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This study was conducted to assess the effects of 2,4-epibrassionolide (EBR) on mold decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer and its capability to activate biochemical defense reactions in postharvest peaches. The treatment of EBR at 5 μM possessed the optimum effectiveness on inhibiting the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit among all treatments. The EBR treatment significantly up-regulated the expression levels of a set of defense-related enzymes and PR genes that included PpCHI, PpGns1, PpPAL, PpNPR1, PpPR1 and PpPR4 as well as led to an enhancement for biosynthesis of phenolics and lignins in peaches during the incubation at 20 °C. Interestingly, the EBR-treated peaches exhibited more striking expressions of PR genes and accumulation of antifungal compounds upon inoculation with the pathogen, indicating a priming defense could be activated by EBR. On the other hand, 5 μM EBR exhibited direct toxicity on fungal proliferation of R. stolonifer in vitro. Thus, we concluded that 5 μM EBR inhibited the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit probably by a direct inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and an indirect induction of a priming resistance. These findings provided a potential alternative for control of fungal infection in peaches during the postharvest storage.

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Microalgae are promising alternatives to sequestration of carbon and reduction of environmental problems, e.g. the greenhouse effect and industrial water pollution. Depending on the growth conditions, microalgae can differ in their metabolism products, leading them to grow at different rates. Intracellular reactions and nutritional requirements from cell metabolism, as well as biomass composition, may vary in function of the temperature. In this study, the biotechnological potential of three microalgae strains from the species was evaluated in terms of growth, biomass composition, fatty acid profile, and chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Each of the three species demonstrated different potential depending on their metabolisms: Scenedesmus spinosus presented fastest growth and had the highest protein content (52.99%), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata presented the highest content of lipid extracted (26.51%), and Scenedesmus acuminatus showed increased production of chlorophyll (5.25 mg l–1) and carotenoid (1.02 mg l–1) pigments.

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Consumer concern over artificial food additives has stimulated production of pigments from natural sources. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of process variables on the content of colour compounds (betaxanthin and betacyanin) in beetroot peel juice extracted by conventional method. In this research, the extraction processes were carried out according to the central composite design with different process variables. Quantitative measurements of the basic colour compounds in beetroot extract were performed using spectrophotometer. From our experiment, it was found that the most adequate extraction conditions, which gave the highest yield of colour compounds (952.5 mg l–1 of betaxanthin and 1361 mg l–1 of betacyanin), were extraction time 1 h, operating temperature 20 ºC, and solvent ratio 0.8 w/v. Being a conventional heating method, it is a simple and cost efficient process with relatively high yield.

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Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.) are one of the most important and most widely consumed vegetables in the world. The fruit contains considerable amount of different phytonutrients such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin C. In the present work, effects of some abiotic factors on the concentration of phytonutrients were investigated in tomato cultivated in two different types of soil. It was found that the type of soil had slight effect on the most important vital nutrients, while the ecological factors, particularly precipitation and average temperature 3 weeks before harvest, were of significant influence on such nutrients. It was found that low temperature and high precipitation before harvest caused the levels of carotenoids, tocopherol, and vitamin C to significantly increase by 65%, 46%, and 28%, respectively.

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Barberry is a native Iranian plant including species Berberis integerrima and B. vulgaris. Barberry fruit is used for preparing sauces, jellies, carbonated drinks, candies, food colour powders, jams, marmalades, chocolates, juices, and nectars. They are used as a natural food colorant rich in anthocyanins instead of harmful artificial ones. They contain polyphenols and antioxidants that reduce damage from free radicals and prevent chronic diseases and cancers. Barberry fruit extracts were encapsulated in maltodextrin by spray drying and Liposome Entrapment. The sizes of spray dried particles were reported 1–20 μm by SEM. Dimensions of empty and extract loaded liposomes (B. vulgaris and B. integerrima) were 18–28, 37–51, and 51–77 nm, respectively, by FE-SEM. The moist diameter of liposomes measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method at day 0 and after 6 months at –18 °C were as follows; empty liposomes: 163.9±2.23 and 378.90±4.98, liposomes loaded with extracts: 135.2±2.04 and 160.90±2.19 (B. vulgaris) and 113.4±1.83 and 144.20±2.01 nm (B. integerrima). Evaluation of thermal-oxidative decomposition from Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results at 0–45–90 days showed that the antioxidant activity and the onset temperature of the encapsulated extract was higher than the control. The extracts encapsulated in liposomes, especially B. integerrima extract, had better antioxidant properties.

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There is a great demand for developing efficient anthocyanins extraction related to each plant material. Conventional methods have been replaced by novel techniques, but they might remain attractive when combined with the latter. Anthocyanins extraction from fresh and dried red cabbage was investigated by maceration, ultrasonication, and with enzymes. Pre-treatments through drying determined an improved extraction with respect to fresh samples, freeze-drying emerging as the best method. Combined enzyme-assisted extraction with maceration resulted in higher yield by conducting several extractions (1078.8±12.5 mg/100 g DW). The kinetic studies revealed good stability of anthocyanins at 50 °C, while constant degradation at 80 °C. The rate constant k at 80 °C and pH 3.5 was 1.7 10–3 min–1 and the half-life time t 1/2 was 6.7 h. Thermal analysis evidenced heat-induced changes in particular for extracts undergoing pre-heating. These results are valuable for optimal processing conditions of anthocyanins-containing products.

