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Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.
What makes a work of architecture different from other structures includes its suitability and adaptability to human activities, the permanence and stability of its construction, and the communication of ideas and experiences through its form. These three conditions have to be met for any architectural work.
A famous Roman architect said architecture provides firmness, commodity, and delight. Firmness refers to the integrity and durability of the structure, commodity to its spatial functionality, and delight to its spiritual and sensual uplifting abilities.
Society itself established different types of architecture to suit its needs and the needs of various institutions. A simple classification includes domestic, governmental, religious, welfare and educational, recreational and commercial, and industrial architecture. When it comes to styles, some of the most popular include modern architecture, gothic architecture, neoclassical, classical, vernacular, Victorian, and many others.
When it comes to architectural journals, their main focus and scope include sustainable built environments and issues, history and conservation of architecture, history of construction, innovative repair and restoration techniques, cultural heritage restoration, seismic behavior, industrial environment, eco-cities, water and built forms, structure analysis and observation, and many other fields. All subject areas that touch primarily on architecture branches, urban planning, architectural technology, and science are welcome.
These topics are mainly accepted in various forms: original experimental and theoretical research articles, review articles, editorial articles, letters, and short communications.
Architecture journals have become an indispensable forum for emerging research in the many fields of architecture. Their publications help confront scholarly perspectives on some overlooked problems and are a must-read for architects, research scholars, architecture graduates and postgraduates, as well as for the general intellectual audience.
Architecture and architectonics journals assemble diverse views affecting the future of the field, as well as its reception. These journals bring together perspectives from the industry, profession, human sciences, and cultural studies by establishing a counterpoint.
All work published in these journals undergoes a rigorous selection process based on quality and originality. The articles are peer-reviewed, and some of them are available in open access journals across the web.
AKJournals takes pride in its collection of architecture and architectonics journals. They are as follows:
Pollack Periodica – a peer reviewed journal focused on new research reports from a variety of disciplines, including mechanical, environmental, civil, material, earthquake, and information engineering.
Építészet – Építéstudomány - publishes studies in English and Hungarian on the fields of engineering and architecture especially in the subject of theoretical and applied mechanics, structural and architectural engineering, history of architecture, history and theory of architectural preservation, theory of architectural design and urban sciences. Interdisciplinary subjects connecting the fields of engineering and architecture are covered as well.
The need to decrease energy use represents a challenge particularly in developing countries, including Kosovo, considering the unsustainable, insufficient, and inconsistent energy supply. This contribution presents a simplified yet comprehensive approach to evaluate the energy performance improvement potential of three selected multi-family residential buildings using building energy models generated from calibrated and simplified input parameters. To this end, alternative retrofit measures were tested via a simulation-based parametric study. The energy benefit of each retrofit alternative was estimated and analyzed. Results are expected to provide valuable information towards outlining design guidelines for energy-efficient residential buildings in Kosovo.
The paper compares different metaheuristics for using heat exchangers as a benchmark to estimate the best design parameter values using optimization efficient algorithms. Many MATLAB algorithms are used in this study. Also, an engineering equation solver, which is commercial software, is used to solve the issue. The design calculates three variables, which are the length, and inner and outer pipe diameter of the heat exchanger. The results showed that the best algorithms are particle swarm optimization, and when using this algorithm, the optimal design of the double pipe heat exchanger is as follows: the pipe length is 5.6734·10−1 m, the pipe inner diameter is 8.0203·10−3 m, and the pipe outer diameter is 2.2439·10−2 m.
Application of leaf extracts in alkyd extract primer (AEP) to inhibit corrosion of mild steel was compared with performance of alkyd conventional primer (ACP) containing zinc phosphate and zinc chromate as inhibitors. The investigations were carried out through Gasometric technique in 5 °C steps of temperature increase from 25 to 50 °C in 1.0 M HCl as corrodent. The AEP of 34.24 percent actives compared with ACP of 56.57 percent actives gave the same inhibition efficiencies of 76.5%. Extract primer of lower percent active compared with conventional primer were cost effective and more potent than conventional primer.
The air temperature in school buildings significantly affects the ability of students and teachers to focus on the educational process. Students usually begin to feel an increase the temperature in room. The purpose of this study is to find the limit of the temperature rise in the classroom when people no longer feel the temperature rise in the room. For this reason, several experimental measurements of indoor air parameters were carried out: air temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. Measured temperature differences and individual subjective ratings of audiences determined the dependence using mathematical statistics, from which can be determined the critical level of increase in air temperature at which people no longer perceive the change in air temperature.
The design of pollution-free energy recovery systems has become an important goal by researchers as renewable energy is an alternative to traditional energy that depends on fossil fuels. In this work, a multifunctional electromechanical speed bump was invented to be used on the streets to generate clean, sustainable energy by utilizing and investing the kinetic energy of vehicles passing on the roads. The current model was designed to perform three functions simultaneously.
To measure the performance of the innovative speed bump system, a (simplified) prototype was made that simulates the work of the multifunctional bump. The results showed that the proposed initial speed bump model is a promising technology that can be applied as a clean, renewable energy source that can be easily applied in crowded streets.
