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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Juan Felipe Miranda Medina
,
Marisol Cristel Galarza Flores
, and
María Gabriela López-Yánez

Abstract

In this work we contend that studying dance syntax systematically is essential to gain a deeper understanding of dance practices. The reason is that syntax has to do with an essential aspect of dance, music and action in general, namely possibility. To the best of our knowledge, the efforts towards a systematic method to study dance syntax are scarce. Therefore, this work proposes the method of Finite-State Automata, borrowed from computer science, and presents three case studies of progressive complexity were the method is applied: (1) learning the basics of salsa, (2) diachronically comparing hip-pushing action in Afro-Ecuadorian Bomba del Chota, and (3) characterizing improvisation in Afro-Peruvian zapateo. While the first case is didactic and introduces the method progressively, the second and third cases are based on several years of fieldwork conducted by the authors with the Afro-Ecuadorian and Afro-Peruvian communities. The precondition for the application of the method we propose is structural analysis itself; that is, that the dance can be analyzed into small movement units that are combined progressively into more complex units. In regards to syntax, however, structural analysis is only the first step. The goal is a synthesis that brings forward the possibilities that arise from structural analysis; that is, the possibilities that are available to dancers and agents in a dance event. We trust that the approach to syntax this work presents will stimulate a renewed interest for researchers in dance, music and movement in general.

Open access

Abstract

In the discourse of 20th and 21st century Hungarian literary history writing the aspect of regionality is recurrently present, primarily in relation to minority/ethnic Hungarian literature. The positions and relations of these literatures can be inferred not only from the perspective of their naming and designation, but also from the way they are discussed or even represented as books. The study attempts to show the regionality formations in the history of Hungarian literature, which in mutual reflection, overlapping and displacement, have tried to gain a dominant position in the discourse on Hungarian literature. As a point of comparison, the essay also includes the regionality phenomena of Romanian literature in the field of interpretation.

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Abstract

The Hungarian Playwrights' Association was founded on 7 January, 1904, with the aim of providing moral and financial protection to theatre authors and the developing Hungarian stage. In its first incarnation it lasted until March 1919, and was subsequently re-established in December 1920. Like so many associations at that time, the Association was dissolved by ministerial decree on 8 December, 1950. The legal situation of playwrights at the time, along with the lack of adequate representation of their interests, prompted the Hungarian cultural sector to protect their rights by setting up an appropriate body of self-representation, following the examples of foreign countries. The association is of great importance in the history of the self-organisation and interest representation of Hungarian artists, as it was the first such independent Hungarian representative body.

Open access

Abstract

The research project Chapters from the History of 20 th Century Hungarian Operetta: The Operetta Art of Ákos Buttykay has as its subject the operetta art of Ákos Buttykay (1871–1935), who was unjustly disqualified from the operetta canon. The subject is highly topical and necessary since the reconstruction of the history of 20th-century Hungarian operetta has been complicated by the fact that, with the exception of a few popular and well-known operetta composers – including Pál Ábrahám (Paul Abraham), Imre Kálmán (Emmerich Kálmán) and Ferenc Lehár (Franz Lehár) – the oeuvre and biography of the composers who were instrumental in the development of the Hungarian operetta style have yet to be reviewed. This shortcoming became evident to me during my research into the history of 20th century Hungarian operetta and the reconstruction of Buttykay's career and operetta works – using archival sources and contemporary press sources – is the first step towards filling this gap. I chose Buttykay mainly on the basis of my preliminary research and findings, as a composer who had written dozens of operettas and whose name was associated with the most successful operettas of the Hungarian musical stages in the first half of the 20th century.

Open access

Abstract

A fundamental segment of contemporary Hungarian prose literature has attempted to represent and textually portray the change in political regimes which took place in 1989. The dictatorship, the totalitarian system and the subsequent transition period proved to be excellent raw material; resulting in a very different kind of prose which, when compared to previous representations of Transylvania, elicits attention on the one hand by being distinctly separate from the assumption of an ideological role, and on the other hand by creating the given linguistic and fictional space through continuous transition(s), (inter-ethnic) in-betweenness and the relevance of otherness.

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Weltuntergang und Doppelmonarchie •

Politische Dimensionen des Katastrophendiskurses in Kometenromanen von Maurus Jókai (1874) bis Hannes Stein (2013)

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Endre Hárs

Abstract

The study mediates between two literary thematic fields: the discourse on disasters, with special attention to the comet theme, and the literature about the future or the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. In this context, we ask about the political issue of the comet material or motif. The topic will be explained using the works of Camille Flammarion, Vincenz Chiavacci, Karl Kraus, Hannes Stein and Maurus Jókai as examples.

Open access

Volksgruppenmedien und Digitalisierung •

Ein Onlinemedium als Gemeinschaftsprojekt

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Erika Erlinghagen

Abstract

Since 1 September 2021, the Hungarian Volksgruppe (ethnic group) in Austria has an online medium under the joint management of the four largest Hungarian associations in Vienna and Burgenland. This unique project was made possible by the new ethnic group funding of the Austrian Federal Chancellery. However, the new communication and networking opportunities offered by the new online medium to the Hungarian community in Austria also go hand in hand with several challenges that go far beyond the question of funding. For example, the editors and staff of the online medium must clarify a number of conceptual and practical issues that are of central importance, especially for minority media. The paper presents both the potentials and the challenges of minority media in the age of digitalization and demonstrates them using the example of the online medium of the Hungarian ethnic group in Austria.