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Xylanase plays an important role in the food, feed, and pulp/paper industry. Filamentous fungi have been considered as useful producers of this enzyme from an industrial point of view, due to the fact that they excrete xylanases into the medium. In this study, four fungal species belonging to different genera, i.e. Aspergillus, Cochliobolus, Pyrenophora, and Penicillium were isolated from different sources and compared for their ability to produce xylanase in submerged culture. The fungal species showed enzyme activity as determined by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. It was found that the two saprophytic Aspergillus strains, i.e A. terreus (Fss 129) and A. niger (SS7) had the highest xylanase activity of 474 and 294 U ml–1 at pH 7 and 8, respectively, in the presence of corn cob hulls after 120 h of incubation. The production of xylanase seemed to be strongly influenced by the interactive effect of initial pH on the fungi. Interestingly, xylanase was better produced by the saprophytic fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium than by the plant pathogenic ones of Cochliobolus and Pyrenophora. This work provides additional information to support future research on fungi with different lifestyles for food industrial production of xylanase.

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Changes of edible oil quality factors and formation of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-FE) during deep-fat frying in four different experiments (control, salt, pork chop, and chicken liver) with high oleic sunflower oil were compared in this study. Based on the results of investigated oil quality parameters, which were free fatty acid (FFA), anisidine value (AV), UV extinction at 232 and 268 nm (E232 and E268, respectively), and total polar material (TPM), only a modest deterioration of the frying oil was observed. As we expected, the 3-MCPD-FE content in the control samples did not reach the limit of quantification (0.1 mg kg–1), while the table salt itself caused a slight increase. The results of pork chop and chicken liver experiments were not statistically different from each other, after the third frying circle 0.52 and 0.39 mg kg–1 3-MCPD-FE levels were reached, respectively. Based on these values, the human exposure estimation resulted in a low risk.

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The breadmaking quality of bug-damaged wheat flours with high protease activity (HPAWF) and low protease activity (LPAWF) was attempted to be improved by using sourdough (prepared by L. plantarum (SD1) and L. sanfrancissensis (SD2)) and liquid rye sour (LRS) in this study. The effects of sourdoughs (20 and 40%) and LRS (1 and 2%) on the protease activity of the HPAWF were determined by SDS-PAGE. Protease activity of HPAWF decreased with the addition of 40% SD1, 20% SD2, and both levels of LRS (1 and 2%) compared to a control sample. The HPAWF bread samples produced with LRS (1 and 2%) had higher volume (P<0.05) and bread quality as compared to sourdough applications. LPAWF bread sample was comparable with those of 40% SD2 added sample in terms of volume and hardness (N) values (P>0.05), while SD1 addition caused quality losses. The overall results suggested that addition of 2% LRS had promising results for improving bread quality flours that were damaged by suni-bug at low levels.

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Authors: R. Amiri Qandashtant, E. Ataye Salehi, A. Mohamadi Sani, M. Mehraban Sangatash and O. Safari

Probiotic food products are available at the supermarket commercially, but probiotic bakery products are much less in evidence. In the present study, methyl cellulose (2%), whey protein concentrate (2%), corn starch (1%), and soybean oil at 2, 4, and 6% were used for coating layer on the bulked bread surface, and then the quality properties were studied. The results showed that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, as probiotic component of the coating, immobilized in corn starch, whey protein, and methyl cellulose films had enhanced viability throughout shelf-life. The probiotics remained viable for 4 days, maintaining high viable cell number levels. Adding soybean oil at 6% concentration enhanced texture, sensory properties, and image index during storage.

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Authors: E. Horvath-Szanics, J. Perjéssy, A. Klupács, K. Takács, A. Nagy, E. Koppány-Szabó, F. Hegyi, E. Németh-Szerdahelyi, M.Y. Du, Z.R. Wang, J.Q. Kan and Zs. Zalán

The increasing consumer demand for less processed and more natural food products – while improving those products’ quality, safety, and shelf-life – has raised the necessity of chemical preservative replacement. Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Chitinolytic enzymes are of biotechnological interest, since their substrate, chitin, is a major structural component of the cell wall of fungi, which are the main cause of the spoilage of food and raw plant material. Among the several organisms, many bacteria produce chitinolytic enzymes, however, this behaviour is not general. The chitinase activity of the lactic acid bacteria is scarcely known and studied.

The aim of the present study was to select Lactobacillus strains that have genes encoding chitinase, furthermore, to detect expressed enzymes and to characterise their chitinase activity. Taking into consideration the importance of chitin-bindig proteins (CBPs) in the chitinase activity, CBPs were also examined. Five Lactobacillus strains out of 43 strains from 12 different species were selected by their chitinase coding gene. The presence of the chitinase and chitin-biding protein production were confirmed, however, no chitinolytic activity has been identified.

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Immature rice grain is one of the under-valued by-products of rice milling industry. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of immature rice grain flour (IRGF) substitution to tarhana, which is a traditional cereal-based, fermented food product. IRGF was replaced by refined wheat flour at the levels of 0 (control), 30, 50, 70, and 100%, and the effect of this replacement on the contents of crude fat, ash, protein, dietary fibre, phytic acid, minerals, vitamins B1 and B2, tocopherols, γ-oryzanol contents and sensory properties were investigated. It was shown that stabilised IRGF remarkably improved nutritional properties of the end product without adversely affecting sensory quality up to 50%. In conclusion, it could be suggested that stabilised IRGF has a promising potential for many food applications due to being cheap, accessible, nutritious, and gluten-free.

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Abstract

The Szentgyörgyi-Horváth-house is one of the major historical buildings of Balatonfüred. The design of the reconstruction was preceded by detailed architectural historical study. The reconstruction of the building was realized by retaining the original structures. For the new function the building was equipped with an air-conditioning engine-room. The air conditioner is a significant source of noise for the apartments facing the courtyard of the building, due to its continuous operation. The acoustic examination of the enclosed yard was calculated with two different approaches. The distance-dependent approximation, which is usual for large halls, was approved. Building construction structures were determined based on the results to meet the acoustic requirements.