Multilevel inverters performance enhancement is a major topic, which has attracted the attention of most of the researchers, to evolve with newer topologies and modulation strategies. In this manuscript, two novel hybrid bidirectional multilevel inverter structures, which are suitable for bidirectional loads, are proposed. An enhancement in the voltage levels and reduction of the component count are achieved for these newly introduced structures. Modular expansion and series cascading are suggested systems for extension of the voltage levels. The prime requirement in most of the industrial drives is a controlled output. VSI fed induction motor drive satisfies this requirement. The Multicarrier PWM technique has been applied to the basic bidirectional seven level models and nine level model and its performance with induction motor as load has been analyzed for various modulation indices. The simulated results of the proposed structures are verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. The characteristics such as stator current, rotor current speed and torque plots achieved as above model affirm that its performance is good. By then, the tracking time of the proposed work during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.185, 1.094 and 1.5 s. The tracking time of the VSI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.5 s, 3.8 and 3.5 s. The tracking time of the MLI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.2 s, 1.8 and 2 s.
Owing to their elevated absorption coefficient, superior resistance to radiation and reduced effective electron mass, gallium antimonide (GaSb) semiconductors were documented to be suitable for photovoltaic systems applications. However, they were found to suffer from low efficiency. This work has been dedicated to enhance the design of GaSb based single-junction solar cells having window and back surface field made from AlGaAsSb material. The purpose is to maximize their electrical performance by considering doping and thickness of layers as design variables. A methodology of optimization was proposed. It is based on computer aided design through simulations performed under SILVACO-ATLAS software and a numerical procedure that was developed to achieve optimal design of this particular solar cell. The approach encompasses analysis of variance and derivation of response surface models to get explicit expression of the objective function corresponding to efficiency. The obtained results have shown an efficiency which is higher than all the previous known values established in literature.
The demand for community involvement during the planning process is growing. Kosovo, to be in step with global development trends in the field of planning, has developed various projects in the name of public participation. The pilot project for the Brekoci informal settlement in Gjakova is an example of community-based planning. The purpose of this paper is to show the way of community involvement through unique methods explicitly designed for this community, as the tool “Express”, “Mark” and “Vote” and how the data obtained from these tools through spatial systems as Geographical Information System and DepthMapX, have generated the community's vision, which has resulted in the drafting of the urban regulatory plan. This plan represents a reflection of the local cultural context.
Public space is the most important place for social life, but it is also part of the identity of the local community. This is particularly true in Komló, where the mining past is still a perceptible and integral part of local identity. Petőfi Square is the central square of Komló's Kökönyös district, an urban district center that preserves the memories of its past, but has not evolved with changing needs in the city for some time. The renewal of Petőfi Square and its surroundings was an environmental architecture task that built on local values, responded to the needs of local people and helped the development of community life, and had to cope with a number of parallel demands.
The article is devoted to research of properties of the round convective air jet. The aim of this work is to establish universal graphical dependencies and empirical formulas for describing velocity and temperature fields over the entire range of development of round convective exhaust ventilation jet; development of an algorithm for solving the transcendent problem of determining the surface temperature of a heat source; introduction of velocity and temperature attenuation coefficients for round convective jet; visualization of its characteristics in the form of a 3D image; achieving reduction of metal consumption of the local exhaust ventilation system due to the overall optimization of the velocity and temperature fields of the round convective air jet.
Development of control of a five degrees of freedom robot is discussed in this paper. Only two robots were made, and one of these is in the University of Miskolc. The robot was made in the 80s for educational purposes, the electronic components were obsolete and control software was missing, therefore it became necessary to perform hardware improvements, and develop a new control program. Inverse kinematics problem of the robot is solved by geometric approach to formulate the joint angles, which will form the basis of the control. A braking system containing electromagnets for the robot is constructed to balance it. A printed circuit board is designed to establish the control of the system, the central element is a Cypress PSoC 5LP platform. The development of the control program is performed in software PSoC Creator 4.4. The developed control system of the robot can receive instructions from a computer via a designed special purpose user program, which is written in Python programming language. Thanks to the improvements, the robot has become operational. Thus, the robot can serve educational purposes performing different manipulation tasks. By completing the developments, students can get to know the structure and programming of the robot, its inverse kinematics problem. This will require the development of practice-oriented tasks in the future.
The article is devoted to solving of urgent problem: creation of staff work safety in the boiler room due to ensure of required conditions by natural ventilation. The aim of the work is to eliminate the main damage of the natural ventilation system of the boiler premise by using of compact air jet due to correction coefficients and updated results. Static and dynamic air pressure, difference of static pressure due to wind, aerodynamic coefficients and air balance for necessary nature ventilation of the boiler premise as well temperature correction coefficient are established. The update calculation dependencies for determining of the air static pressure and its volume flow rate in the boiler room have been obtained. Updated graph, monogram, and analytical equations for natural ventilation calculation of boiler room are presented.
All the available information and uncertainties should be taken into account in a model to give correct answer to a stated problem and evaluate the performance of a structure. This study deals with the impact of parameter estimation uncertainty in extreme wind speeds on the assessed reliability index using frequentist approach. The peak-over-threshold approach with an automated threshold selection method is applied and bootstrapping is used to determine the 95% confidence interval of the estimated reliability index. Based on the results practical recommendations, i.e., a framework of this procedure are derived on how to handle peak-over-threshold in extreme wind speed models for the application of the proposed performance-based wind engineering design.
