Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Orest Voznyak, Olena Savchenko, Nadiia Spodyniuk, Iryna Sukholova, Mariana Kasynets, and Oleksandr Dovbush

Abstract

This article discusses the topical issue of improving the distribution of air in the premise due to application of the all type rectangular air streams: flat, axisymmetric and rectangular ones. The purpose of the article is research of the all types rectangular air streams, analytical dependencies obtaining for determination of the air velocity attenuation coefficient, aerodynamic local resistance coefficient and noise level from the ratio of slit length to its height; optimization of the inflow slit side's ratio. It has been established that increase of the inflow slit sides ratio results in the air velocity attenuation coefficient decrease and results in increase of the noise level and resistance coefficient of the rectangular slit. The optimal ratio of the sides of a rectangular slit is determined by the combination of aerodynamics and energetics, as well as of the sound power level.

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Abstract

This article presents an analytical and numerical assessment of load-bearing capacity of a beam-to-column joint. Two possibilities have been examined: a joint reinforced with a fastened haunch on the side of a compressed flange of a beam and a joint with no reinforcement. The load-bearing capacity and rotational stiffness of joint and has been calculated. Distribution of stresses and deformations in particular components of the joint has been determined. The results of analytical and numerical calculations have been compared, proving that the load-bearing capacity of the joint calculated on the basis of analytical approach provides safer results (for a reinforced and non-reinforced joint), and however in certain cases it may lead to oversizing of the connection.

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Abstract

Wind generation is regarded by many as the future of renewable energy source, but the difficulty of recycling end-of-life wind turbine components could create another kind of environmental pollution. Either landfill or incineration of end-of-life wind turbine components will cause environmental hazards. However, the current recycling technology is immature and economical. Make clean energy ‘cleaner’! The recycling of end-of-life wind turbine rotor hub and blades has become a new goal and task for architects and designers. This article uses a real project reconstructed by end-of-life wind turbine components to demonstrate the positive role of spatial narrative in achieving low-carbon and sustainable design.

Open access

Abstract

The floodplains of the Tisza River, stretching across the eastern part of Hungary, are often affected by riverine and inland excess water flooding and draught. This paper investigates a possible solution to this problem utilizing the water retention capabilities of old floodplains. In this study, the effect of the position of the inlet structures of a floodplain, near Csongrád town, was examined with HEC-RAS 1D-2D coupled model. Based on the results, the rules of the deep floodplain selection were determined. On the extended model, the possibilities of a deep floodplain storage area chain have been explored. According to the estimate, more than 2.36 km3 potential storage capacity is available along the Hungarian section of the Tisza River.

Open access

Abstract

In order to develop and enhance the quality of life in Tunisian urban spaces, the integration of street furniture became a new challenge for urban designers to use new methods and techniques to combine functionality and aesthetics into their design. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the street furniture user’s needs in urban spaces to understand and discuss the requirements that should be considered while designing.

Open access

Abstract

Nature-based solutions use a holistic viewpoint to address social challenges while providing environmental, social and economic benefits simultaneously. The Victoria Quay is a historical space with complex social and environmental issues. This study uses an investigation-oriented method to explore the re-planning strategies. The environmental problems are addressed by extending the green infrastructure into the site to recover the ecological corridor and alleviate flooding risks. The originally single land-use type is changed, and several historical buildings are transformed into landmarks to improve the connection with city center by linking the ‘golden route’. All the proposed measures tried to reactivate the various relationships rather than merely renew the Victoria Quay.

Open access

Abstract

Based on the theory of space syntax, this research conducts a quantitative study on the four stages of Zhanjiang urban spatial organization system, and draws the urban evolution process. This study found that the development strategy of different periods has a huge impact on the urban development. It determines the structural basis of the original urban space and creates strong development inertia. According to these research results, it can provide an effective theoretical reference for the future spatial expansion of the city.

Open access

Abstract

With the rapid development of China’s urbanization, a large number of people have moved from rural to urban areas. People have proposed higher and more urgent needs for the urban environment. Particularly, the urban street landscape is close to people’s lives, and the upgrading of design methods can improve the quality of life. Besides, the application of artificial intelligence design has become possible as information technology develops. In this paper, a visual simulator is established through algorithm models and applied to street landscape design.

Open access

Abstract

The aim is to derive an expression to calculate the natural frequencies and plot the mode shapes of a simply-supported beam with an overhang with an end overhang point mass by using the Euler-Bernoulli theory in the case of free transverse vibrations. The results are validated by finite element analysis. The importance of the system presented is that it can represent machine tool spindles or even machining tools like boring bars. The results are in good agreement with the results from the finite element analyses. The derived expression can be used in optimizing the value of the point mass and optimizing the support location for better performance of the system without the need to perform complex analysis to obtain the values of the natural frequencies and to plot the mode shapes.

Open access

Abstract

Flexibility represents one of the main elements of the sustainable architecture. Flexibility is important, especially for the multi-family apartments the useable surface of which is rather small. For the families with low incomes and social cases, flexibility represents a very important element given that can change the function based on the change of family structure. The aim of the research was post occupancy evaluation of subsidized housing, where it was realized that they do not meet the needs of residents, therefore were proposed changes in floor plan based on the average number of family members, realised through annexes. During this research work, analytical method, administration of questionnaires and observation period method was used.