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Baroque tradition in early Romanticism •

Grounding the modern literary canon in Hungary

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Sándor Bene

Abstract

The elaboration of a canon of literary tradition was a key issue within the renewal of Hungarian literature at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. The leading figures of the movement, Ferenc Kazinczy (1759–1831) and Ferenc Kölcsey (1790–1838), both saw Miklós Zrínyi's (1620–1664) poetry collection Adriai tengernek Syrenaia (Syrena of the Adriatic Sea), published in 1651, as a model that offered aesthetic value, national ideology, and an example for reforming the literary language. The present study examines the extent to which these aspirations may be linked to the poetic modernity of Zrínyi's time, the first half of the 17th century, and concludes that the Syrena volume was not simply a model for the successors, but it can be philologically proven that Kazinczy and his circle (mainly by following Francis Bacon) continued the agenda initiated by Zrínyi. In this sense, the waves of modernity do not follow one another, but are layered on top of one another in the history of Hungarian literature.

Open access

Abstract

It was in the Latin-language historical literature of medieval and Renaissance Hungary that the noble ideology was first formulated which has determined the discourse on Hungarian national and literary consciousness up to the present day. These chronicles, however, contain a great deal of information not only about the Hungarians, but also about the peoples who lived alongside them. Thus, Romanians are also important figures in this Latin-language historical literature. In the first part of this study we will discuss the depiction of the Romanians in Anonymus' and Simon Kézai's Chronicles, the Illustrated Chronicle and Antonio Bonfini's monumental work. In the second part of the study I will describe the influence of the Hungarian Reformation literature of the 16th and 17th centuries on Romanian literature. From a Hungarian perspective, the Romanian Reformation is worth studying because it is a clear demonstration of Hungarian “cultural imperialism” in the 16th to 18th centuries, so much so that Hungarian culture has been unable to repeat cultural export on such a scale ever since. This means that between 1540 and 1750 there was no other language into which so many Hungarian-language ecclesiastical works (catechisms, psalms, hymns, postulates, agendas, piety works) were translated as Romanian. In other words, no other culture has been so powerfully influenced by a Hungarian impact as was Romanian culture during these two centuries.

Open access

Abstract

This study focuses on literary mystification, which has become extremely common in Central European postmodern literature in recent decades. Mystification is essentially a game related to the authorial name, to pseudonyms, masks and various alter egos. The paper attempts to separate three procedures of postmodern text creation by considering the aspect of mystification: early postmodern text creation, based on the principle of imitation; areferential postmodernism, based on simulation, and the anthropological postmodern, which is present through a transitive strategy. The study analyses the pseudonymised works, among others, of István Baka, Árpád Tőzsér, Péter Esterházy, Lajos Parti Nagy, András Ferenc Kovács and Zoltán Csehy.

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Abstract

The paper discusses two defining phenomena of recent years: transculturalism and translingualism in the context of contemporary Hungarian literature. The first part of the article deals with the theoretical basis of transculturalism and focuses on the relationship between transculturalism and literature. The second part presents the most significant translingual authors of Hungarian origin and lists some of the most typical characteristics of their works. Finally, the paper poses a question about the place of translingual writers in the canon of national literature.

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Abstract

Within the regional literary canon of Transylvanian Hungarian literature, female authors had a marginal position during the last century, as a quantitative methodology can show. The objective of the paper is to point out the structural dimensions of this marginalization, through exploring patterns in the reception of women authors, and characteristics of the literary field of Transylvanian Hungarian literature. The question is whether thematic or genre issues, the prestige of certain literary and cultural forms (like memoirs, children's literature, theatre etc.) affected during the past century the canonical position of female authors. The analysis outlines a possible structure of a women's literary tradition.

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Die Wiener Weltausstellung 1873. •

Die Berichterstattung von Ármin Vámbéry und Max Nordau über die orientalische Abteilung sowie den Schah-Besuch in der Kaiserstadt.

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Hedvig Ujvári

Abstract

The oeuvre of the orientalist, Turkologist and traveler Ármin Vámbéry has been well researched, his long life full of adventures and his travels made him a famous personality on several continents during the Dualism-era, and so he has not succumbed to oblivion to this day. However, his creativity and work are multi-layered, so they require the approaches of various scientific disciplines, e.g. some facets of his widely ramified and not least unexplored journalistic work can be contributed to Vámbéry research. This article is devoted to Vámbéry's publication on the occasion of the Vienna World Exhibition of 1873, which also allow a comparison with the feuilletons of his friend, who later became a writer, cultural critic and Zionist, Max Nordau (1849, Pest–1923, Paris).

Open access

Proper names have always played a significant role in the history of language and culture of any nation. Besides, research on personal names in different epochs and in local regions are important both for history and onomastics. Surnames could reflect the history of a nation almost in every country because they are passed on from one generation to the next. Surnames are particularly interesting for studying traditions and they are strictly connected to the social and historical background in the analyzed region. The study of surnames can also be of benefit to other areas of onomastics such as toponomastics and socio-onomastics.

Although the topic of surnames has been exploited in many countries and languages for a long period, there are still some new aspects that can be presented on this topic. This research examines the surnames in the mass media in the Odesa Region. Historically, the Odesa region was multicultural that is why we came across with both Slavic and non-Slavic surnames but the object of this investigation is Slavic surnames. The analyzed mass-media texts are drawn from the 19th-century newspapers Odessa Vestnik and Odessa Advertisement Sheet. About 2,000 surnames were taken for the analysis from announcements and advertisements in these newspapers. The study of the surnames has concentrated on the names of all levels of the society. The purpose of the paper is to make the typology of the surnames and present the quantity of surnames in each group. Some historical events that impact the name-giving process are mentioned and social factors which influence the name-giving process are described.