In mechatronic-related applications, estimating orientation from a magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensor array is a significant topic. Representing attitude orientation is a well-known topic in the aerospace industry, where it plays a critical role in airplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), but it has also gained relevance in other sectors. However, most of the sensors utilized are quite expensive, heavy, and large, making them unsuitable for modest applications. This paper examines the performance of several sensors in low-cost hardware and high-acceleration environments. A theorical method was adopted to estimate Euler angles by using accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, and a robust and easy to implement method calibration was proposed to calibrate the MARG sensor without any external equipment. An experimental verification of the proposed calibration method was completed. The experimental results are then interpreted to provide an insight to advantages and disadvantages for using each sensor separately.
This study evaluated the possibility of producing innovative glass-ceramic foams from zeolite-poor rock (Tokaj, Hungary) using alkali-activation and reactive sintering techniques. The composition and morphology of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, and computed tomography techniques. The influence of various sintering temperatures on glass-ceramic foams was examined. It has been observed that zeolite-poor rock has a self-foaming capability. The heat treatment temperature affects the pore size and distribution as well as the technical characteristics of the obtained samples. The resulting glass-ceramic foams possess moderate thermal conductivity ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 W mK−1 and good compressive strength (1.5–4.4 MPa). The produced samples might be utilized for thermal insulation, which would have both economic and environmental advantages.
In this paper, advanced DC-Link (DCL) based reversing voltage type Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies by compensating the difficulties in the conventional MLIs are reviewed. These topologies consist of less switching components and driver circuits when compared with conventional MLIs predominantly in higher levels. Consequently, installation area, total cost and hardware difficulties are reduced by increasing the voltage levels. The unipolar based Pulse Width Modulation Schemes (PWMS) will improve DCL inverters performance. This paper presents unipolar Multi-Reference (MR) based sine and space vector PWMS with single triangular carrier wave for generating required levels in output voltage. Comparison between UMR sine and space vector PWMS for DCL inverter topologies is presented in terms of Fundamental Output Voltage (FOV) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The research tries to establish the survey analysis for single-phase 7-level DCL based reversing voltage type MLI topologies with UMR based sine and space vector PWMs. Finally, to confirm the feasibility of proposed DCL-MLIs in terms of FOV and THD the simulation results are incorporated. Further, the prototype model is developed for single-phase 7-level DCL inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based UMR sine and space vector PWMS to authenticate simulation results. The efficiency of the proposed cascaded MLI achieves the value of 99.003%.
Public green spaces are very important in the urban structure, both on environmental and social level. Renovation may be necessary, but the process must involve complexity.
The objective of this research is to define the main criteria of a successful renovation process, using two case studies - the Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz in Kassel, Germany, and the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in the city of Peja, Kosovo, where the recent intervention had rather negative effects. The paper considered aspects as community activity, key functions, visual elements, accessibility, safety, well-being and maintenance.
The transformation of these spontaneously developed, liveable spaces into renewed but abandoned parks was explained by the lack of correlation between the analysis of function, public needs, and the dominance of aesthetics.
Carbon-dioxide-based trans-critical power cycle is a novel technology for waste heat recovery. This technology can handle the high-temperature exhaust gas and can be built in a compact size, which is an important feature for the auxiliary equipment for an internal combustion engine. To obtain the best output, four configurations were constructed: the basic system; one with preheater, another with regenerator and a fourth with preheater and regenerator. Special features of supercritical CO2 make these cycles able to recover more energy than the traditional organic Rankine cycle. According to this study, heat regeneration increases thermal efficiency while preheating influences the net power output. Thus, it is beneficial to add both regenerator and preheater to the basic cycle.
This work aims to highlight gravity segmental retaining walls with their varied advantages. The paper investigates the dynamic behavior analysis of segmental retaining walls. The stability analysis is conducted on the basis of a pseudo-static Mononobe-Okabe theory that provides safety factors against sliding and overturning failure. The results demonstrate that the crucial safety factor of internal stability is the safety factor against overturning. Moreover, the positive wall inclination angle contributes to an improvement in the stability of the segmental retaining walls and the effect of the vertical seismic coefficient on the stability can be disregarding. Finally, a new equation is proposed for the elementary design of the segmental retaining walls.
The analysis of the world experience in the design, construction, and operation of penitentiary complexes revealed an urgent need to modernize the architectural environment of correctional institutions in post-Soviet countries. Several problems of the life of modern correctional institutions have been identified, namely: the inconsistency of the quality of their architectural environment with the modern needs of the penitentiary system; low level of adaptability and flexibility of urban planning, functional planning, and subject-spatial forms; morally outdated, emotionally negative, unaesthetic architectural and artistic image of penitentiary buildings and complexes. The purpose of this study was to identify traditional and innovative methods and means of forming an architectural and artistic image of penitentiary complexes for their further use in the field, covering their design and modernization. Based on the functional-typological and socio-psychological requirements, the criteria for harmonizing the architectural environment were determined and the patterns, methods, and means of creating a humane aesthetic architectural and artistic image of such complexes.