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Abstract

In this research work existing laboratory tests of slim floor beams with solid monolithic concrete slab were modeled and analyzed using GID and Atena software. After validating the advanced finite element model with the test results of the international literature, structural parameters were analyzed with the aim to study their influence on the load bearing and deformation capacity of the beams. The parameters were related to the geometric of the beam: size of web openings and top concrete cover. With these results conclusion can be noticed that focusing on the optimal arrangement of the geometrical parameters of the composite beam could lead to better structural behavior with more economical solutions.

Open access

Abstract

The optimization of high-rise office buildings' envelope and the application of energy-efficient measures have become a priority nowadays. Therefore, this investigation aims to assess the role of the façade's geometry design factors, e.g., folded façade perforation, window orientation, and window-to-wall ratio on building comfort and energy performance. The energy simulations were performed using IDA ICE 4.8 thermal simulation program to evaluate the thermal and visual comfort and the energy consumption of various façade test models. The optimization resulted in a façade model with a great level of thermal and visual comfort as well as a total energy reduction of 14%, representing a good compromise solution in the trade-off between thermal and visual comfort as well as energy efficiency.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Patrik Márk Máder, Olivér Rák, Nándor Bakai, József Etlinger, and Márk Zagorácz

Abstract

Nowadays, it is increasingly important to develop economical construction processes and determine predictable costs. The current level of technology offers countless, even undeveloped opportunities to support architectural, engineering, and construction processes. Building information models created as results of design processes and databases associated with them can provide an appropriate base to fulfill the requirements. However, this information is mainly available only for the largest projects; the possibilities offered by traditional editable vector files (e.g., *.DWG) should also be examined. This study analyzes the efficiency increasing possibilities that can be achieved using low-detail 3D models generated by algorithms and applying 2D-based digital quantity estimation workflows.

Open access

Abstract

Frame structures are defined as structures built of straight, less often curved bars, which are dimensioned to carry a planar or spatial load. These frames are generally considered statically indeterminate structures so that several methods can be used to determine their loads, but all of them require some simplification. This paper is not concerned with investigating these theories for determining the stresses but with the optimum design of a frame structure for a given geometry. Several different loads have been considered, where the value of the wind load in the horizontal direction has been considered. The optimization problem is mathematically formulated so that both compressive forces and bending moments acting on the horizontal beam and the vertical column, and their composite loads, are below the limit set by the material properties. The column connections were assumed to be fully rigid, and welded I-section were considered for both columns. For local bending conditions, the Eurocode 3 specification was applied. Several steel grades were tested during the investigations, and fire loading was considered an additional load. In this case, a higher safety factor was assumed to make the times to collapse comparable.

Open access

Abstract

Vernacular architecture is the source of the historical development of architecture and the carrier of traditional culture. It is also the emotional sustenance of contemporary Chinese people’s beautiful homesickness. With the rapid expansion of urbanization in China, a widespread phenomenon of “hollow villages” has emerged in rural areas, and there are many abandoned rural buildings all over the countryside. Therefore, the protection and sustainable development of rural architecture are imminent. Based on the author’s rural construction project in China, this research integrates environmental psychology and architecture and tries to build a high-quality living environment, aiming to explore a new design strategy to meet the challenges in the future.

Open access

Abstract

The historic zone of Prishtina is part of the city that represents the historic and environmental values of the city, with a rich built heritage as residential, commercial, handicraft, religious. Unfortunately, this rich heritage is heading towards total loss from the neglect and various degradations that are taking place. This research aims to analyze the urban structure of the historic zone of Prishtina, in particular Vasil Andoni Street. Based on the results from research methodology used, comprised from analysis, comparisons, interviews, and questionnaire, this paper aims to give a design proposal for urban revitalization of the Vasil Andoni Street, that would provide the sustainable development of the area, in physical, social, economic and spatial aspect, while protecting and respecting the cultural heritage of the zone.

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Abstract

The main advantage of condition monitoring by analyzing vibrations on rotating machines is the possibility of detecting faults before a failure occurs leading to the unplanned stoppage of a machine.

The unbalance defect is the most common and most frequently encountered cause of vibration, it is also one of the main causes of reduction in the life of machines and it constitutes one of the main risks for Security.

This paper is devoted to the experimental study of the two types of unbalance defects, their different vibratory signatures and how to differentiate their vibratory behavior from other mechanical faults which manifests itself by the presence of a peak at the rotational frequency in the case of combined faults.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Muhammad Safa Al-Din Tahir, Shakir Sakran Hassan, and Jumaa Salman Chiad

Abstract

The commercially available and research-developed positive-type ankle joints do not provide eversion and inversion movements and are limited to dorsiflexion and plantar-flexion. The aim of the research is to create an ankle joint that is simple to install, low in cost and closes in performance to the biological joint. The passive ankle joint is designed to perform dorsiflexion, plantar-flexion, eversion, and inversion movements. A biomechanical test was performed to find the similarity between the functions of the engineered ankle joint and the biological ankle joint. The conclusions show, the designed ankle joint on the simplicity of its structure and components, has come close to the biological function of the ankle in terms of angles.