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Abstract

Lifts are indispensable for the evacuation of mobility-impaired people from buildings in case of emergency. It is necessary to quantify the movement parameters of these people and describe the entire process using a suitable algorithm. The aim of the research was to quantify the times and speeds of movement for a person using a wheelchair and for an injured person. An experiment in situ was used. During the experiment, arrivals at the lift, cabin entries, and exits were monitored. The results include the times and speeds of a mobility-impaired person's movement. The experiments showed that a person using a wheelchair was slower than an injured person. The results can be used to expand computational models to account for the possibility of using lifts for evacuation.

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Authors: Mohammed S. A. Khedr, Mona F. Ali, Abdullah M. A. Kamel and Manal A. A. El-Ghanam

Abstract

This research will shed light on studying a terrazzo pavement in Prince Mohamed Ali Museum (the case study). The authors used visual inspection, stereo microscope, USB microscope, XRPD analysis, and SEM.EDX to identify its components, deterioration aspects and execution techniques. The XRPD and SEM.EDX results revealed that Portland cement was used in the three layers of terrazzo because of the detection of Hatrurite, Alite, Anorthite, Albite, Aragonite, etc. Many pigments were used in the topping terrazzo layer as; Goethite, Greenalite, Hematite, Azurite and Magnetite. The divider strips were made of brass alloy and the topping layer chips were prepared from basalt, marble and sea shells.

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Authors: Tomáš Mandičák, Peter Mesároš and Matúš Tkáč

Abstract

Construction project management is difficult process and important part of efficiency and productivity in construction industry. Currently, construction industry is increasing demands on technology, environmental and social construction parameters in the context of maintaining the balance of economic efficiency and sustainability of the construction and realization of buildings. Progressive technology as knowledge systems and building information modeling are the supporting tool for achieving this. Building information modeling is a progressive intelligent 3D model-based process that gives architecture, engineering, and construction professionals the insight and tools to more efficiently in planning, designing and buildings and infrastructure managing. Knowledge and building information modeling technology include a lot of functions and opportunities for better and easier way to achieve project goal and affect to construction project management process. Research discusses the issue of construction project management trough building information modeling and knowledge technology. The main aim of the paper is to analyze impact of these technologies on efficiency in construction project management.

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The soil conservation service - curve number method is a globally used approach to simulations of surface runoff for its simplicity and applicability. Nevertheless, relevant simulations require proper setting of the model's components. This work focuses on optimization of initial abstraction ratio λ in the Husí potok sub-catchments in Czech Republic. Due to favorable morphology, the watershed is prone to flash floods and accurate modeling of surface runoff is of high interest. The analysis was conducted using pairs of discharge and rainfall measurements. The results outline that the traditional value λ= 0.2 is too high in this watershed and should be reduced.

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This paper studies the presence effects of two or more adjacent structures on the tunnel responses and vice versa due to surface and underground traffic loads. The study is numerically carried out by using Finite element Plaxis2D software©. The obtained results demonstrate that the dynamical interaction between the tunnel and the structures is significantly influenced by varying the number and distance between the adjacent structures, the depth of the tunnel and the location of the traffic load. These results can be considered and used in realistic and practical cases and also to help build efficient and more comfortable construction projects.

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The possibility of using mineral admixtures as a replacement for cement may reduce the carbon dioxide emission, which causes global warming and climatic changes on the environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the properties of early strength concrete produced with a constant replacement of alccofine (i.e. 25% by mass) and a new generation of chemical admixture that is Polycarboxylate ether. The constant dosage of alccofine and different proportions of polycarboxylate ethers are mixed in concrete and tested for workability and mechanical properties of concrete. Response surface method was applied to predict, validate and optimize the experimental data using regression equation. The results show that the performance of concrete improves with the addition of alccofine and Polycarboxylate ether into concrete.

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Authors: Mykola Sysyn, Vitalii Kovalchuk, Ulf Gerber, Olga Nabochenko and Andriy Pentsak

Abstract

Railway ballast tamping is one of the cost-expensive renewal and maintenance works of railway superstructure. The quality of ballast consolidation influences its resistance to residual deformations and long-term deterioration of track geometry. The process of ballast compaction along the sleeper under the vibration loading is complex and depends on many factors. The ballast flow processes under the vibration loading can produce both consolidation and un-consolidation of ballast material. The present study is devoted to the experimental investigation of ballast consolidation inhomogeneity. The method of ballast local consolidation measurement is proposed. The method is based on the velocity of impact wave propagation that is measured with device. The application of modern microcontroller and sensor techniques provided simple and reliable multi-point velocity measurements in a ballast layer. That enables well enough spatial resolution of ballast consolidation inhomogeneity. The measurement analysis has shown more than 4 times higher consolidation under the sleeper center than for unconsolidated ballast.

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In the present study, the performance of concrete sandwich panel against fire and axial load has been considered. A finite element model of a sandwich wall is presented and evaluated the performance under different temperature (200, 400, 600 °C. The ratio of width, thickness and length of wall are constant and the axial load enters on the top of wall. The maximum displacement and stress in different models shows the capacity of wall is increased at high temperature. The displacement has dramatically increased at temperature loading of 800 °C and it has gained which shows poor efficiency of wall at high temperatures.

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This paper discusses the control of the electric energy consumption in a household equipped with smart devices. The household consumption pattern is the result of a two-level optimization framework. The scheduling of the electric appliances is determined by the first optimization, receiving Time of Use tariffs proposed by the utility company. The scheduler considers the consumer's preferences on the powering on for each appliance.

Secondly a model predictive controller is developed to control the electric heating system based on energy constraints resulting from the appliance scheduling.

Simulations show the energy efficiency and an optimized electricity cost of the strategy proposed.

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Authors: El Mehdi Echebba, Hasnae Boubel, Oumnia Elmrabet and Mohamed Rougui

Abstract

In this paper, an evaluation was tried for the impact of structural design on structural response. Several situations are foreseen as the possibilities of changing the distribution of the structural elements (sails, columns, etc.), the width of the structure and the number of floors indicates the adapted type of bracing for a given structure by referring only to its Geometric dimensions.