This study focuses on exploring the impact of urban forms and vegetation combination patterns on the microclimate in a complex urban environment. Results shown that the closed urban form has higher air temperature resulting in pedestrians are easier to feel heat stress; instead, the open urban form usually has higher wind speed. Vegetation can effectively reduce wind speed while reducing the change rate of the mean radiant temperature. However, the effect on air temperature and humidity are most distinct in the morning. Trees and shrubs could improve the surrounding thermal comfort conditions by reducing heat stress, but this effect depends on the density of the leaf area. More importantly, study has not found that the ground cover plants contribute to the improvement of thermal comfort.
This paper classifies the architecture, engineering, and construction enterprises in the South Transdanubia Region, Hungary, according to the size and function of the firms. It is a primary step for later investigation about the implementation of building information modeling in small and medium-sized enterprises within the region. It introduces digital construction in the sector, includes most construction firms based in the region, and systematically gathers data. It analyzes the data to introduce a new sorting method based on the local construction market, unlike the international classification, which leans on the global perspective.
This paper focuses on the relationship between the composition of foam glass and its thermal conductivity and density. In this experimental research, three levels of glass particle size and foaming agent (SiC) quantity were tested. The results showed that the thermal conductivity increased by increasing the ratio of fine glass particles. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity was not affected by changing the foaming agent weight ratio. The density of foam glass increased by decreasing the foaming agent ratio, and there was no linear relation between the size of glass particles and the density of foam glass.
Scour is the leading cause of bridge collapse beneath any bridge pier located within the waterway. A numerical-based hydraulic model named the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System and a mathematical model of the Florida Department of Transport were implemented to investigate their performance and accuracy in estimating the maximum scour depth beneath bridge piers where large and small-scale physical prototypes are used as a benchmark. The main findings are that a hydraulic model is an effective tool when employing the Colorado State University equation, which compares well with physical prototypes irrespective of the variation in piers' size and shape. Also, it has achieved more consistent results than the Froehlich and the Florida Department of Transport methodologies.
In the present study, a comparison has been conducted to investigate the efficiency of using the near-surface mounted steel bars technique for strengthening and repairing the damaged reinforced concrete corbels. Three configurations for installing the steel bars have been considered; horizontal, diagonal, and combined. Results revealed that is better to use this technique within the early stages of loading. Moreover, results proved that the strengthening by the diagonal scheme yielded a better response in terms of cracking and failure loads with values of 166 and 95% relative to the control specimen. Also, it is found that for damage of 45%, the horizontal arrangement yielded the highest failure load of 99% whereas for damage of 65%, the diagonal system yielded the optimum value of 50% relative to the control specimen.
Speech scrambler is used to transform clear speech into an unintelligible signal to prevent eavesdropping. The speech scrambling algorithm involves the permutation of speech segments depending on a specific permutation matrix which may be fixed or dynamic during encryption. A fixed permutation matrix is easy to break and has given high residual intelligibility in the scrambled signal. The proposed scheme used a particle swarm optimization algorithm to generate a dynamic permutation array that can attain a high degree of security. The outcome of the scrambled speech signal does not have any residual intelligibility, and the quality of the descrambled speech is extremely satisfying, with zero mean squared error.
One of the most expensive components of constructing a cellular network is frequency planning. The cost of building and maintaining a network will be reduced if a set of base stations can be established with minimal service and preparation. Planning and optimization are carried out to guarantee that the scarce frequency is used to its maximum capability. The goal of this paper is to provide an autonomous method for planning and optimizing frequency in cellular networks. The method substitutes the inefficient, inaccurate, and time-consuming manual method. The automatic technique makes work easier for radio frequency (RF) engineers and lowers operating costs. Also, this article provides an autonomous planning and optimization technique that reduces intra-system interference levels to acceptable levels within the key performance indicators (KPIs) set for any suitable cellular network.
A mathematical model is developed to determine the steady-state electric current flow through in non-homogeneous isotropic conductor whose shape has a three-dimensional hollow body. The equations of the Maxwell's theory of electric current flow in a non-homogeneous isotropic solid conductor body are used to formulate the corresponding electric boundary value problem. The determination of the steady motion of charges is based on the concept of the electrical conductance. The derivation of the upper and lower bound formulae for the electrical conductance is based on Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Two numerical examples illustrate the applications of the derived upper and lower bound formulae.
Based on the theory of space syntax, this study quantitatively analyzes the landscape space of Baosteel Zhanjiang Steel Co. Ltd., which is constrained by epidemic preventive measures and steel plant safety production requirements in the post-epidemic age. Space syntax has the benefits of decreasing research expenses, boosting analytical efficiency, assessing space use efficiency, minimizing environmental interference, and addressing epidemic prevention demands.
Stretching periods between precipitations have been recorded, and an adjustment of the dispersion of rainfall over the long run could be seen. An expanded number of these peculiarities have additionally been affirmed by the international panel on climate change. Due to this adjustment of the reallocation of water and the effect of high urbanization, the sewerage frameworks are affected. The aim of the work was to compare simulations of the rain event on the combined sewer overflow due to the reduced water quality recorded in the Trnávka River. The current state and the proposed building modification were compared because the current hydraulic and construction modification of the combined sewer overflow is absolutely not corresponding to the environmental regulations.