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Abstract

One form of energy storage in spring is applying a bending moment and converting it into tilt at the head of the spring as strain energy. The relationship between them is the lateral stiffness of the spring. The aim is to find a mathematical equation for the lateral stiffness of the spring and the effect of the length of the spring on the behavior of stiffness.

The mathematical model is created according to Castigliano’s second theorem. A simulated model of a conical spring is built using a Solid Work program. The theoretical results are compared with the mathematical model for the same conical spring.

Results of both theoretical and simulated models evinced a linear behavior of lateral, while an exponential relationship between the length of the spring and the lateral stiffness is indicated. The difference between theoretical and simulated models is not exceeded 3.2%, which indicates the acceptability of results.

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Abstract

This research work has been focused on estimation of the measurement uncertainty for different steel reinforcement bars. The investigated material was HRB400 steel reinforcement with approximately diameter 16 mm and length 500 mm by using uniaxial tensile testing device. International standard ISO 6892: 2016 and guide for measurement uncertainty have been implemented an accurate method to determine the measurement uncertainty of HRB400 steel reinforcement bar measurements. The results of expanded uncertainty for 569.47 N/mm−2 correspond to 0.76 N/mm−2, which fulfil the international standard requirements. This accurate method can be used in most of the accredited laboratories as inspection services of steel reinforcement bar by using uniaxial tensile testing device at good accuracy.

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Abstract

Because of thin wall thicknesses and closed bottom ends of the extruded aerosol can, the necking limit analysis needs intensive investigation. The numerical analysis of the necking process of 0.45 mm thickness pure aluminum aerosol can was carried out. The result indicated that the length of the aerosol can wall, which is not fixed by the bottom die and the angle of inclination of necking tools are important factors that affect the development of deformation boundary limits due to plastic instability of local buckling. The fraction of taper angle of tool becomes more series parameter while necking at larger free length and it needs more concentration. Instead, the ratio of necking tool displacement to the total free length to initiate buckling was increased while increasing free length.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Fahad Mohanad Kadhim, Emad Zuhair Gheni, Athmar Thamer Naiyf, and Muhammad Safa Al-Din Tahir

Abstract

The objective of this study is to simulate material selection for fabricating hip joint prostheses from light-weight, low-cost materials which are also strong and durable. In this study, Co-Cr alloy CoCrWNi (F90), stainless steel ASIS 410, and titanium alloys (Ti6Al4V) material selection as the potential candidate for the suggested implant to manufacture a joint that is characterized by lightweight, low cost, does not react chemically with the human body and can bear the weight of the patient without mechanical failure. With this study, it was concluded the stainless steel ASIS 410 was selected as the best material selection since it passed engineering analysis, acceptable weight, and low cost compared to other proposed materials.

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Abstract

China has a lengthy and glorious history spanning thousands of years. Traditional dwellings represent distinct regional cultural origins, and different forms of housing constructions have arisen as a result. However, traditional dwellings preserve area culture and specific life memories as a fundamental component of rural life. From the perspective of conventional dwellings, this paper takes the representative Manchu folk houses in Northeast China as an example. It discusses the architectural structure, appearance style, and overall style of Manchu folk dwellings and the cultural dimension of architecture and its distinctive value under the impact of regional culture.

Open access

Abstract

Building Information Modelling (BIM) involves management efforts, tools and applications for enhancing information flow and, therefore, productivity of projects; adoption of BIM and the increasing use of digital technologies (e.g. data centers) in construction and operation of buildings, as well as in maintenance can transform the way how the industry works. Telecommunication cabinets equipped with large number of components of different types are inevitable parts of data centers having a significant influence on the efficiency and the reliability of data centers. Since the layout of equipment inside telecommunication cabinets is crucial in data centers and the ideal location of equipment inside each cabinet can be unique, an algorithmic and automated process is necessary for the cabinet façade scheme design; manually created diagrams can lead to errors. Furthermore, precise and up-to-date pieces of information about the special layout of equipment in each cabinet are also important for the further operation and maintenance. As an answer to this challenge, a BIM-based approach and method are presented in this article that can result in significant cost savings. When designing data centers, special attention must be paid to the location of telecommunication cabinets, the design of cable routes, and the layout of equipment inside. The novel cabinet family for BIM technology-based method has been developed for the improvement of data center design. Cable trays plug-in can lead to higher quality and efficiency of construction and the facility management as well.

The main goal of the case study: optimization of the design process of structured cabling systems (SCS) in data centers (DC) using new additional BIM capabilities.

The novel dynamic cabinet family have several distinctive features:

  • the ability to select in the properties which equipment will be inside the cabinet and which unit will occupy;

  • possibility to change and add equipment inside the cabinet;

  • creation of cabinet façade scheme based on equipment inside the cabinet;

  • automatically created specification;

Cable tray plug-in can improve and automate the design process in the following areas:

  • place trays depending on the installation method (wall, floor, ceiling);

  • place elements of the trays (hangers, consoles, racks) in a user-defined interval;

  • place tray connectors based on selected connector type and tray type at user-selectable spacing;

  • adding a tray cover and a partition in the tray properties;

  • automatically created specification of all cable trays elements.