This was done by studying the effect of the technical design of the building on the natural frequency of the structure with the study of the influence of the distribution of the structural elements on the seismic response of the building, taking into account of the requirements of the Moroccan earthquake regulations 2000/2011 and using the ANSYS APDL and Robot Structural Analysis software.

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Abstract

A welded steel protective cover used for the heat treatment of steel sheet coils is investigated. The protective cover is made of austenitic stainless steel and consists of three main segments, welded together, which have 1400 mm height each. The plate thicknesses at the lower, middle and upper segments are different. The investigation aimed to improve the lifetime and the number of heat cycles of the protective cover by changing the geometry, the effect of the thicknesses and the material. Damaged covers have been evaluated, made calculations of stress and deformations, and carried out a series of finite element simulations. Both horizontal and vertical corrugated sheets were simulated and compared. The non-corrugated plates were also investigated, but their performance was behind the corrugated ones. The original geometry and that of the horizontal corrugated plate are identical from the stress level point of view. The vertical position of the corrugated plate provided a better result than the horizontal one. The calculated and simulated results for the original geometry are close to the measured damage.

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Abstract

The mechanical and physical properties of the crushed aggregate have been studied. The properties of crushed aggregate, which produced from recycled aggregate concrete is not discussed in the literature yet despite it could be a choice in some circumstances like in case of demolishing the structures that already constructed by recycled aggregate concrete. Twenty-two types of self-compacting high-performance concrete made by coarse natural aggregate and coarse recycle concrete aggregate have been crushed and their properties have been studied. The main findings of the present study that, the Los Angeles index and water absorption of crushed aggregate is affected by the coarse recycled concrete aggregate dosage in its parent concrete, as well as, incorporating cement replacing materials in parent concrete help to enhance the abrasion resistance of crushed aggregate.

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Abstract

The historic centers to retain their liveliness and vibrancy should be able to grow and change. It is a big challenge for the contemporary architecture to balance the socio-economic needs of the city and its community in one hand, and protection of the cultural heritage on the other. The aim of this study is to analyze the incorporation of the new structures in the historical context. How can the new structures harmoniously be incorporated in the historic centers without endangering their cultural heritage values? The paper discusses how to design a new contemporary shopping mall in the Historic Center of Prizren in order to create an attractive area and at the same time avoiding deterioration of the historical place.

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Stability is one of the most critical problems in the design of welded metal structures, since in many cases instability causes failure or collapse of the structures. The present study aims to show the minimum mass design procedure for welded steel box columns loaded by a compression force. The normal stresses and overall stability are calculated for pinned columns. The dimensions of the box columns are optimized by using constraints on global stability, local buckling of webs and flanges. Different design rules and standards are compared: Eurocode 3, Japan Railroad Association, American Petroleum Institute, and American Institute of Steel Construction. The calculations are made for different loadings, column length and steel grades. The yield stress varies between 235 and 690 MPa. Optimization is carried out using the generalized reduced gradient method in Excel solver. Cost calculations and comparisons show the most economical structure.

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Abstract

The article is presenting a consideration of the photogrammetry technology in the field of architectural usage. The technology overview is describing a basic knowledge to support the professionals. The processes, rules and best practices are examined through case studies, which introduce a dwelling house, an old precast concrete hall and a landscape surveying to cover most of the architectural usage. The purpose of the research is to give guidance for technical possibilities and assists in the development of the methodologies. The main part of the article is focusing on unmanned aerial vehicles as these tools provide many useful features.

Open access
Authors: Jana Smetanková, Peter Mesároš and Tomáš Mandicák

Abstract

Civil engineering industry represents important industry segment, which deals with building, performing and managing construction and business. In this sector, more and more pressure is generated for raising the effectiveness and productivity. Main tool, which supports the effectiveness and productivity, is process automation. Building information modeling represents intelligent process based on a model, which offers civil engineering specialists an overview and tools for effective planning, building blueprint, building management and infrastructure. Primary building information modeling goal is to create the uniform environment, which allows managing the life-cycle of building. Result of this work in enlisted environment is a multi-dimensional model, which carries all the information. This article deals with building information modeling issues, specifically with its dimensions and brings short description of each dimension and actual level of using the 5th dimension (cost estimating) in Visegrad Four countries. Level of 5D usage is demonstrated through surveys which were realized in Visegrad Four countries, and offers an overview of current implementation status in these countries.

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Amongst different approaches, dynamic time warping has shown promising results during the online signature verification competitions of previous years. To improve the results of dynamic time warping, different preprocessing steps may be applied and different dimensions of the samples may be compared. The choice of preprocessing steps and comparing dimensions may significantly influence the results. Thus, to aid researchers with these decisions, a comparison made between the results of promising preprocessing algorithms as horizontal scaling, vertical scaling and alignment using dynamic time warping in different dimensions and their combinations on two datasets (SVC2004 and MCYT-100). The results showed that preprocessing methods made a very promising improvement in the verification accuracy.

Open access
Authors: David Honek, Zuzana Németová, Silvia Kohnová and Monika Šulc Michalková

Abstract

The modeling of soil erosion processes is affected by several factors that reflect the physical-geographic conditions of the study site together with the land use linkage. The soil parameters are significant in the modeling of erosion and also runoff processes. The correct determination of a soil's parameters becomes a crucial part of the model's calibration. This paper deals with a sensitivity analysis of seven soil input parameters to the physically-based Erosion 3D model. The results show the variable influence of each soil parameter. The Erosion 3D model is very sensitive to initial soil moisture, bulk density, and erodibility.