The study has revealed that 19th-century surnames were created from anthroponyms, toponyms, ethnonyms, and appellatives. The last group contains occupational surnames, surnames with the semantics of fauna and flora as well as surnames derived from other concrete or abstract nouns. An additional complicating factor was that it was not always easy to interpret and identify the origin of some surnames. The results of this paper indicated that analyzed surnames from the 19th century in this region are part of culture. The surnames derived from appellatives represent a significant part of the studied surnames (56%), among them there are occupational surnames (13%); surnames with the semantics of flora and fauna (23%) as well as surnames having other concrete or abstract meanings (20%). Personal names make up 29%, toponyms are of 11%, and the least frequent category is surnames derived from ethnonyms (4%).

From the perspective of further research, it would be interesting to compare the received results with the typology of the modern surnames in the same region.

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Abstract

The paper offers a general overview of the place that Hungarian literature occupies in the polysystem of translated literature in Serbia. Unlike established philological disciplines with a longer tradition (English, German, French or Russian philology), which offer several different historical overviews of the history of a given literature, thus enabling the experts, the students and the general public to gain a more systematic insight into the respective literatures, there has only been one history of Hungarian literature published in Serbia so far. Given the fact that it was published back in 1976, and that many aspects of its methodology and insights have become outdated, it is an urgent necessity to produce a new work on the subject, specifically for the Serbian readership.

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Abstract

Parallel with the emergence of modern national identity and culture, from the late 18th to the early 20th century an emphasized consciousness underlined the attempt to create a ‘national’ dress. In the court cultures of Europe, a shift in the style of representation from ‘international’ to ‘regional/ethnic’ and ‘national’ served the aim of updating the monarch's role. Royals reaffirmed their sense of belonging to their own ‒ or adopted ‒ nations through the conscious introduction of national elements into the dress code of the court. Royal courts also played a leading role in the myth-making process surrounding the so-called national style. The connection between power, prestige, and the dynamics of costume as a fashion statement is obvious in this process.

Open access
Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Szabina Bognár
and
Janka Teodóra Nagy
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O Bojničićevoj Gramatici madžarskoga jezika iz drugoga kuta: uzroci i narav mijena izdanja gramatike na razmeđu dvaju stoljeća

On Bojničić’s Hungarian Grammar from Another Angle: The Causes and Nature of Changes in its Editions at the Turn of the 20th Century

Studia Slavica
Authors:
Jadranka Mlikota
and
Rene Čipanj Banja

U sjeni Bojničićeva rada, obilježenoga iznimnim prinosom hrvatskoj kulturnoj povijesti i pomoćnim povijesnim znanostima, ostala je Gramatika madžarskoga jezika (1888., 1896., 1905., 1912.) koja je na razmeđu dvaju stoljeća, u vrijeme smjene filoloških škola (zagrebačke školom hrvatskih vukovaca), doživjela nekoliko izmijenjenih izdanja. Gramatiku je – točnije njezino prvo izdanje – kao udžbenik odobrio Odjel za bogoštovlje i nastavu Kr. ugarskoga ministarstva, potom ju nagradio 1889., a naposljetku je ipak negativno ocijenjena, i to u službenom glasilu istoga Odjela koji ju je i nagradio, u Nastavnom vjesniku, a gotovo jednako ocijenit će ju i neki mađarski izvori početkom 20. stoljeća.

Pritom je riječ o kritikama koje su se mahom odnosile na (hrvatski) metajezik gramatike, donošenje netočnih pravila te na njezino, po sudu određenih kritičara, nesustavno oblikovanje, a samom se Bojničiću zamjerala nedostatna filološka naobrazba. Upravo ju stoga ti kritičari između ostaloga opisuju kao priručnik neprikladan za nastavnu uporabu. Od navedenih četiriju izdanja gramatike – iako konzultirani hrvatski i mađarski izvori ustvari ne donose nedvosmislen podatak o tome koliko je točno izdanja gramatika doživjela – spomenutoj je filološkoj ocjeni također podlegnulo samo prvo, a autor je poneke ispravke uklopio u kasnija izdanja svoga gramatičkoga priručnika.

U ovom se radu uspoređuju četiri izdanja Bojničićeve gramatike, utvrđuju se jezične, nazivoslovne i leksičke mijene njezina polaznoga (hrvatskog) jezika te se propituje u kojoj su mjeri potaknute objavljenim kritikama te koliki je odraz smjene filoloških škola vidljiv u pojedinim izdanjima. U sklopu tumačenja mijena što ih izdanja gramatike sadrže, posebice se ističu jezične osobitosti svojstvene normi zagrebačke filološke škole, čime se pak nastoji potkrijepiti činjenica kako je riječ o obilježjima koja su prisutna u svim četirima izdanjima gramatike neovisno o vremenu njihova izdavanja te jezično-političkim okolnostima i utjecajima pod kojima su nastala.

U konačnici se nastoji potvrditi (ne)opravdanost negativne recepcije koju je gramatika imala u dijelu filološke javnosti svojega vremena. Drugim riječima nastoji se dati odgovor na pitanje valja li Bojničiću pridružiti epitet autora čiji rad – pa tako ni njegova gramatika – u odgovarajućoj mjeri nije stručno potkovan ili mu pak, bez obzira na njegovu naobrazbu i upućene kritike, valja odati priznanje zbog neospornih prinosa što ih je dao u području hrvatsko-mađarske gramatikografije.

In the shadow of Bojničić’s work marked by exceptional contributions to Croatian cultural history and auxiliary historical sciences remained the Hungarian Grammar (1888, 1896, 1905, 1912), which at the turn of the century, at the time of change of philological schools (Zagreb philological school was supplanted by the school of Croatian Vukovians), saw several modified editions. This grammar book (to be exact, its first edition) was approved as a textbook by the Royal Hungarian Ministry of Worship and Education and awarded by the same institution in 1889. Eventually, the grammar was nevertheless negatively reviewed in Nastavni vjesnik, the official gazette of the same Ministry, which had previously awarded the grammar, and was almost equally evaluated by some Hungarian sources at the beginning of the 20th century.