The model created in BIM can be used for further operation and maintenance. To reach it, each of the elements or groups of elements contains a unique number that allows to bind its parameters and geometry for further export and use in the production model.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study is the manufacturing analysis of five spur gear pairs where the initial geometric parameters are the same only the pressure angle is different. Firstly, the gears must be designed and modelled. After that, I analyse the modification of this geometric parameter for the manufacturing parameters of the pinion and the gear in the case of gear cutting by module disc milling cutter. Using this technology the one tooth cutting can repeat from tooth to tooth in the function of the number of teeth. I would like to find correlations between the pressure angle and the manufacturing parameters. For this purpose, I define the initial technological parameters and calculate necessary technological parameters for the manufacturing process in a general way. I also define the manufacturing parameters for the given gear geometries. This analysis is practical and theoretical at the same time since the results and the process can help the manufacturing engineers to develop the gear manufacturing processes and applying my results for similar manufacturing problems.

Open access

Abstract

The study presents a mathematical model for building heating control. The buildings are connected to district heating or to central heating. The task of the heating control is to maintain a preset constant indoor air temperature. Control disturbance is caused by external meteorological conditions, firstly by outdoor air temperature. The control action can be the change in heat transfer capacity of the radiators, whereby the indoor air temperature can be commanded back to the present value to offset the effect of the disturbance. Just the control can be a follower or of predictive type. The expected indoor air temperature can be calculated from the energy balances. These are composed of differential equations, describing dynamic equilibrium of heat transfer through the external walls, as well as heat storage in the walls and indoor air. Type of differential equations is linear, inhomogeneous, of first or second order.

Solution of the differential equation results in describing the change in indoor air temperature in time as a function of outdoor air temperature. Further on, the equation determines the function of the necessary heating capacity to keep the indoor air temperature constant. By the model several heating programs can be evaluated. The physical model is shown in Fig. 1. Intermediate variable is the average temperature of the external walls. Heat conduction and convection through the walls is calculated by the difference of the indoor air temperature and of the average wall temperature by using relevant R 1 and R 2 heat resistance factors. The model is adequate when the heat transport within the building sections is neglectable, and the thermodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the walls are identical. Thereby the model describes the heat balance of representative premises, but the results can be transferred to similar other premises, too.

Open access

Abstract

This study focuses on the supply chain actors’ QCD framework. The authors present an innovative tool that illustrates the operating system of different actors in the supply chain by combining virtual and physical reality. The study aims to present and “visualize” the QCD coherence system with the help of the PaTeNt© – QCD spatial model. The study, therefore, focuses on the supplier, the central company; the relationship between the supply chain actors and the QCD framework, which is suitable for the agile, proactive collaboration.

The parts of the model, which is the result of the development:

  • the elements of quality,

  • the elements of cost,

  • the elements of delivery.

The development of the model was brought to life by the tasks which need to be solved and this model helps the understanding and transparency during the work.

Open access

Abstract

The biggest question of professional sports is how to compete successfully in the global economic framework, simultaneously in terms of the sport and in economic terms. As a result, in addition to indicators measuring sports-related effectiveness, the need for an economic analysis of sport has also emerged. Most academic research into the economic aspects of sports are related to the analysis of North American major league sports, as well as to European football. Water polo is also a spectator team sport, yet its economic analysis is almost entirely missing. In this article, we present an economic analysis of the operation of five men’s water polo teams – the top four teams in terms of the sports results and one from the mid-range – competing in the highest-level national championship in Hungary. Our aim is to determine, on the basis of the analysis of the data, the relationship between effectiveness in sports and the economic background of the teams.

It can undoubtedly be concluded that, in addition to appropriate professional decisions, it is the economic situation of a club that has a clear impact on their effectiveness; in other words, up to a certain point, the more disposable funds and wider range of assets a sports company has, the more effectively it can prepare and the better results it will have in the various domestic and international championships and tournaments. CIT (corporate income tax benefits, “TAO” in Hungarian) support is fundamentally important in the field of youth sports development. While professional sports in Hungary are built on the development of junior players, there is still no clear link between the successfulness of the adult and the junior teams. The first-division teams of the clubs providing the best junior players are frequently in the mid-range or occasionally among the weakest teams in the national championship.

Our research has shown that apart from the fact that some teams are extremely successful in the water polo championship, the outcome of many matches becomes quite predictable. Based on these, the uncertainty of the outcome is compromised, and the championship becomes less exciting and also loses some of its audience.

Open access

Abstract

High performance concrete is extensively used for construction works in recent era. For the preparation of high performance concrete (HPC) mineral and chemical admixtures are used. The addition of mineral admixtures minimizes the utilization of cement and makes concrete more sustainable. The addition of metakaolin as a substitute to cement enhances the properties of concrete. There is need to study the mechanical and micro-structural properties of concrete containing metakaolin as cementitious material. In this work an endeavour has been made to study the properties of HPC employing matakaolin as an alternative for cement. The cement has been replaced with metakaolin by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% respectively for 0.25, 0.3, and 0.35 w/c ratios. The strength and electrical resistivity tests are conducted for all concrete mixes on triplicate. Results confirm that the accumulation of metakaolin increases the properties of HPC. A maximum of 49% increase in compressive strength in concrete was observed by the accumulation of 15% of metakaolin in concrete as substitute to cement for 0.25 w/c ratio in comparison to standard concrete. The development of secondary calcium silicate hydrates and minimal Ca(OH)2 components was revealed by X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that the concrete was denser. The results of this study revealed that metakaolin has a considerable impact on high-performance concrete, particularly in terms of compressive and flexural strength.