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Decentralized wastewater systems treat, dispose and reuse the wastewater in the vicinity of source, reducing the sewage transportation cost to minimal. As an alternative to centralized systems it can function as a satellite system or an individual wastewater treatment unit. Design an onsite facility applies the same sizing procedure compared the conventional large scale systems, whereas the input flow data and its variability, the model parameters could differ. In this study a small size treatment unit was designed by biokinetic modeling, where the model parameters were estimated using analytical methods. As a result of the calculation the biomass build-up and the quality of the treated effluent was predicted and the operation parameters were determined in summer and winter operation.

Open access

Abstract

The paper discusses the theoretical background of the state space modeling of induction machines. The main goal is to present the necessary equations of the induction machine and the topic of the state space modeling. Although the induction machine is a highly non-linear system, LPV/qLPV model can be formulated from these equations.

Open access
Authors: Patrik Márk Máder, Dorottya Szilágyi and Olivér Rák

Abstract

Information-based modeling technology is supported by advanced information technology solutions in the building industry. The integration of its methodology into construction and design processes is already going on. However, many areas still have development possibilities; for instance, building surveys belong to these fields. Countless survey tools and methodologies endeavor to support and ease the work of professionals in design and construction, yet there is a need for comprehensive collaboration. This could be promoted by creating a direct link between survey tools and architectural design software.

This article demonstrates a tool under development that intends to provide a solution to this issue.

Open access

Abstract

Ensuring the provision of suitable living units remains one of the most challenging issues among the architects. The economic conditions in Kosovo represent one of the factors that influenced the functional and spatial change in multi-apartment buildings. Taking into account the passing of time, economic conditions, the requirements and needs of the communities change, those affects change in the functional and spatial aspect. The construction of multi-apartment and individual buildings, as well as other buildings with other uses in the center of the cities represents a delicate issue. On the other hand, the need for reconstruction and re-destination of usage of the existing residential buildings is becoming an important topic for the society in Kosovo. The issue is somewhat sensitive regarding the multi-apartment residential buildings, given that the usable surface is increasingly limited. The next challenge for the architects will be the treatment of the existing areas, their adaption in harmony with the requirements of the new generations, social changes that Kosovo is dealing with. The entire endeavor to reach a more comfortable solution is realized through treatment of the residential spaces not only in function wise, as well as in the exterior, through the transparence in architecture. The aim of the paper is to show transformation of the living spaces through real example, in Prishtina.

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus to bind patulin (PAT) in the buffer solution and apple juice. The binding of L. rhamnosus to PAT was reversible, which improved the stability of the bacterial complex. The ability to bind PAT can be enhanced with the inactivation of the strain by high temperature and acid treatment. Acid-treated bacteria had the highest PAT binding rate of 72.73±1.05%. The binding rates of acid and high temperature (121 °C) treatments were increased by 21.37% and 19.15%, respectively. L. rhamnosus showed the best detoxification ability to PAT at 37 °C, where the binding rate reached 50.9±1.03%. When the dose of inactivated bacteria powder was 0.02 g ml−1, the minimum concentration of PAT in apple juice was 0.37 µg ml−1. The addition of the L. rhamnosus inactivated powder did not affect the quality of the juice product and effectively bound the PAT in apple juice.

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Authors: A. Sharma, S. Prasad, R. Arun Kumar, S. Jaiswal, P.K. Agrawal, L. Kant and J.C. Bhatt

The present paper reports that significant genetic variability was evident in Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and phytic acid (phytate, PA) contents in a set of 39 diverse maize genotypes collected from maize breeding programme of hill agriculture, India. The Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and PA concentrations were found to be in the range 19.31–50.64 mg kg−1, 12.60–37.18 mg kg−1, 0.17–8.27 µg g−1, and 6.59–7.13 g kg−1, respectively. The genotypes V335, V420, V393, V416, V414, V372, and V351 were identified to have higher concentration of β-carotene, Fe, and Zn but lower amount of PA. Possible availability of the minerals Fe and Zn was determined using molar ratio between PA as inhibitor and β-carotene as promoter for their absorption. The micronutrient molar ratio showed that Fe and Zn traits could be dependent of each other. Low R2 value revealed relation between β-carotene and kernel colour. The selected genotypes could be considered as potential sources of favourable genes for further breeding programs to develop micronutrient enriched maize cultivars.

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Four strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium including L. plantarum 01, L. fermentum D13, L. rhamnosus B01725, and B. bifidum B7.5 exhibiting naringinase production were applied in grapefruit juice fermentation. All investigated strains grew well in grapefruit juice without nutrition supplementation. In all cases, cell counts were 108–109 CFU ml−1 after 24 hours of fermentation. The highest lactic acid and acetic acid productions were observed in the case of strain L. plantarum 01. The L. plantarum 01 and L. fermentum D13 strains prefer glucose over fructose and sucrose, whereas fructose was the most favoured sugar for L. rhamnosus B01725 and B. bifidum B7.5. At the end of the fermentation process, antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of grapefruit juice decreased in all cases, but the changes were not significant. Significant decrease of naringin was observed in the case of L. plantarum 01, 28% naringin in grapefruit juice was removed after fermentation. This result is promising for development of technology for production of probiotic grapefruit juice.

Open access

Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a perennial plant belonging to Asteraceae family. It is one of the most suitable plants for growing organically. Artichoke has been used as choleretic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, cholesterol-reducing, and diuretic in traditional medicine. Artichoke has been cultivated worldwide because of its nutritional value and medicinal properties. In this study organically and conventionally grown artichokes were compared in terms of phenolic constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Artichoke leaves, bracts, and floral receptacles obtained from 2 different sources (organic and conventional) were freeze-dried, powdered, and extracts were prepared with methanol. Phenolic constituents (chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin, and apigenin) were analysed by HPLC-DAD system. It was found that organic farming enhanced cynarin, chlorogenic acid, and luteolin amounts in receptacle (edible part). Organically grown leaves had also higher amounts of cynarin and chlorogenic acid than conventional ones. Cynarin amount was higher by 35% in organic receptacle and 20% in organic leaves. Organic farming also augmented the antioxidant property and flavonoid content of edible parts of the artichoke. Additionally, organically grown leaves had the highest antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoid contents. Antibacterial activity was observed with both organic and conventional leaves only against Staphylococcus epidermidis. This comparative study revealed that organic farming enhanced the health-beneficial medicinal values of artichoke's heart and leaves.