The present study aims at developing a non-destructive evaluation technique based on elastic wave scattering and the finite element method for the detection and evaluation of localized damage in rebar of reinforced concrete beams. Simulation of corrosion effect was taken for a tensile bar by creating a defect in this bar while the rest of the rebar and stirrups were kept unchanged. The study is based on comparison of propagation pattern of elastic waves in the presence and in the absence of defect. The proposed method was found capable to provide non-destructive evaluation of rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete beams, thus enabling diagnosis of reinforcement concretes structures attacked by corrosion. The obtained results can be further used to locate corroded areas.
In this manuscript, the combination of IoT and Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model for waste image categorization is proposed to categorize the wastes as bio waste and non-bio waste. The input captured images are pre-processed and remove noises in the captured images. Under this approach, a Nature inspired Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model is proposed. Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model is the consolidation of deep convolutional neural network and Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier. Here, deep convolutional neural network is used for feature extraction and Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier for categorizing the waste images. To improve the classification accurateness, Horse herd optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameter of the Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier. The objective function is to maximize the accuracy by minimize the computational complexity. The simulation is executed in MATLAB. The proposed Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model and Horse herd optimization algorithm attains higher accuracy 39.56% and 42.46%, higher Precision 48.74% and 34.56%, higher F-Score 32.5% and 45.34%, higher Sensitivity 24.45% and 34.23%, higher Specificity 31.43% and 21.45%, lower execution time 0.019(s) and 0.014(s) compared with existing waste management and classification using convolutional neural network with hyper parameter of random search optimization algorithm waste management and classification using clustering approach with Ant colony optimization algorithm. Finally, the proposed method categorizes the waste image accurately.
Due to some failure during the flying of drone systems, it is necessary to design and analyse compact and changeble muti rotor drone systems by using softwares. Multi-engine aircrafts are the mechatronic systems consisting of body frame, electronic control systems, rotors and blades. In the simulations realized in this work special focus has been given to the body frame due to the presence of mechanical and electronic components inside. Analysis of different vibration and force effects occurring on the whole system during the flight with high accuracy is vital for the design process of multi-engine aircrafts. In this work, a novel design procedure has been applied for the multi-engine aircraft structures including 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 rotors and then the vibration and force effects occurring during the flight have been analyzed. As a result of detailed modal analysis carried out for different vibration frequencies, it has been observed that the vibration frequencies occurring during the flight vary between 7 and 10 Hz. Moreover, from the results obtained, it has been observed that the vibration frequency decreases while the number of rotors increased. As a result of these decreases in the vibration frequency, it has also been observed that the deformations in the body frame increased.
The optimized chord and twist angle of the preliminary blade design through Blade Element Momentum theory are non-linear distributions, which adds to the complexity of blade manufacture and does not always guarantee the best aerodynamic performance. In this paper, the effect of the linearization on aerodynamic performance using Prandtl-Glauert correction model was investigated through four cases: case 1 and case 2 and case 3, where the chord and the twist angle are linearized and case 4, where sole chord is linearized. The effect of the linearization using Shen correction model while making a comparison to the linearization using Prandtl-Glauert correction model was also studied. The simulation is conducted for S809 wind turbine blade profile. The results show that case 4 using Shen correction model represents the best technique of linearization in terms of higher aerodynamic performance and easy manufacturing process.
The water issue has become a frontier of public debate globally due to public awareness of sustainable development. Nigeria's water resources are under serious threat from inadequate catchment management that includes widespread pollution from indiscriminate waste disposal. Stormwater is now recognized as a valuable resource rather than a nuisance, especially in large urban centers. Growing demand for water has exerted pressure on groundwater via dug well and boreholes scattered virtually in every dwelling in Nigeria. This challenge motivated this investigation of the feasibility of harvesting stormwater for due purposes of supplementing water supply and flash flood management. This study aims at quantification of harvestable stormwater and identification of potential capturing sites using Spatial Hydrological Analysis of GIS model and Synthetic Hydrograph. The result indicated total harvestable stormwater for 24-hr rainfall of 161.3 Mm3 and three available capturing sites of eight depressions identified. This volume is a good incentive to incorporate storm harvesting in overall water resources sustainable management.
As a result of rainfall in large quantities, the leachate generated under the municipal solid waste (MSW) is increased, which leaks to the groundwater aquifers and pollutes it. Accurate evaluation of leachate leaks levels has long been regarded as a problem in Iraq due to a lack of reliable data and costly measuring costs. This work proposes a novel fuzzy expert system to predict the pollution status of the underground water in sandy soils. The expert system consists of two subsystems; fuzzy logic system and crisp logic system. The expert system is trained using a data set developed by finite element analysis of sandy soil subjected to contamination materials.
The mining industry, currently undergoing profound changes, is destined to play an increasingly important economic role in the province of Quebec, Canada. Activity in this sector, its real net impact on government tax revenue, the economy, society, and the creation of wealth, is the subject of much discussion. Occupational health and safety is a major preoccupation in the mining sector, in which considerable numbers of workers suffer workplace accidents or occupational diseases due to the use of industrial chemicals, compounding the problem of exposure to noxious substances that exist naturally in mines or are produced inevitably in the course of normal mining operations. Air in mines thus can become laden with a wide variety of chemical agents, in the form of suspended solids, liquid droplets, and vapors and gases. Long-term exposure to most of these agents can seriously harm the health of mineworkers. Prevention remains the key to avoiding the social and economic consequences of these hazards and will make mining a more attractive sector for investment and employment in Canada.
The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of mineworkers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.