The criticism mostly concerns the grammar’s metalanguage (Croatian), deriving incorrect rules, and its unsystematic format (according to certain critics), and Bojničić himself was criticized for his deficient philological education. This is exactly the reason why those critics, amongst other things, describe it as a handbook inadequate for school use. Of the four above-mentioned editions of the grammar – although the consulted Croatian and Hungarian sources do not explicitly state exactly how many editions the grammar had – only the first edition received the above-mentioned philological evaluation, and the author made some corrections in the later editions of his grammar book.

This paper compares the four editions of Bojničić’s grammar, identifies linguistic, terminological, and lexical changes in its source language (Croatian), and examines the extent to which they had been motivated by the published criticism and the extent to which the change of philological schools is reflected in individual editions. Within the interpretation of the changes made in the different editions, linguistic features characteristic of the norm of the Zagreb philological school are highlighted, in an attempt to corroborate the fact that these features are present in all four editions of the grammar irrespective of the time of their publication as well as the linguistic-political circumstances and influences under which they came into existence.

Ultimately, the present paper seeks to confirm the (un)justification of the negative reception the grammar had in a part of the philological public of its time. In other words, we seek to answer the question of whether Bojničić is to be given the epithet of an author whose work – including his grammar – is to a certain extent not professionally grounded, or, regardless of his education and the criticism toward his work, he has to be given credit for his indisputable contribution to the field of Croatian–Hungarian grammaticography.

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Studia Slavica
Author:
Артур Малиновский

Статья посвящена не исследованной в современном литературоведении повести Г. Ф. Квитки- Основьяненко, интересной с точки зрения жанровых ресурсов, их сложного преломления в перспек-тиве художественного пространства. Рассмотрена пародия на имперское культурное пространство, которое множится, разрастается путем экспансии, трансгрессии на территорию чужого. Кумуляция фиктивных хронотопов с перенесенными на свою почву чужими идеологиями, воображаемой, отор-ванной от реальности, фальшивой европеизацией оборачивается опосредованной формой антико-лониальной критики. Мимикрия, бездумное копирование становится настоящим обезьянничаньем, удвоенным в гетеротопии как форме интенсивного «производства пространства», его лабильности, деформаций, семантических сдвигов и смещений. Продуцирование пространства осуществляется в воображении, с помощью фантазирования, которое превращается в цепочку причудливых соеди-нений, гротескных образов, зеркальных отображений.

Воссозданное Г. Квиткой-Основьяненко время и пространство построено на серии перемещений по имперским просторам, механистическом движении скульптурных поз и жестов, окаменелых тел, автоматов, кукол, марионеток вместо людей. При этом семантизация пространства непосредствен-но связана с субъективными интенциями, внутренним миром повествователя-визионера. Перед нами инверсивная, критически переосмысленная модель заряженного человеческими свойствами, чувствами, эмоциями феноменологического пространства, описанного Г. Башляром. Ее примене-ние по отношению к культурным реалиям первой половины XIX века позволяет адекватно интер-претировать весьма характерную для империи галломанию, моду на все французское, заграничное, обезьянничанье, слепое подражание образцам чужой культуры. Обращает на себя внимание соотнесенность этого поведения с культурной прецедентностью, следовательно, прочтение «вояжей» как риторических фигур, в аллегорическом ключе. Текстуальное прочтение пространственных перевоплощений обусловливает их трансгрессивный характер, выход за собственные пределы, экс-пансию, которая приводит к кризисному характеру гетеротопии без географических границ.

Отдельного внимания заслуживает то, что украинский прозаик предлагает собственную интер-претацию концептов просветительской культуры, в частности утопий психоавтоматов, механиз-мов, которые предстают аллегориями живых людей, их предсказуемого поведения. Пародийный эффект усиливается не только нанизыванием несоответствий формы и содержания, пространства действия и пространства воображения, но и полемикой с имперским травелогом, прежде всего его наиболее реакционными, оппозиционными по отношению к Квитке-Основьяненко представителя-ми. Однако антиколониальная критика подчинена все же решению жанровых задач на уровне ино-сказания, пространственного поворота, переосмысления бинарной и тернарной моделей культуры.

A parody of the imperial cultural space is considered in the paper. It is multiplied and grown through expansion and transgression into foreign lands. The accumulation of fictitious time-and-space notions with implicit foreign ideologies, which are imaginary, detached from reality, and erroneous Europeanization turns into an indirect form of anti-colonial criticism. Mimicry and mindless copying turn into real frills, doubled in heterotopy as a form of intensive space production, its lability, deformations, semantic shifts, and movements. The production of space is carried out in the imagination with the help of fantasy, which turns into a chain of bizarre combinations, grotesque, and mirror images.

The time-and-space created by H. Kvitka-Osnovyanenko is built on a series of movements through the imperial spaces, the mechanistic movement of cursed poses and gestures, petrified bodies, machines, dolls, and puppets instead of people. At the same time, the semanticization of space is related to subjective intentions and the narrator’s inner world. It is an inverted, critically rethought model of the phenomenological space charged with human qualities, feelings, and emotions described by Gaston Bachelard. Its application to the cultural realities of the first half of the 19th century allows us to adequately analyze Gallomania, which was very characteristic of the empire, and fashion for all French, frills, and blind imitation of foreign culture. The correlation of this behaviour with cultural precedent and the reading of the characters’ voyages as rhetorical figures of allegorical language is shown. Textual reading of spatial reincarnations determines their transgressive nature, going beyond their borders and expansion, which causes the crisis nature of heterotopia without geographical boundaries.