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Authors: Á. Vajda, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, L. Ózsvári and Gy. Kasza

Salmonellosis is a widely known infectious disease in Hungary that played dominant role between 1960 and 1996 and remained one of the top food-borne illnesses to these days with an estimated total number of 96 048 cases (2019). Beside direct costs of treatment, indirect costs are also significant on the level of population. Among indirect costs, consumer well-being losses are difficult to be estimated. For this purpose, the willingness to pay (WTP) method is used most frequently that measures the cost an individual would undertake to avoid a certain harm. For the well-being loss estimation, the data of National Food Chain Safety Authority's annual consumer survey was used, in which 323 respondents gave evaluable answer to the open-ended WTP question. Results indicate that an average respondent would pay 18.6 EUR to avoid salmonellosis. Main factors affecting WTP were size of family and number of children. The numbers indicate that the consumer well-being loss could be about 1 786 060 EUR annually, resulting from the multiplication of the estimated number of annual salmonellosis cases and the average WTP value. It can be concluded that consumer well-being losses alone would call for further interventions in Salmonella eradication, not to mention other – more direct – cost elements.

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Increasing the protein and antioxidant content of food products is a constant challenge amongst researchers. Dried pasta products are popular amongst all groups of society. The most important factor in pasta processing is the quality of the flour. Millet (Panicum miliaceum) flour has high nutritional value, enriching it with cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) flour is good choice to increase the quality of protein composition and antioxidant properties of products. Flour mixtures of millet and insect flours (5% and 10%) were analysed after mixing and pasta processing. Addition of wheat gluten improved both texture and nutrition value of pasta products. Total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, total protein content, free and total amino acid composition were studied. Quality analysis of dried pasta products were carried out according to Hungarian standards. Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's pair-wise post hoc test was used with Bonferroni correction. The correlation was determined by Spearman's rank. Addition of cricket flour modified the pH, acid value, moisture content, and colour of the samples, these changes lasted during storage. Enrichment could increase the total phenol content significantly even at the low level of 10%. Heat treatment during pasta processing had negative effect on the antioxidant capacity except at higher cricket flour contents. Cricket flour's high protein content proportionately increased millet flour's, thus pasta products'. Dried pasta products passed all quality norms. Enrichment of millet flour with cricket flour is favourable from both nutritional and quality aspects.

Open access

This study examines the occurrence of aflatoxins (AFS) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in bread and durum wheat samples. A total of 141 samples were collected from eleven different regions of Turkey. An analytical method based on liquid extraction, immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of AFs and OTA levels. As a result, AFs and OTA were detected in 2% and 9.2% of wheat samples at concentrations varying from 0.21 to 0.44 µg kg−1 and from 0.1 to 3.2 µg kg−1, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) were found positive in samples ranging between 0.21–0.35 µg kg−1 and 0.094 µg kg−1, respectively. However, none of the samples contained aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The study also recommended that contamination levels in wheat and wheat-based products should be routinely monitored in greater sample numbers to insure food safety.

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With the continuous expansion of the global dairy trade market, the quality and safety of the Chinese dairy market have a wide and far-reaching impact on the world. Based on the development of the dairy scandal in the past few years in China, this study illustrates the serious damage of melamine on human health and the negative impact on the dairy industry in China.

This study shows that the lack of effective government regulations is a key reason for dairy market failure. Consumers are lacking confidence in the quality of Chinese dairy products and the government's market regulations. The Chinese dairy market will continue to rely on imported dairy products. By analyzing the typical cases of the dairy market in China, this study aims to provide a guide for dairy industries in other countries.

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Authors: A. Vásquez García, S.H. Gomes de Sá, G. de Sousa Silva, J.E. Mejia Ballesteros, E. Barbieri, R.L. Moro de Sousa, A.M. Fernandes and M. Mitsui Kushida

The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of oysters and mussels grown in Cananéia, Brazil, by analysing mesophiles, psychrothophic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., and to compare the efficiency of Compact Dry EC method and the conventional method for counting of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The microbial analysis showed that the mean values of mesophilic counts were 3.14±0.81 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.92±0.90 for mussels; the mean values of psychrophilic counts were 2.78±0.75 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.22±0.75 log CFU g−1 for mussels; the mean values of mould and yeast counts were 3.70±0.58 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.33±0.81 log CFU g−1 for mussels. Salmonella spp. did not present positive results, and the maximal count of Staphylococcus aureus was 1.7 log CFU g−1, therefore, within the limits established in the legislation. The correlation coefficients between the Compact Dry EC method and conventional method were >0.87 for total coliform and E. coli counts for both types of shellfish. The data in this study show that the Compact Dry EC method is an acceptable alternative to conventional methods for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in shellfish.

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Physicochemical, pasting, and rheological properties of pearl millet starches were studied and correlations among these properties were calculated. Amylose content, swelling power, and solubility of starches varied from 11.57 to 21.93%, 11.11 to 17.91 g g−1 and 12.20 to 15.20%, respectively. Volume% of starch granule size less than 10 µm varied from 36.23 to 48.34%, and 12.16 to 18.75% for above 20 µm size of granule. Peak viscosity of starches varied from 1291 to 1853 mPa·s, cv. RHB-173 had the highest value. Frequency sweep measurement of starch pastes revealed higher magnitude of G′ as compared to G″ with increase in to, indicating visco-elastic behaviour. Yield stress (σo), consistency index (K), and flow behaviour index (n) were observed as 40.73 to 115.72 Pa, 0.729 to 3.998 Pa·s, and 0.604 to 0.964, respectively. Starch pastes from cultivars studied showed shear thinning behaviour.