This research was conducted in four phases. The first article presented a review of the literature  on the chemical aspects of health and safety in mining in the province of Quebec. In the present article, the findings on the recurrence of health problems attributable to chemicals encountered in mines and how these effects should therefore be ranked from an occupational health and safety perspective are presented. The results show that various forms of dermatitis are the most recurrent health and safety risk.
Iranians invented squinches to cover a square-plan space with a dome. Filposh, a type of squinch first found in Sasanian architecture, is a conical vault constructed in the transition zone’s corners to transmit the dome’s forces and weight. This technique can be seen in three halls of the Sasanian palace of Ardeshir. In this paper, the geometry of the transition zone using filposh squinches between a spherical dome and the square supporting walls in Ardeshir Palace was re-examined. A historical descriptive method was employed to analyse the main drawings of the halls from the nineteenth century to the present, and two hypotheses concerning the geometry of the transition zone were modelled and evaluated. As a result, the hypothesis that the dome’s cross-section intersects the chamber’s square plan is rejected. Furthermore, the claim that the transition zone’s square plan circumscribes the dome’s cross-section was discussed and proven.
The demand for automation using mobile robots has been increased dramatically in the last decade. Nowadays, mobile robots are used for various applications that are not attainable to humans. Omnidirectional mobile robots are one particular type of these mobile robots, which has been the center of attention for their maneuverability and ability to track complex trajectories with ease, unlike their differential type counterparts. However, one of the disadvantages of these robots is their complex dynamical model, which poses several challenges to their control approach. In this work, the modeling of a four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot is developed. Moreover, an intelligent Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) neural network control methodology is developed for trajectory tracking tasks, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilized to find optimized controller's weights. The simulation study is conducted using Simulink and Matlab package, and the results confirmed the accuracy of the proposed intelligent control method to perform trajectory tracking tasks.
An enterprise framework based on the philosophy research approach to Information System (IS) features a holistic view in an industry that allows room for technological advancement, an industry with increasing expectations and demands for IS drives towards a more integrated framework and rethinking of the concept of delivering insightful outcomes. The specific features of IS in this study focus on the information criteria for the daily assignment of the railway industry operations through an industry enterprise framework. The study objective is to provide a comprehensive understanding of emerging knowledge from structuring IS and enterprise framework stages and their mashup characteristics in designing a model-driven development framework. The outcome will be a design of a strategic performance framework for a typical strategic performance application as the most vital outcome indicators, to focus on understanding the baseline of technology revolution (Industry Revolution 5.0) achievement to measure the transformation expected and the railway industry evaluation, based on the year-on-year target will be established. The usage of decision-making systems and strategic applications has increased massively to fulfill various kinds of purposes for organizations, businesses, and individuals. In this case, a high-quality decision-making system and strategic application are required to ensure it provides the intended functionalities.
A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Építészeti Tudományos Bizottsága az Építészettörténeti, Építészetelméleti és Műemléki Állandó Bizottsággal együttműködve szervezte a 2022. május 12-én az Országos Levéltárban tartott tudományos konferenciáját a budai Várnegyed történetéről. A budai Vár területén zajló építkezések és bontások adták a tanácskozás aktualitását, melynek fő célja az volt, hogy a legavatottabb szakemberek – építészek, régészek, művészettörténészek – révén bemutassa a budai polgárváros fejlődését a 13. századtól a rendszerváltozásig. Az új kutatási eredmények ismertetésén túl, az előadók arra is felkérést kaptak, hogy tegyék mérlegre az egyes korszakok hozzájárulását a Várnegyed karakterének alakulásához: milyen értékeket hoztak létre, milyen hibákat követtek el, hogyan befolyásolták e zárt települési egység funkcióit, a benne zajló élet minőségét. Mindez hozzájárulhat ahhoz, hogy tárgyilagosabban ítélhessük meg, mi számít műemléki, építészeti vagy település léptékű értéknek, és hogyan kellene viselkednünk e területen, hogy ezen értékekből – és a Várnegyed karakteréből – minél többet megőrizzünk a jövő generációi számára.
A budai Várnegyed rekonstrukciója a második világháború után visszaadta a Polgárváros középkori és barokk léptékét és értékeit, ezeket kulturális, lakó és turisztikai funkciókkal töltve meg. A magyar főváros egyetlen integráns történelmi negyedeként őrzi történelmünk és építészetünk lenyomatai mellett a városépítő polgárság emlékét is. Ebből a történelmileg predesztinált szerepéből a századforduló dualizmusában tapasztalt hatalmi központ építések hasonlóan próbálták kimozdítani, mint korunk hatalmi törekvései, léptékben és jelentésben egy nagyobb szerepet megpróbálva ráerőltetni a budai polgárvárosra. A kis léptékű mozgásokat kiszolgáló középkori eredetű morfológia terhelhetőségének objektív szempontjai mellett számos nemzetközi példa is bizonyítja, hogy csakis olyan kulturális és lakó funkciók tehetik megélhető és sikeres városrésszé a budai Várnegyedet, amelyek képesek együtt élni az értékes történeti rétegekkel és azok léptékével. Ez a tanulmány a háború utáni rekonstrukció és a Nemzeti Hauszmann Terv által ma véghez vitt rekonstrukciókat nem egymással, hanem más európai történelmi városközpontok morfológiai adottságaival és rekonstrukciós folyamataival veti össze. A Space Syntax analízisek kimutatták, hogy a középkori eredetű városszövetek minden európai városban a 19. századi szövet mellett izolált, ám gyalogos szempontból integráns térrendszerrel bírnak, amely nem alkalmas a modern városok igazgatási és termelési funkcióit befogadni, ám megfelel a kortárs 15 perces élhető város fogalmának és a turisztikai térhasználatnak is. Az ilyen városközpontok közül a második világháborúban megsérült városszövetek rekonstrukciói közül a budai Várnegyed háború utáni rekonstrukciója nem lóg ki, sőt, megelőzte korát. A mai vári rekonstrukciós beavatkozások az újjáépítések módszerében nem lóg ki más európai folyamatok közül, de funkcióiban, a rekonstrukció által megcélzott történelmi kor kiválasztásában, valamint a társadalmi igények figyelembevétele terén nem követi a mai trendeket.