The Ukrainian novelist offers his interpretation of the concepts of educational culture, in particular the utopias of psycho-automated machines, the mechanisms that appear as allegories of people and their predictable behaviour. The parody effect is enhanced by a stringing of inconsistencies in form and content and spaces of action and imagination and by polemics with the imperial travelogue, especially the representatives most oppositional to H. Kvitka-Osnovyanenko. However, this anticolonial flow is aimed to solve genre problems at the level of allegory, spatial turn, and rethinking the binary and ternary models of culture.

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Данная работа представляет результаты нашей полевой работы, проведенной с 2004 года по 2011 год в двух трехъязычных городах: Солотвино (Закарпатская область, Украина) и Тирасполь (При-днестровье, Молдова) и направленной на выявление функционирования русского языка как язы-ка-посредника между национальными меньшинствами этих населенных пунктов: между венграми и румынами в Солотвине и между молдаванами и украинцами в Тирасполе. Мы делали письменные заметки, записи спонтанной речи, а также интервьюировали собеседников. Для выявления особен-ностей русского языка респонденты делали письменные и устные переводы, писали сочинения и заполняли тесты. Нашей целью было выявление сходств и различий между этими двумя языковыми ситуациями, а также описание местного варианта русского языка.

В первой части работы представлены изучаемые языковые сообщества, особенность которых со-стоит, с одной стороны, в том, что в обоих случаях языки национальных меньшинств относятся к разным языковым семьям. С другой стороны, русский язык в Приднестровье имеет статус госу-дарственного языка наряду с украинским и молдавским и преподается во всех учебных заведениях Приднестровья, а в Закарпатье, как и на всей Украине, он не имеет никакого официального статуса. В Солотвине еще действуют венгерская и румынская школа наряду с украинской, но русский язык уже нигде не преподается в последние 6 лет. Несмотря на это, даже местные дети продолжают поль-зоваться русским языком в общении с иноязычными соседями. Многоязычие сохранилось именно благодаря потерявшему коннотацию языка власти и ставшему «нейтральной», «сверхнациональ-ной» lingua franca русскому языку.

Во второй части работы описаны некоторые фонетические, лексические и грамматические осо-бенности солотвинского русского языка в сопоставлении с русским языком в Тирасполе. Местный русский язык подвергается всестороннему влиянию близкородственного официального украинско-го языка и, в меньшей мере, неродственных румынского и венгерского языков, которые в сознании местных говорящих резко отделяются от языков славянской группы.

В третьей части работы мы рассматриваем результаты тестов по использованию глагольного вида школьниками данных населенных пунктов. Мы уделили особое внимание глагольному виду, так как он не имеет полноценного аналога ни в румынском / молдавском, ни в венгерском языках и правильность его использования доказывает высокий уровень владения языка. В случае употреб-ления видовых пар, интерференция с украинской грамматикой может даже оказаться «положи-тельной» по сравнению с интерференциями из румынского и венгерского субстратов. Однако зна-ния солотвинских школьников не имеют теоретической основы, и, скорее всего, свидетельствуют о «панграмматическом» подходе к вопросу глагольного вида, так как они осваивают русский язык в процессе общения и спонтанной речи.

В заключение мы приводим примеры из сочинений школьников о местных языках и даем прогно-зы по поводу возможного будущего русского языка в исследуемых регионах.

This paper presents the results of our fieldwork conducted from 2004 to 2011 in two trilingual cities: Solotvyno (Transcarpathian region, Ukraine) and Tiraspol (Transnistria, Moldova) and aimed to identify the functioning of Russian as an intermediary language between national minorities in these settlements: between Hungarians and Romanians in Solotvyno and between Moldovans and Ukrainians in Tiraspol. We made written notes and recordings of spontaneous speech as well as interviewed interlocutors. In order to identify the features of the local Russian language, respondents made written and oral translations, wrote essays, and filled out tests. Our goal was to identify similarities and differences between the two linguistic situations as well as to describe the local variant of Russian.

The first part of the paper presents the language communities under study, the peculiarity of which is, on the one hand, that in both cases, the languages of the ethnic minorities belong to different language families. On the other hand, Russian in Transnistria has the status of a state language along with Ukrainian and Moldovan and is taught in all educational institutions in Transnistria, while in Transcarpathia, like the rest of Ukraine, it has no official status. In Solotvynо, there is still a Hungarian and Romanian school along with Ukrainian but Russian has not been taught anywhere for the past 6 years. In spite of this, even local children continue to use Russian in communication with their foreign-speaking neighbours. Multilingualism has been preserved thanks to the Russian language, which has lost its connotation as the language of power and has become a “neutral” or “supra-national” lingua franca.

The second part of the paper describes some phonetic, lexical, and grammatical peculiarities of Solotvyno’s Russian language in comparison with the Russian language in Tiraspol. The local Russian language is subjected to the comprehensive influence of the closely related official Ukrainian language and, to a lesser extent, of the unrelated Romanian and Hungarian languages, which in the minds of local speakers are sharply separated from the languages of the Slavic group.

In the third part of this paper, we examine the results of tests on the use of the verbal aspect by schoolchildren in these localities. We paid special attention to the verbal aspect because it has no full-fledged analogue in Romanian / Moldovan or Hungarian, and its correct use proves the high level of linguistic proficiency. In the case of the use of aspectual pairs, the interference with Ukrainian grammar may even be “positive” as compared to the interference from Romanian and Hungarian substrata. However, the knowledge of Solotvyno’s school-children has no theoretical basis, and most likely indicates a “pangrammatic” approach to the question of verbal aspect, as they master the Russian language in the process of communication and spontaneous speech.

In conclusion, we give examples from schoolchildren’s essays about local languages and some predictions about the possible future of the Russian language in the regions under study.