Open access

Abstract

Shape memory alloys are smart materials which have remarkable properties that promoted their use in a large variety of innovative applications. In this work, the shape memory effect and superelastic behavior of nickel-titanium helical spring was studied based on the finite element method. The three-dimensional constitutive model proposed by Auricchio has been used through the built-in library of ANSYS® Workbench 2020 R2 to simulate the superelastic effect and one-way shape memory effect which are exhibited by nickel-titanium alloy. Considering the first effect, the associated force-displacement curves were calculated as function of displacement amplitude. The influence of changing isothermal body temperature on the loading-unloading hysteretic response was studied. Convergence of the numerical model was assessed by comparison with experimental data taken from the literature. For the second effect, force-displacement curves that are associated to a complete one-way thermomechanical cycle were evaluated for different configurations of helical springs. Explicit correlations that can be applied for the purpose of helical spring's design were derived.

Open access

Abstract

Composite materials are granted first choice in the present manufacturing scenario due to their compatibility with tolerances up to 0.001 mm and lower weight. The research design works on the composites of the metal matrix, which are used primarily for aeronautical and industrial applications. Metal matrix composites are being used extensively in structural engineering. Silicon carbide and fly shell ash were used as compliance in aluminium alloys for the manufacture of metal matrix composites (LM13). The composite metal matrix is created employing Stir Casting method. When compared to open moulding, closed moulding, and cast polymer moulding, it is a less expensive and more effective method. The composites produced were then examined for mechanical properties, from the results it was found that the presence of ash and ceramic grains can adversely impact the properties of the composites and even make them brittle. It is time to change the mechanical properties of aluminium by creating hybrid composites with double and often triple-reinforced sections. Hybrid composites have greater performance, better tolerance to tear, low density, resistance to corrosion and strong rigidity over metal matrix composites. In this research an Al-Sic-fly ash composite is proposed and the mechanical properties of hardness, tensile strength, corrosion strength, micro structure analysis are investigated.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the thesis is the geometric design, CAD modelling and TCA of spur gear pairs having normal teeth based on the modification of the pressure angle. The first task is the geometric design and CAD modelling of the gear pairs (5 pairs are designed) where only the pressure angle is modified beside the constancy of the other initial parameters. The second task is to analyse the comparison possibility and the accuracy similarity of the 2D and the 3D models by the Hertz (equivalent) stress analysis. Finally, I give analysis of the maximum equivalent stress, normal stress and contact pressure for each pair while three teeth are rolling down on each other.

Open access

Rekonstrukció, újrafelhasználás és bontás •

1945 utáni modern épületek sorsa a műemlékvédelem körein kívül és belül

Reconstruction, Reuse and Demolition •

The fate of post World War II modern buildings outside and inside the realm of monument protection
Építés - Építészettudomány
Author: Hartmann Gergely

Az 1945 utáni modern épületek sorsa ma különösen problémás. A hazai műemlékes és építész szakma egy része, a nemzetközi szaktekintélyekkel egyidőben, már a kilencvenes évek elején felfigyelt arra, hogy különleges, a hagyományos műemléki rekonstrukcióktól eltérő hozzáállást kíván megújításuk. A kétezres évek eleje óta azonban átfogó, szintetizáló kutatás itthon nem történt, és (a szocreál épületekkel nem számolva) csak néhány 1951 előtti épület vitatott műemléki rekonstrukciójára került sor. A hazai intézményes műemlékvédelem még a 2010 előtti időszakban sem tudott módszertani szempontból megújulni. Ennek akadálya nem elsősorban szakmai, inkább a döntéshozói akarat hiánya volt. Példákkal illusztrálom, hogy Nyugat- Európában eközben milyen eredményeket értek el a modern épületeknek – elsősorban a hatvanas évek épületeinek – felújítása területén, és ennek kontextusába helyezem a hazai helyzetet.

Miközben itthon a hivatalosan védett, II. világháború utáni épületek legtöbbje pusztul, a védelem körein jórészt kívül esők újrahasznosítására számos példát találunk. Az adaptive reuse (alkalmazkodó, rugalmas újrafelhasználás) a nemzetközi építészeti színtér egyik legkurrensebb témája az utóbbi évtizedben. A fogalom több lehetséges értelmezése közül tanulmányomban leginkább úgy tekintek rá, mint az építészet, a belsőépítészet és az örökségvédelem egyfajta metszetére,1 szem előtt tartva, hogy ez a fajta alkotói hozzáállás magában hordozza az újrahasznosítás fenntarthatósági és környezetvédelmi aspektusait is. A 2008-as gazdasági világválság után, de kiemelten 2015 körültől megfigyelhetjük a hazai, 1945 utáni épületállománnyal foglalkozó reuse-projektek számának, valamint az ezekre irányuló figyelemnek a növekedését. Új lendületet kapott és új szereplőkkel gazdagodott az e korszak örökségéről szóló párbeszéd is – igaz egy szűkebb szakmai közeg kereteit továbbra sem lépi át. A rekonstrukciók mellett kiemelt hangsúlyt kapott az újrahasznosítás fontossága az egyre fokozódó klímaválság kihívásaira is reagálva.