In the present study, we analysed the exact, laser-scanned geometry of the apse vault of the catholic church of Andocs. The written sources about this vault are very limited, however, the point cloud-based research could provide new details about the history of the building, along with the formerly used building techniques. For the analysis, we worked based on our three-step analysis process, established for net vaults. During the studying of the rib system, we reconstructed the probable original construction and building method, as well as the temporary supporting structures of the early 16th-century vault. The analysis of the individual ribs led us to conclusions about this vault, in the mirror of the widespread ideas of the topic’s technical literature, such as the “Prinzipalbogen” theory (all the ribs of a given net vault have the same curvature), or the principle of the longest route (the cumulated length of the ribs’ plan, which led from the impost to the crown with the longest possible route equals to the radius of the ribs’ curvature). Regarding the curvilinear rib elements, we presumed a likely fabrication method, based on contemporary research results. Mapping the webbing and the ribs, we concluded their building order, as well as the plausible masonry technique of the webs.
A heat pipe is a heat conduction program that utilizes both heat permeability and regime shift concepts to transport heat effectively between 2 different lines. A heat pipe is made up of a pipe or tube and a base fluid. In practice, the heat pipe is poured into a mould that is compatible with the cooling media. These devices have found uses in a variety of fields, including space apparatus, solar energy systems, electronic equipment, and air conditioning systems, due to their simplicity of design and ease of manufacture and maintenance. Thermal performance improvement being the major concern in our project we researched different techniques. The heating surface area has a direct impact on heat transfer. Therefore, we have focused on heat enhancement by introducing grooves. Alongside we also considered using different materials for the pipe. At the end of our research, we are going to produce groove structure models with different materials and analyze them using ANSYS software and propose the best structures with highest thermal efficiency for different applications of heat pipes. This is an attempt to increase heat transmission in response to various material and structural changes. Heat transmission is improved with grooved heat pipes as well as heat transmission various with different types materials used in heat pipe.
This paper compared the performance between Integer Order Fuzzy PID (IOFPID) and Fractional Order Fuzzy PID (FOFPID) controllers for inverted pendulum system as a controlling plant. The parameters of each controller were tuned with four evolutionary optimization algorithms (Social Spider Optimization (SSO), Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Particle Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)). The comparisons were carried out between the two controllers IOFPID and FOFPID, as well as among the four optimization algorithms for the two controllers. The results of comparisons proved that the FOFPID controller with SSO has achieved the best time response characteristics and the least tuning time.
Az oszmán hódítással egy teljesen új kultúra jelent meg Budán, aminek az intézményi hálózatát ekkor kellett megteremteni. Budán semmi sem volt meg, amit egy oszmán elvárt városaitól, amire a mindennapi élethez szüksége volt. Nem volt dzsámi, Korán-iskola, fürdő stb., ezeket mind létre kellett hozniuk, és az intézmények épületeket igényeltek. A jelentős új épületek, melyek oszmán stílus szerint készültek, a külvárosokban jelentek meg, a Várhegy őrizte középkori megjelenését. A Várhegyen a középkori épületek új funkciót kaptak, oszmán intézményeknek adtak teret. Elsőként a templomokból kellet dzsámit csinálni, ami azok teljes belső átalakítását jelentette. Utána sorban megtalálták a többi feladathoz rendelhető helyet, középkori épületet használtak az iskolák, a közkonyha, a fedett piac számára. Amit mindenképp újonnan kellett még a Várhegyen is megépíteni, az a fürdő és a síremlék. Ezek mind szükségesek ahhoz, hogy egy oszmán város működjön, így azt látjuk, hogy a korszak legelején mindent megépítettek vagy átalakítottak, amire szükségük volt, jelentősebb változás csak új városnegyedek kialakulása miatt tapasztalható.
A vári házakba oszmánok költöztek, bár a 16. században még 122 család élt itt, a korszak végére gyakorlatilag teljesen elköltöztek a Várhegyről a magyar lakosok. A lakóházak kisebb átalakításokon estek át, jelentős bontást és teljesen új épületegyüttes kiépítését a pasa palota esetében figyelhetünk meg.