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ABSTRACT

In the Theogony, Hesiod tells us that there was a primitive, loveless Eros at the beginning of the universe, but later in the poem Eros appears as the god of love and the follower of Aphrodite. Asian kings, Greek tyrants, and Athenian imperialists experienced a loveless desire for absolute power and sexual abuse, but the Greek poets celebrate Eros and Aphrodite as gods of love who bring happiness into their lives. Euripides will later question the benevolence of Eros and Aphrodite, and Plato will violently rejects all physical and sexual love. Plato imagines love as being a manifestation of the primitive loveless god of Hesiod, and he uses this nightmare to attack human love, and the Athenians, and their democracy.

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Abstract

Investigation about Greek lexicography is very important for the Byzantine culture and for the knowledge of classical authors. The German-Danish school has studied lexicography with a historical view and in particular in the nineteenth century it reconstructed lost lexicons. In contrast, the Italian school had a functionalist and structuralist approach. In recent years, however, scholars have adopted the best aspects of both schools. Indeed, now the method of lexicographic studies is unitary.

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Abstract

Love is one of the most frequent literary motifs, often differentiated in various forms. A plurality of words for love in ancient Greek corresponds to a plurality of their divine representations in particular works, and more generally in Ancient religious and philosophical images. The most famous concept is that of the two Loves which is represented in Plato's dialogue Symposium. In the paper, the author revises the standard interpretation of the ‘Two Loves Topos’, considered in Mart. 2. 144–148, literalized as the presence of Amor and absence of Cupid in Philology's suite during her journey to heaven, in terms of literary intertextuality. After a brief outline of the literary evidence of the ‘Two Loves Topos’, Martianus Capella's comprehensive picture is analysed, connecting the archaic opposition between Amor and Cupid and the Platonic division to support his compositional intention to create a ‘new’ comprehensive Love god person, who is in accordance with the unified and harmonious world of mythological, cosmological, and philosophical scholarship.

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The article suggests identifying two scenes on a Gandhara slab from Karamar with plays written by Aśvaghoṣa. One, preserved in the Berlin Turfan collection, is among the oldest known Indian theatre plays (Śāriputraprakaraṇa) focusing on the conversion of Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana, two of the most important Buddhist monks certainly belonging to the 2nd century. The second scene shows the conversion of Nanda, the half-brother of the Buddha as described in the Saundarananda attributed to the same author. Attempts shall be made to identify the art historical templates and at the same time to trace its subtle iconography.

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After the Tibetan Empire lost its power over Central Asian regions in the 9th century, a group of people in North-eastern Tibet (Amdo), known as wamo 嗢末, made its way into the Chinese chronicles of the subsequent dynasties. The corresponding Tibetan name for the group of people has been disputed since the late 1950s, when scholars first put hypotheses forward on the subject. This paper contends that the correct rendering in Tibetan is ’Od-’bar ‘blazing light’, a suggestion initially offered by Hungarian Tibetologist Géza Uray. Moreover, by reviewing all the proposals Western and Chinese scholars provided, this paper presents hitherto overlooked textual and phonological evidence to settle this dispute.

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The paper constitutes part of a long-range series aiming, step by step, to identify the Afro-Asiatic heritage in the etymologically little explored lexicon of Omotic (West Ethiopia), a branch displaying the least of Afro-Asiatic traits among the six branches of this ancient macrofamily.

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Quid sit Amor… •

The vision of love as destructive force in Sappho's fragments and in Vergil's Eclogues

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Jelena Pilipović

Abstract

The paper examines the parallelisms in the poetic presentation of love as a phenomenon and Love as a divine figure in the fragments of the Aeolian poetess Sappho and in Vergil's Eclogues. Having shown the strong echoes of Sappho's opus in the Roman culture of Vergil's time, the research focuses on analogies at the semantic and expressive level. The two poets share a vision of love/Love as a deeply destructive force, which threatens human existence – a vision introduced by Hesiod – but they also share some refined models of sublimating that destructiveness. The paper particularly explores those models and the layering of thought that the motif of love acquires, thanks to them.

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This paper offers a reexamination of the role of Nogai (c.1237–1300) in the Golden Horde. Commonly portrayed as an almighty khanmaker appointing the Jochid khans at will, I argue that this is a creation of the secondary literature. Instead, based on a rereading of the relevant primary sources, I argue for a far more limited role of Nogai within the Horde’s politics. While influential as both a military commander (first as beylerbeyi and then tammachi) and as the elder member of the Jochid lineage (aqa), Nogai’s power over the Horde was never as great as the scholarship has consistently portrayed.

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In several Runic Yenisei inscriptions dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, there are words related to Sogdian, such as Arγu in monument E42, Čač (Tashkent) in E52, Čaγar (柘羯, ‘warrior’) in E55, Pülüs (Paulus / Paul, personal name) in E69, etc. Among them, Pülüs (Paul), the tomb owner of E69, comes from the Shi 石 Kingdom (Tashkent) in Sogdiana. This provides key historical data for understanding the relationship between the Sogdians and Kirghizs,and indicates that there was a material and cultural exchange between them in the Yenisei basin at that time.

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By sorting and comparing 18 verb forms in Khitan Small Script and 7 verb forms in Khitan Large Script that denote ‘to marry, to be given as wife’, the current study deals with the relation between the Khitan Large Script and Khitan Small Script forms. Further, it analyzes problems connected with their orthography, morphological and grammatical structure, with the grammatical cases governed by the verb and considers possible etymologies of the verbal stem.

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In this paper we would like to introduce two newly identified Old Uyghur fragments kept in the Research Department of Dunhuang Academy, China. The first one (D0913) is a small fragment which we identified as part of another copy of the Ci’en zhuan 慈恩轉, namely of a colophon to the 4th book of the Old Uyghur translation. The second one (D0623) written on the verso side of a Chinese Buddhist scroll of T. 643 is an Old Uyghur poem which can be compared to the Ratnasūrya avadāna.