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Authors: É. Varga-Visi, B. Toxanbayeva, G. Andrássyné Baka and R. Romváari

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of refrigerated storage on the microbial properties and organoleptic quality of Bologna-type turkey sausage, in which fat was partially replaced with pea fibre or potato starch. Each manufactured sausage had lower counts of Esherichia coli and enterobacteria than 1 log CFU·g−1, counts were below 2 log CFU·g−1 for Staphylococcus aureus, moreover, no Salmonella spp. were found in any of the sausages. The counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria did not exceed 4 log CFU·g−1 for each sausage formulation during four-week storage at 4 °C. Spectrocolorimetric measurements revealed that there was no decline in luminosity (L*) and redness (a*) by time, namely colour fading did not occur. Saltiness and juiciness values of sausages were directly proportional. Low-fat sausages were perceived less salty than full-fat analogue with the same salt content at the early stage of storage. Nevertheless, this phenomenon was temporary as sausages had the same saltiness at the end of four-week storage period. Sausages, in which 25% of fat was substituted with pea fibre or potato starch, were assessed as having the same odour, consistency, taste, and overall impact like control during the four-week refrigerated storage.

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Sustainable nutrition (SN) considers the environmental impact of food production. This study aims to analyse the relationship between nutrient density and water footprint (WF) of the most consumed food items in Hungary and to create a classification of nutrients. Based on a comprehensive analysis of literature and different data sources, the authors analysed the stochastic relationship between WF and nutrient density of different food items by Spearman's rank correlation. The analysis proved significant (P<0.05) relationship between nutrient density and WF of the most relevant food items in Hungary. Based on the classification, there are nutrients that are overconsumed among the Hungarian population and positively correlate with WF (e.g., cholesterol) and there are nutrients that are under-consumed among the Hungarian population and negatively correlate with WF (e.g., dietary fibres). In general, it can be concluded that the re-structuration of food consumption patterns in Hungary is an important and urgent task, which serves both the public health and ecologic goals. These efforts should be based on a complex evaluation of the problem. This study was one initial step to analyse SN focused on Hungary and further studies are definitely needed.

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The application of ultrasound during extraction of oil from apricot kernels using hexane was evaluated and compared with conventional methods (mechanical extraction and Soxhlet extraction). Results show that ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) yields more oil with less solvent consumption. The oil yield from UAE, SE, and ME were 44.72%, 44.33%, and 35.06%, respectively. It is noteworthy that it took 44 min to extract oil by UAE method, while alike yield was obtained from SE in 6 hours. Oil extracted by UAE exhibited significantly higher peroxide and ester values. The functional groups of apricot kernel oil were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Untreated and treated kernel powders were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the development of microstructures and disruption of cell walls were evaluated. Our study suggests that ultrasound assisted extraction may be an effective method to extract edible oils by achieving higher efficiency in shorter extraction time.

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In this study, six commercial cherry tomato cultivars were analysed for variations in biochemical and technological parameters. Significant differences were observed among cultivars with respect to their technological and functional quality attributes. About 2.48-fold variation in titratable acidity, 2.47-fold variation in total phenolics, 4.13-fold variation in total carotenoid and 7.68-fold variation in lycopene contents were recorded. The total antioxidant activity and respiration rate were also found to vary about 1.85-fold and 1.48-fold, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were found in the Cherry tomato hybrid no.1 followed by Pusa cherry tomato-1. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that Cherry tomato hybrid no. 1, Pusa cherry tomato-1, and Nagmoti cultivars were abundantly rich in phytochemical and bioactive compounds.

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Abstract

The research was carried out at the Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava with close cooperation with Institute of Water Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology. One of the important goals was the determination of the most accurate approach related to the computational fluid dynamics modeling of the air-water interaction. Research consists of two main research methods to ensure the accuracy, set up the possibilities of cooperation and the results control. The first method was the physical model of broad-crested weir installed in collapsible canal in hydraulic laboratory and the second was numerical computational fluid dynamics model of broad-crested weir created in same scale. In free surface flows the air entrainment phenomena plays an important role. Air entrainment is affecting the volume fraction, velocity field, energy dissipation and many other parameters related to dynamic behavior of water near the crests. Different approaches were carried out to identify most accurate computational fluid dynamics setup compared to physical model measurements. Compared results and the accuracy assessment are summarized and the best computational fluid dynamics parameterization is recommended.

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It is well known that the civil engineering constructions are subjected to cost risk and time overruns. The uncertainties of the cost of construction many times result in disputes among stakeholders. The recent cost fluctuation in sand price in Tamil Nadu is a good example of time and cost overruns. There are too many models developed to predict the cost of construction by using different parameters and tools. The objectives of this research are to analyse the importance of research in this field, the countries focusing on this issue, level of implementation by the practicing engineers, the tools often or successfully used, the difficulties in predicting the cost and the accuracy of prediction and bringing out a useful conclusion to provide the direction for future research. In this research, a sample of 324 research papers out of more than 2000 papers listed in Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2015 were considered and analyzed on five factors. The five factors are 1) authors affiliation – academics, industry or both; 2) country; 3) tools used – ANN, regression, time-series models, etc.; 4) complexity involved or ease of use; 5) accuracy of results. The results show interesting information.