Budapest 1944–1945-ös ostroma súlyos károkat okozott a budai Várnegyed épületállományában. Paradox módon éppen ez a pusztítás járult hozzá, hogy a negyed legtöbb épületében sikerült feltárni a középkor addig ismeretlen – gyakran jelentős – maradványait. A tanulmány fő célja bemutatni, hogy a műemlékes építészek milyen lehetőségeket láttak a sérült épületek helyreállítására, a korábbi állapot rekonstruálására, vagy az arra érdemes részletek bemutatására. Bemutatja e munka gyakran változó intézményes kereteit, legjobb szakembereit, és azokat az elveket, melyekben mindannyian egyetértettek az 1949-es törvényerejű rendelet alapján műemléki területként kezelt Várnegyedben. Ezeket rögzítette az első rendezési terv (1948–1949), melynek irányelvei (legfőbb érték a középkori-barokk polgárváros karaktere, léptéke és utcaképei) a legutóbbi időkig közmegegyezésnek örvendtek. A késő 19. század túlzott magasságú épületeinek felső szintjeit visszabontották, túl hangsúlyos architektúráját lecsendesítették. Az 1954-es részletes rendezési terv már a negyedben lakók igényeire is tekintettel volt, ám az üres telkek beépítését elég sematikusan szabályozta. 1948 és 1960 között számos műemlék helyreállítás elkészült, a foghíjak beépítése viszont csak 1957-től vette igazán kezdetét. Az a néhány példa, ami korábban megvalósult, semleges architektúrával igyekezett igazodni a műemléki környezethez. E gyakorlatnak a fiatal építészgeneráció vetett véget azzal a meggyőződéssel, hogy – ha minden kor a saját stílusában épített a vár területén – akkor a modern építészetnek is ezt kell tennie.
1686. évi visszavívása után a romokból és az eleinte még falusias viszonyokból lassan, majd egyre gyorsuló ütemben született újjá Buda városa. Az Udvari Kamara idegenből jött, főleg német anyanyelvű, katolikus lakosokat kezdett betelepíteni, a mestereket kedvező feltételekkel csábítva Pest-Budára.
I. Lipót Venerio Ceresola császári építőmestert nevezte ki a budai erődítési munkálatok irányítására, aki már 1686 októberében belekezdett az újjáépítés megszervezésébe. Az ország különböző részeiből érkeztek építőmunkások, akik a kőfaragókkal társulva céhbe szerveződtek Ceresola vezetésével. A budai kőműves és kőfaragó céh 1690-ben jött létre, és működött a céhek 1872-es feloszlatásáig. E mesterek polgári kőművesmester megjelölése még más értelemmel bírt, ugyanis az építész szakmán belül ekkor a legmagasabb megszerezhető képesítés a kőművesmesterség volt, s ezt csak céhen belül és csak mestervizsgával lehetett elérni. A kőművesmester a tervezéstől a kivitelezésig jogosult volt az építés teljes folyamatának elvégzésére. Az építész vagy építőmester elnevezés csak címet jelentett, azaz hivatal- vagy rangjelző volt, mint pl. az uradalmi vagy kamarai építész címe.
Ceresola háztulajdonos is volt Budán, ő kezdte építeni a budai városházát, melyet később a 18. század folyamán a céh több tagja is bővített vagy átépített, köztük Hölbling János, Vogl Konrád, Nöpauer Mátyás. A céh tagjai közül kiemelkedik Hölbling János, aki Ceresolához hasonlóan császári építőmester is volt, az ő egyik munkája pl. a Zeughaus kivitelezése. Nöpauer Mátyás tervezte és építette az Erdődy-palotát, ill. az ő tulajdona volt a Hess András tér 3. sz. alatti Vörös Sün vendégfogadó is.
E céh tagjainak nevéhez az egyszerű barokk lakóépületektől kezdve templomok, kolostorok, középületek építése kötődik, nagyrészt ők építették újjá Buda városát, ami alatt nemcsak a felső város értendő, hanem a külvárosok is, ráadásul e céh mint főcéh tagjai jogosultak voltak az ország egész területén építkezni.
As of 2020, the mining industry in the province of Quebec (Canada) has been providing 16,000 jobs, the majority of these in the north part of the province and in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region. From the exploration phase to the mining site rehabilitation phase, numerous chemical processes are used, often involving some of the most dangerous substances used on industrial scales.
The hazards associated with many of these substances are in some cases not obvious, and symptoms of exposure may take years to appear. The risks associated with the industrial use of chemicals in Canada and abroad has long preoccupied health authorities, given the severity of the diseases that can occur. In Quebec, occupational diseases associated with exposure to industrial chemicals are reaching 1,500 cases per year.
The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of workers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.
This research was conducted in four phases. The present article contains the results of the first two stages, that is, a review of the literature to catalog the industrial chemicals used in mines and to list the potential effects of exposure to them, based on Safety Data Sheets. Eighty-five (85) chemicals used in at least one mining project phase and dozens of potential effects on worker health were identified. The rest of the study is presented in a second article 
This article deals with balancing an autonomous motorcycle model along a straight line and curve lines. The dynamic model of the motorcycle balancing is described with an inverted physical pendulum loaded with torque. The torque is provided by the inertia of a rotor driven by a direct current motor. The lean angle of the motorcycle is measured by a smart sensor, which is the feedback signal for the linear quadratic regulator control system. The main purpose of this study is to compensate the error of the smart sensor. Controlling the necessary lean angle of the motorcycle during cornering is also addressed.