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Two Old Uighur manuscripts housed in the National Museum of China have remained unidentified and unedited since their discovery by Huang Wenbi in 1928–30. A philological study based on examination of the originals is given in this paper. The first manuscript, a fragmentary codex with seven folios, can be identified as an Old Uighur transcription of the dhāraṇī text belonging to the Sanskrit Mahāpratisarā Mahāvidyārājñī. It may have served as a handbook for Uighur Buddhist monks or practitioners to recite the dhāraṇī in public ritual or private practice. The reconstructed Vorlage demonstrates a close relationship with the Tibetan and Tangut versions. A group of blockprint fragments in the Pelliot Collection from Dunhuang can also be identified as coming from the same text. The second manuscript, with 30 lines of text, belongs to a thus far unknown Old Uighur Buddhist treatise related to the qualities conducive to the attainment of ‘entrance into the stream’ (srotaāpattyaṅga) in Buddhist spiritual practice. It is likely a commentary composed by Uighur Buddhists.

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Abstract

Transformer-based NLP models have achieved state-of-the-art results in many NLP tasks including text classification and text generation. However, the layers of these models do not output any explicit representations for texts units larger than tokens (e.g. sentences), although such representations are required to perform text classification. Sentence encodings are usually obtained by applying a pooling technique during fine-tuning on a specific task. In this paper, a new sentence encoder is introduced. Relying on an autoencoder architecture, it was trained to learn sentence representations from the very beginning of its training. The model was trained on bilingual data with variational Bayesian inference. Sentence representations were evaluated in downstream and linguistic probing tasks. Although the newly introduced encoder generally performs worse than well-known Transformer-based encoders, the experiments show that it was able to learn to incorporate linguistic information in the sentence representations.

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Abstract

The Word-in-Context corpus, which forms part of the SuperGLUE benchmark dataset, focuses on a specific sense disambiguation task: it has to be decided whether two occurrences of a given target word in two different contexts convey the same meaning or not. Unfortunately, the WiC database exhibits a relatively low consistency in terms of inter-annotator agreement, which implies that the meaning discrimination task is not well defined even for humans. The present paper aims at tackling this problem through anchoring semantic information to observable surface data. For doing so, we have experimented with a graph-based distributional approach, where both sparse and dense adjectival vector representations served as input. According to our expectations the algorithm is able to anchor the semantic information to contextual data, and therefore it is able to provide clear and explicit criteria as to when the same meaning should be assigned to the occurrences. Moreover, since this method does not rely on any external knowledge base, it should be suitable for any low- or medium-resourced language.

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Abstract

Ernő Dohnányi, the world-renowned musician, was almost entirely forgotten during the decades between his emigration in 1944 and the change of political regime in Hungary: his name actually disappeared from public cultural knowledge. Though there may have been several explanations for the ignorance, it is not an exaggeration to state that the main reasons behind the tragic gap in his posthumous reception are of a political nature. It is widely known nowadays that during the settlements after World War II, Dohnányi – in his absence – was charged with intellectual collaboration with the Hungarian far right-wing regime. According to the present state of research, the charges were finally withdrawn as they were mostly ungrounded. Yet, the formerly adored artist and central personality in cultural life had become persona non grata for more than 40 years. After the political changes, his oeuvre seemed to be rehabilitated but without a thorough investigation of the charges and their background. This is why political prejudices are currently experienced simultaneously with a total bagatellization of the possible mistakes in his interwar activity. Thus, a systematic research into this subject has become very urgent. This study, which is intended to be a chapter of a full-length monograph on Dohnányi and politics (expected in 2023/24), was founded by the János Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and is one of the very first publications of this project in English. It aims to give a thorough description of the first two years of the official proceeding against Dohnányi at the different investigative levels such as the justificatory committees, public prosecutor, and government ministry.

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Abstract

Vergil interweaves the varying meanings of amor, from not only a positive force, to aggressive desires and to all its varied aspects, making it both harsh, deceptive and cruel, and conversely something very special reflecting things most cherished and respected.

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Abstract

In the first seasons of the Royal Academy of Music in London, its directors saw George Frideric Handel as one among several composers whose style reflected expectations of what Italian opera in London should be like. At one point, Handel’s slightly older Italian contemporaries Giovanni Bononcini and Attilio Ariosti were in equal positions to compete for success. This paper will focus on Attilio Ariosti as the seemingly most moderate party in the rivalry between the three composers to see if the specificities of the centers he was active in affected his output in the realm of the vocal duet, a less common and somewhat less important constituent of dramatic vocal genres as opposed to the dominant arias. The examination of duets in some of Ariosti’s works written for Berlin, Vienna, and London, and some comparisons with the duets by both Bononcini and Handel will shed a light on these relationships affected by competition and rivalry.

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Abstract

Following the debut of Károly Szabados's ballet Vióra on March 14, 1891, the daily newspaper Pesti Hírlap called the date a glorious day not only for Hungarian music, but also for Hungarian genius and spirit in general, and treated the debut at the Hungarian Royal Opera House in Budapest as an allegory for spring: “It was as if the refreshing, revitalizing breaths of that traditional March breeze had blown across the hall of muses on Andrássy Road: such was the enthusiasm dominating the spectators' benches and the stage alike.” According to the newspaper, it was the long-anticipated victory of “the Hungarian genius, which some had begun to consider as almost alien to the Hungarian royal theater,” and it was all thanks to Géza Zichy (1849–1924), one of whose first acts as intendant was bringing this long neglected piece to the stage. In the context of Vióra's premiere, the “Hungarian genius” and the “Hungarian spirit” manifested on several levels, as it was the decision of a Hungarian intendant to present the evening-long ballet of a Hungarian author revolving around Hungarian themes; but this raises the question, why did a Hungarian ballet carry such significance at the time? What place does Károly Szabados, the author of the ballet, occupy in the history of Hungarian music, and how was the ballet and its music received by contemporaries in and out of the limelight? This study attempts to answer these questions by examining contemporary Hungarian and German news articles and music critiques published in Budapest.