Az intézményes védelemtől függetlenül létrejött hazai újrahasznosítási projektek közül vannak példamutatók, vitathatók és pusztítók is. Konkrét eseteket mutatok be vázlatosan, amiből, ha átfogó folyamatok nem is, de tendenciák kirajzolódhatnak. Az ezekben való eligazodást rövid kritikai elemzések segítik.

A példák sora mutatja, hogy „szerves” folyamatként is megindult a megújulás, ugyanakkor az örökség jórészt védtelen a mindenkori politika és a beruházók esetleges romboló szándékától. Amennyiben hiányzik az intézményes, de differenciáló, többszintű és rugalmas örökségvédelem, a felújítások sikere az egyes építészek és megbízóik ízlésén és szubjektív döntésein múlik.

The fate of modern buildings built after 1945 is particularly problematic today. Some of the Hungarian architects and experts of the built heritage, at the same time as international professionals, noticed in the early 1990s that their renewal required a special attitude different from traditional reconstructions of the monuments. However, since the early 2000s, no comprehensive, synthesizing research has taken place, and only a few modern buildings built before 1951 have undergone controversial monumental reconstructions. The institutional protection of monuments in Hungary could not be renewed from a methodological point of view, even in the period before 2010. The obstacle to this was not primarily professional, but rather a lack of the will of the decision-makers. I illustrate with examples the results achieved in Western Europe in the field of reconstruction and reuse of modern buildings, especially from the sixties, and I place the Hungarian situation in the context of this.

While in Hungary the officially protected post-World War II buildings are perishing, there are many examples of the recycling-architecture and reuse of those which are largely outside the scope of defense. Adaptive reuse is one of the most pressing themes of the international architectural level in the last decade.

Dealing with the post-war building after the 2008 world economic crisis, and especially around 2015, we can observe an increase in the number of Hungarian reuse projects and the attention paid to them. The dialogue on the legacy of this era has also gained new impetus and new actors joined it – although it still does not go beyond a narrower professional environment. In addition to historical reconstructions, emphasis was placed on the importance of reuse in response to the challenges of the growing climate crisis.

Dealing with the Hungarian building stock after 1945 was again thematized by a young generation of architects after the 2008 global economic crisis, but especially from around 2015, in a more complex way (social, economic, cultural, political, etc.). In addition to reconstructions, the importance of recycling in response to the challenges of the growing climate crisis was also highlighted.

Regardless of institutional protection, recycling projects have proliferated in Hungary in the last decade. Some of them are exemplary, but many of them are debatable, or even destructive. I outline specific cases from which comparison general trends can emerge. Orientation in these is aided by brief critical analyses. A series of examples show that the renewal has begun as an “organic” process, but at the same time the heritage is largely unprotected from current politics and the potentially destructive intentions of investors. In the absence of an institutional but at the same time differentiating, multi-level and flexible heritage protection, the success of renovations depends on the tastes and subjective decisions of individual architects and their clients.

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Abstract

The goal of this work is the hydraulic capacity assessment of selected combined sewer systems in the city of Trnava. The selected sewer system constitutes from 160 sections 3.3 km long. Hydraulic capacity assessment will test sewer system, created in SeWaCAD program with design rainfall events with varied frequencies. The result of assessment showed that hydraulic capacity of combined sewer system did not meet requirements to properly work. Malfunctioning sewer pipelines must be changed. Design rain with frequency at least one in two years will be used as restoration model.

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Understanding Centrality Theories •

Socio-spatial Characteristics and Interrelations of City Centers

Városközpont-elmélet•

A városközpontok, alközpontok téri és társadalmi jellemzői
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Anna Kornélia Losonczy and Annamária Orbán

The study is based on the re-combination or synthesis of international scientific literature, and the definition of the notions center, and sub-center. A conceptual-structural framework of socio-spatial characteristics of centers (and sub-centers) is set up, these factors are essential elements of making, maintaining, and rehabilitating a city: Market and Competition; Node and Pole; Faith; Power; Security; Mixture; and Identity. In an evaluation matrix, the meta-physical characteristics (that are the determining factors of the physical attributes) of these archetypes are drawn. Based on famous theorists, three types of city forms are distinguished: the “traditional / organic”, the “modern / planned”, and the “contemporary / disjointed” ones. We argue that the historical, theoretical-conceptual background of the triple division is comprehensible. However, this trichotomy lacks some essential elements, “measurable” aspects of city centers – outlined in our study –, which are important in contemporary urban processes and support more realistic urban planning.