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In this study, the peach kernel proteins were extracted and treated with alkaline proteinase to generate peach kernel protein hydrolysate (PKH), which showed angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. The hydrolysate was separated into four fractions and their anti-ACE activities were investigated. Our results showed that all PKHs had anti-ACE activity, and the lowest molecular weight fraction PKH4 had the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Lineweaver–Burk plots illustrated that the inhibition types of PKH3 and PKH4 were non-competitive. The Ki of PKH4 was lower than Ki of PKH3; suggesting PKH4 had high affinity to ACE. Amino acid composition analysis showed that the best anti-ACE peptide PKH4 possessed high levels of hydrophobic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, and aromatic amino acids. In summary, our findings demonstrated that high anti-ACE activity is negatively related to the size of the PKHs and possibly the composition of amino acids, and the PKH4 was the best ACE inhibitor. Further, peach kernel peptides can be developed as a functional food for patients with hypertension.

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Abstract

Diagnostics is an important and challenging task of the structural analysis and condition assessment of historic masonry structures. However the interpretation of the results of the measurements, especially for buildings made from brick and stone, is to be more subjective than that for concrete structures. Therefore improvement of the reliability of the used techniques and finding better correlations between the test results and the mechanical properties of masonry has proven to be of great importance.

While several diagnostic procedures are commonly used in practice to test mechanical properties of masonry, e.g. Schmidt hammer test, analysis of drilled samples, penetration tests, etc. the results of these methods are considered reliable under laboratory conditions, several additional factors have to be taken into account in case of an in-situ application of these methods, that may largely affect the obtained results and conclusions. The results of the diagnostic procedures therefore need to be interpreted with a view to these environmental factors.

The paper focuses on the practical use of several test methods for historic masonries via a real case study. The presented case study attempts to demonstrate benefits from the combined application of Pendulum Schmidt Hammer, moisture meter and scanning electron microscopy.

Open access
Authors: Richard Honti, Ján Erdélyi and Alojz Kopáčik

Abstract

The results of terrestrial laser scanning are point clouds, which are becoming an increasingly common initial digital representation of real-world objects. Since point clouds in the most cases represent a huge amount of data, automation of the processing steps is advisable. The paper brings a short review of the most reliable methods of cylinder extraction. An innovative algorithm is proposed for an automated detection of cylinders and also for estimating their parameters from 3D point cloud data. The method was tested on the complex point clouds of pipelines. The proposed algorithm was implemented to a standalone application based on MATLAB® software.

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Authors: I. Tas, A.B. Yildirim, E. Ozkan, G.C. Ozyigitoglu, M.Z. Yavuz and A.U. Turker

Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner. Chemical characterization and bioactive potentials (antiproliferative, antioxidant, and antibacterial) of five lichen species (Evernia prunastri, Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Ramalina fastigiata, and Ramalina farinacea) were assessed. Five lichen metabolites (usnic acid, atranorin, stictic acid, evernic acid, and fumarprotocetraric acid) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. E. prunastri was noteworthy evernic acid source. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2/C3A) cell lines. The strongest activity was observed for P. glauca against HepG2/C3A, while the only lichen species that induced cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line was P. furfuracea. The highest antioxidant activity was also obtained with P. furfuracea. E. prunastri and R. farinaceae had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were determined against ten pathogenic bacteria. The most effective antibacterial agent was methanol extract of R. fastigiata. Our findings have revealed the pharmaceutical potentials of tested lichen species.

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Authors: S.M. Silveira, A. Cunha Jr., M. Maraschin, S. Verruck, F.L. Secchi, G. Scheuermann, E.S. Prudencio, N. Fronza and C.R.W. Vieira

The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts of 12 plant species growing in Brazil were determined. Antimicrobial activity against 12 food-related bacterial species was studied using the disc-diffusion, MIC, and MBC methods. Campomanesia eugenioides extract was the most active against the tested Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Parapiptadenia rigida bark extract presented the highest activity against the evaluated Gram-negative bacteria (MIC and MBC of 0.075 and 0.62 mg ml−1, respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Those two extracts also presented high phenolic content and high DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability. C. eugenioides extract presented high Fe2+ chelating capacity. The results of the present study demonstrate that, among the evaluated extracts, P. rigida bark and C. eugenioides, both Brazilian native species, presented the highest potential of application as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to fulfill the parametric analysis on the heating performance of a compact automotive radiator using computational fluid dynamics. The analysis has been carried out at different air velocities with different fins modeling as real fins and as porous media. SC-Tetra computational fluid dynamics software was used for this study. The fluids are incompressible; the flow was three-dimensional and turbulent. The geometry of the fins has a high impact to the heat transfer coefficient and the heat performance, so the shape, the size and the thickness of the fins are compared to each other. The results show that the ratio of the fin pitch, the wall thickness of the fins, the number of the fins, the flow depth and the geometry of the tube are the main factors of the heat transfer. The main goal is to find a dependable Nu-number correlation for this type of heat exchanger. Furthermore with the usage of this function the goal is to find the optimal shape of the radiator, which can decrease the temperature of the cooling liquid to the necessary value and has the smallest weight.

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Authors: Zs. Bodor, Cs. Benedek, T. Kaszab, J.-L. Zinia Zaukuu, I. Kertész and Z. Kovacs

Honey is produced by honeybees from nectar, sap of plant parts, or the juicy material secreted by sucking insects living on trees. It is rich in nutritionally useful components, the occurrence of which highly depends on the botanical and geographical origin of honey. Our goal is to develop a new, rapid, and accurate combination of analytical methods for identification of botanical and geographical origin.

Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, and ash content), colour (L*a*b*), and antioxidant properties were determined in addition to correlative techniques, such as electronic tongue and near infrared spectroscopy. For the statistical evaluation ANOVA, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis were applied.

Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in physicochemical properties, colour, and antioxidant capacity according to the botanical origin of honeys. Electronic tongue (ET) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques were useful in the identification of the botanical and geographical origin, showing generally good accuracy.

The physicochemical parameters are important and can serve as reference methods, completing NIR and ET as target techniques, which are promising, but need further improvement for the determination of honey origin.

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