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Abstract

The performances of Ernő Dohnányi as pianist and conductor were preserved on numerous sound recordings. He was involved in the recording industry first in 1905, and his death was notoriously caused by a cold suffered in a recording studio in 1960. His interpretation is preserved on different audio media: piano rolls, 78rpm and Long Play discs, x-ray foils and reel-to-reel tapes. Although the number of his studio recordings, made for commercial purposes, is relatively small, the amount of live concert and home recordings, including the huge collection of unpublished recordings made in the USA between 1945 and 1960, expands it to a significant corpus of sound recordings. This article contains the complete discography of Ernő Dohnányi as a performer. The discography provides all available data of the studio and live recordings of Dohnányi, including the data of reissues (closing date: June 2022). It is preceded by an article in which Dohnányi's discography is analysed from several aspects. The analysis of the recorded repertoire sets the stage for further research on Dohnányi's interpretation; however, lost recordings are also reviewed. Dohnányi's controversial relationship to the technical media, and vice versa the recording firms changing interest in him as a performer, are also discussed in detail, involving several sources formerly unknown to Dohnányi research.

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Legende und Wirklichkeit •

Anmerkungen zu den frühesten Angaben zur Orgelgeschichte Siebenbürgens

Studia Musicologica
Author:
Pál Enyedi

Abstract

This study examines the earliest data of the history of the organ in Transylvania collected in the past one hundred and fifty years. A thorough examination proved that data, based on incomplete documentation, on erroneous hypotheses or conclusions, had been quite unprofessionally put into contexts to which they had no proven connection. Thus, legends regarding the first representation of an organ, the first organ, the earliest organ builders etc. appeared in the costume of historicity and were widely circulated among different authors.

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Abstract

This article offers a phenomenological description of Béla Bartók's Improvisation op. 20 no. 3, with a focus on temporality as experienced in listening. Such a description aims at understanding the structure of eventings, through which we encounter and experience, grasp and take up the work's Gestalt in time as a singular dynamic whole, which is its being as becoming, its presentation in its idea and form. As a result, what we hear, perceive and understand as we listen to the work is revealed as the unfolding of a complex network of intersecting eventings, the crossing of contrarily directed motions, interpenetration of intonations and gestures, circularities on different perceptual levels from delaying and returning notes, intonations, gestures and themes, to thematic repetition and variation, their recallings and cross-referencing. These micro-eventings yield eventings on a larger perceptual level that include ternarity, cyclicity in its broadest sense and a concentric concave-shaped contour. This is the work's Gestalt; the unique balance as ratio, correlation and interrelation, not equilibrium, of all these eventings and temporalities.

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Abstract

Folk art and applied folk art have been constantly shaped by cultural and political actors, as well as social and economic processes and the local society affected by them. In the context of these changes, the definitions of authentic, original, and genuine were given a new interpretation, which can be examined in different contexts. The question of authenticity in material folk art arose shortly after the birth of the concept of folk art and the “discovery” of folk art, and has accompanied the history of the revival of material folk art. Nevertheless, although discourses on the subject have been ongoing for a long time in the fields of folklore, theoretical works dealing with material folk art have not paid much attention to the issue of authenticity. The study first describes the contexts through which the issue of authenticity was articulated in artifact production inspired by folk art. The changed social conditions during the 20th century have also generated, and are still generating, new legal dilemmas in the field of artifact production at both community and individual levels, such as the extent to which folk art is individual or community-owned (taking into account the narrower and wider community), and the copyright of an authentic folk artist or craftsman or a creator recognized as a folk artisan. The questions lead to the evolution of the definition of authenticity and point out, among other things, the role that the issue of authenticity plays in the process of the heritagization of folk art.

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Abstract

Many of the drafts and notes of Ernő Szücs Tárkány are in manuscript, and they can offer valuable clues for European legal ethnography. One of them is a manuscript by Tárkány Szücs, both in Hungarian and English, in the Archives of the Institute of Ethnology of the Research Centre for the Humanities, dated 1982 and titled Administering Justice — without State Courts, which has been awaiting publication for forty years. This study is an important milestone, as it demonstrates, based on a broad international perspective, that even in a field that was monopolized by the state very early on, such as administering justice, legal customs have survived to a great extent; and that legal ethnographic approaches make it possible to arrive at valid conclusions of practical importance through an expert comparison of legal phenomena that are distinct in time and space but have common characteristics. The English-language version of the study is being published verbatim (first publication).

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Abstract

In 1967, Ernő Tárkány Szücs published his article summarizing the results and tasks of European legal ethnography in the columns of Ethnologica Europeana in Paris (under the title Results and Task of Legal Ethnology in Europe). With this, he revived an important tradition of Hungarian legal ethnography: Károly Tagányi published his summary of international research history in German in 1922 (Lebende Rechtsgewohnheiten und ihre Sammlung in Ungarn. Ungarische Bibliothek. Für das Ungarische Institut an der Universität Berlin. Erste Reihe. Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger. Berlin und Leipzig). At the time of the publication of Ernő Tárkány Szücs's article, he was working as a ministerial official, but in Hungarian academic life he took a backseat. At the same time, however, he was in constant contact with several European representatives of legal folklore. As soon as he had the opportunity, Tárkány Szücs opened up to international scholarship, and became not only an active participant but also a prime mover of the international discourse on legal folk custom research. His recognition was indicated by the fact that throughout Europe, not only his studies published in various world languages but also his papers exclusively in Hungarian were often cited. Although the science policy in his country was not able to integrate the specifically interdisciplinary scientific research of Ernő Tárkány Szücs, or only haltingly, his international recognition was unquestionable all along.

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