist”intellectuals, the university students and the industrial working class. They had previously been considered as the primary social basis and legitimation force of the communist political regime. Still, they were to become the main motor of initiating the disobedience almost before 23rd of October and, in addition, “did the revolution”thereafter. What could be the reason of their discontent causing the first “revolutionary”schock to a political regime which regularly defined and declared itself to embody the social(ist) revolution? The explanation is based on a sociological consideration (the mobility trap) combined with a psychological reasoning (the sense of guilt, the bitter feeling of being deceived, and the unfulfilled expectations) and the whole argument will be placed into the specific historical context specified either by Hungary's road from '53 to '56, and the global developments of the communist world in the course of 1956.

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Dr. László Végh (born in 1931), composer and radiologist played a decisively influential role in forming of the underground art scene of the Sixties. He presented (from 1958) the first local examples of concrete and electronic music compositions for the living representatives of Hungarian modernism and for the new generation of the neo-avant-garde in the quasidemocratic communities of private spaces. Due to this mediating cultural activity, his non-conformist personality and appearance, impressive network across the generations, Dr. Végh offered a new model of alternative living and the continuity of modernism behind the iron curtain. His soirées and proto-actions — for which I would introduce the term ‘intuitive actions’ – were performed with young artists of the subculture, and led to deconstruction of traditional art forms through pieces of avant-garde and experimental music, while opened up the way for happening and fluxus.

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The dance house and folk artisans movements have developed into such a youth subculture in the cultural scope of the socialist Hungary, which the Kádárian cultural policy could support only partially, it was rather placed at the borderland between the ‘tolerated’ and ‘banned’ categories. The so-called Nomadic Generation was attached to the developing domestic dissident opposition just as well as to the cross border Hungarian intelligentsia through many threads, which seemed to be undesirable for those in power. This study outlines a general picture on the characteristics of the folklorist-movement of the 1970s and 1980s, thought to be dissident in nature, then it will show through examples of different life courses and case studies how the search for new paths materialized in folk handicrafts, and what impact this era exerted on the folk artisanship in the period after the political transition.

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: Tömegkommunikációs Kutatóközpont. NYERGES, Ágnes 1980: Mai fiatalok [Young people today]. Budapest: Kozmosz Könyvek. Mai fiatalok RÁCZ, József 1992: Ifjúsági szubkultúrák [Youth subcultures], in: GAZSÓ, Ferenc

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Concise Dictionary of Youth Subcultures]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper. Pęczak M. Mały słownik subkultur młodzieżowych 1992 Sawicka , Grażyna 1993

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