Tanulmányunkban – nemzetközi szakirodalmi kutatás alapján – definiáljuk a központ és az alközpont fogalmakat. Meghatározzuk a központok (és az alközpontok) téri-társadalmi jellemzőinek konceptuális és strukturális keretrendszerét. Ezek az alkotóelemek – Piac és Verseny; Csomópont és Pólus; Hit; Hatalom; Biztonság; Vegyesség; Identitás – a város alapításának, fenntartásának és megújításának feltételei. Egy értékelő mátrix segítségével összegezzük ezen archetípusok metafizikai jellemzőit, és amellett érvelünk, hogy ezek determinálják a központok fizikai tulajdonságait. Elismert szerzőkre hivatkozva ismertetjük a legelfogadottabb városmodellek hármas felosztását: a hagyományos / organikus, a modern / tervezett és a kortárs / széttagolt tipológiát. Azt állítjuk, hogy a hármas felosztás történelmi, elméleti-konceptuális háttere megalapozott. Ugyanakkor ez a hármasság nem foglalja magában azokat a „mérhető” – a tanulmányban felvázolt – szempontokat, amelyek segítségével a valósághoz jobban közelítő, a tervezési gyakorlatban könnyebben alkalmazható központmodellek vázolhatók fel.

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Abstract

Transmission congestion issues became more severe and difficult to control as the power sector became more deregulated. The grey wolf optimization algorithm is proposed to relieve congestion by rescheduling generation effectively, resulting in the least congestion cost. The selection of participating generators is based on sensitivity, and the proposed technique is used to determine the best-rescheduled output active power generation to minimize line overload. The IEEE-30 bus system is used to test the proposed optimization technique. It has been demonstrated that when compared to other algorithms like the real coded genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and differential evolution algorithm, the proposed approach produces excellent results in terms of congestion cost.

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Abstract

Laminated composite shell panels take part in several engineering structures. Due to their complex nature, failure modes in composites are highly dependent on the geometry, direction of loading and orientation of the fibers. However, the design of composite parts is still a delicate task because of these fiber failure modes, which includes matrix failure modes or other so-called interlaminar interface failure such as delamination, that corresponds to the separation of adjacent layers of the laminate as a consequence of the weakening of interface layer between them. In this work, impact-induced delamination represented as a circular single delamination is investigated, as it can reduce greatly the structural integrity without getting detected. Furthermore, attention is focused on its effect upon the post-buckling response and the compressive strength of a composite panel. The delamination buckling was modelled using the cohesive element technique under Abaqus software, in order to predict delamination growth and damage propagation while observing their effects on the critical buckling load.

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Abstract

In the first and second chapter the article provides an overview of the currently used energy sources in Hungary and the most popular renewable energies. In addition, the Weibull estimation is presented, too. The subsequent chapter looks at some of the research results about the solar energy optimization with Weibull distribution. The study presented is a mathematical solution of the solar energy optimization with distribution. The final chapter contains a brief explanation of the results. This publication briefly summarizes a prototype solution for an estimation and forecast of solar energy and yield with Weibull distribution.

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Abstract

This paper deals with the disturbance rejection, parameter uncertainty cancelation, and the closed-loop stabilization of the water level of the four-tank nonlinear system. For the four-tank system with relative degree one, a new structure of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been presented by incorporating a tracking differentiator (TD) in the control unit to obtain the derivate of the tracking error. Thus, the nonlinear-PD control together with the TD serves as a new nonlinear state error feedback. Moreover, a sliding mode extended state observer is presented in the feedback loop to estimate the system's state and the total disturbance. The proposed scheme has been compared with several control schemes including linear and nonlinear versions of ADRC techniques. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves excellent results in terms of disturbance elimination and output tracking as compared to other conventional schemes. It was able to control the water levels in the two lower tanks to their desired value and exhibits excellent performance in terms of Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) and Objective Performance Index (OPI).

Open access

Abstract

Many of the engineering applications have faced the delicate contact problem in the area close to the forces where it is very difficult to experimentally carry out various measurements and draw important conclusions on the condition of the contact points. In this paper the forced state in the vicinity of the forces for the half-plane will be studied. Furthermore, the qualities displayed by the half-plane under the action of normal forces, tangential forces and the moment caused by a pair of forces will be analyzed, as well as changes in the elastic characteristics for the forced plane state and the deformed plane state.

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A new two-level hierarchical approach to control the trolley position and payload swinging of an overhead crane is proposed. At the first level, a simple mathematical pendulum model is investigated considering the time delay due to the use of a vision system. In the second level, a chain model is developed, extending the previous pendulum model considering the vibration of the suspending chain. The relative displacement of the payload is measured with a vision sensor, and the rest of the state-space variables are determined by a collocated observer. The gain parameters related to the state variables of the chain vibration are determined by the use of a pole placement method. The proposed controller is verified by numerical simulation and experimentally on a laboratory test bench.

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Abstract

Finite element method is known as the most common methods in a numerical analysis of reservoirs subjected to the influence of an earthquake. Investigating the effects of interaction between structures and fluid during the earthquake is among the major objectives of the present research. In this article, by selecting a variety of conventional modes of fluid storage, the dynamic effects of the reservoir and their mutual effects based on changes in physical parameters are analyzed. Unexpectedly, based on the results of this study, it was observed that the crisis situation always does not occur in the full state of the tank. Moreover, the filled and semi-filled reservoirs require seismic retrofitting for mode 10% below the tank height.

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: N. ArikaraVelan, V. Deepak, N. Dhinesh Kumar, G. Muthulingam, S. Vanitha, P. Karthigai Priya, and Sachin Sabariraj

Abstract

In this study, vermicompost is replaced for fine aggregate in geopolymer concrete (GPC). Initially mix design is made for GPC and mix proportion is proposed. The vermicompost is replaced at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with M sand in GPC. Result indicates the 5% replacement with vermicompost based geopolymer concrete (GPVC) has the compressive strength of 32 N mm−2 (M30 grade) whereas the compressive strength of control specimen made with GPC is 37 N mm−2. Other replacement shows 21 N mm−2, 14 N mm−2 and 11 N mm−2 respectively. The 5% replaced concrete cubes and control specimen are tested at an elevated temperature of 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C and compared with the control specimen. There is no significant difference observed in weight lost at control (GPC) and GPVC specimen. An elevated temperature, the weight loss is almost 4% at 200°C because of expulsion of water from the concrete. Afterwards only 2% weight loss is observed in remaining elevated temperature. The compressive strength loss is observed at an elevated temperature in GPC and GPVC specimen because of thermal incompatibility between aggregate and the binder. EDX results show M sand and compost contains Si, Al, C, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K and it is similar in the elemental composition and SEM image confirms vermicompost contains fine particles.

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Abstract

This paper presents an experimental study of abrasive waterjet turning of an extrusion aluminum alloy (AlMg0,7Si). The aim of the paper is to determine differences of two methods from the point of view of machined surface quality and the depth of penetration, i.e., the diameter of the parts after the turning process. During the experiments, the traverse speed of the cutting head and the rotation of the turned parts were changed, other parameters, like pressure of the water, abrasive mass flow rate were kept constant. Diameter and some surface roughness parameters of the test parts were measured after the machining. On the base of experimental results, advantages, and disadvantages of two methods are explained in the paper.

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Abstract

The ball and Plate (BaP) system is the typical example of the nonlinear dynamic system that is used in a wide range of engineering applications. So, many researchers in the control field are using the Bap system to check robust controllers under several points that challenge it, such as internal and external disturbances. Our manuscript proposed a position control intelligent technique with two directions (2D) for the BaP system by optimized multi Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC’s) with Chicken Swarm Optimization (CSO) for each one. The gains and rules of the FLC’s can tune based on the CSO. This proposal utilizes the ability of the FLC’s to observe the position of the ball. At our work, the BaP system that belonged to Control Laboratory/Systems and Control Engineering department is used for real-time proposal implementation. The results have been showing a very good percentage enhancement in settling time, rise time, and overshoot, of the X-axis and Y-axis, respectively.

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Abstract

Many security vulnerabilities can be detected by static analysis. This paper is a case study and a performance comparison of four open-source static analysis tools and plugins (PMD, SpotBugs, Find Security Bugs, and SonarQube) on Java source code. Experiments have been conducted on the widely used Juliet Test Suite with respect to six selected weaknesses from the official Top 25 list of Common Weakness Enumeration. In this study, analysis metrics have been calculated for helping Java developers decide which tools can be used when checking their programs for security vulnerabilities. It turned out that particular weaknesses are best detected with particular tools.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Fahad Mohanad Kadhim, Muhammad Safa Al-Din Tahir, and Athmar Thamer Naiyf

Abstract

This study aims to increase the mechanical properties of the composite material manufactured by the lamination process. In this study, the lamination process will be implemented in two ways, and mechanical properties are compared between the two methods. The first method covers the lamination process under the influence of vacuum pressure only, while in the second method lamination process is achieved by the influence of vacuum pressure and vibrate by shaker device. The results showed that the endurance stress of fatigue increased by 18.18% for the material manufactured by the lamination process under the influence of vibration, while the yield stress and ultimate stress values remained roughly constant for both methods.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Orest Voznyak, Olena Savchenko, Nadiia Spodyniuk, Iryna Sukholova, Mariana Kasynets, and Oleksandr Dovbush

Abstract

The article is devoted to decision of actual task of air distribution efficiency increase due to swirled air jets application. The aim of the paper is investigation of swirled air jets, analytical dependencies obtaining for determination of the air velocity attenuation coefficient, aerodynamic local resistance coefficient and noise level from the twisting plates inclination angle; optimization of the twisting plates inclination angle of the air distributor. It has been established that increase of the angle results in the air velocity attenuation coefficient increase and results in decrease of the noise level and resistance coefficient of air distributor. The optimum angle of the plates is determined considering aerodynamic, noise and energy aspects and equals 36°.

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Abstract

This paper robotic process automation is highlighted in modern business environments to understand about the progression of robotic process automation and how robotic process automation has brought changes to the world of business. Adoption of robotic process automation tools has raised lots of questions, but their deployment in a business has changed the outcome of the return on investment in a business by reducing cost and time taken on repetitive tasks. The paper is differentiating robotic process automation bot from artificial intelligence and robotics for the better understanding of lay audience. The paper also gives an insight about futuristic aspects of robotic process automation and robotic process automation 2.0.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Patrik Márk Máder, Olivér Rák, Nándor Bakai, József Etlinger, Márk Zagorácz, and István Ervin Háber

Abstract

Building information modeling is a complex and structure-based methodology. It applies predefined steps and frameworks; however, an audit procedure can be complicated and time-consuming. The steps of the evaluations are based on logical connections that also form algorithms in a manual workflow. Algorithms can be interpreted by computers with the help of software languages. A higher level of automation, more efficient workflows, and more economical and accurate results can be developed by using algorithms.

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