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Discover the Latest Journals in the Field of Arts and Humanities
Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.
It may not be crystal clear at first, but there is a connection between arts and humanities. They both study human experience through communication, either through words or other forms of creative expression. In truth, both fields are interdependent to the point that sometimes it’s hard to differentiate which field belongs to which category. For example, some journals and faculties will consider literary arts to be a part of the arts category, while others consider it to be part of humanities.
However, some common fields most often included in the Humanities category are anthropology, archeology, cultural studies, development studies, education, geography, history, journalism, languages, language history, law, literature, philosophy, religion, and teaching.
When it comes to art, common fields include visual arts (painting, drawing, design, fine art, sculpture, photography), performing arts (music, theater, dance), art history, and literary and culinary arts. Arts are usually considered a branch of the humanities, while languages are considered a part of arts. That’s why we often see scholars use the term “language arts” to refer to languages and literature.
Most Arts and Humanities journals welcome original research papers, case studies, essays, historical documentation, interviews, review articles, technical notes, artists’ writings, performance texts or plays, book reviews, and surveys from all over the world. For specific information on the particular article type accepted by each journal, make sure to check their respective webpages.
The majority of Arts and Humanities journals accept international submissions in multiple languages. Most journals will accept papers in English, but you’ll have to double-check which journals accept work in other languages.
The target audience for Arts and Humanities journals are social researchers, writers, scholars, curators, theorists, policymakers, and anyone interested in the Arts and Humanities fields.
Feel free to explore our collection of the latest Arts and Humanities papers and journals below.
Ancient Turfan was an important crossroad of languages and scripts on the Northern Silk Road where various languages and scripts coexisted simultaneously. This point is strongly supported by the diversity of languages and scripts attested in the texts discovered in the region and the complex relation between languages and scripts as well as the language use. This paper first examines a colophon to the Chinese premier Qianziwen 千字文 kept in the Berlin Turfan Collection with the shelf number Ch 3716 (T II Y 62) which clearly followed the syntax of Old Uyghur, and then reconstructs the text with the assumption that the text was read in Old Uyghur. After briefly discussing some aspects of Old Uyghur’s use of the Qianziwen, this paper examines another Chinese colophon in the same manuscript. The main aim is to illustrate some aspects of Old Uyghur’s use of Chinese in medieval Turfan.
This article deals with a pre-Sasanian inscription written in Middle Persian script recently published by N. Sims-Williams, who named it ‘Persis 2’. First, some observations on the reading and interpretation of the text are proposed. Then, it is argued that the instances of final -y in this inscription could correspond to a phonetic notation of the oblique singular ending -ē, hitherto only reconstructed for proto-Middle Persian. Finally, a discussion on the origin of heterographic writing with respect to the graphical representation of Iranian morphological endings is proposed, in the attempt to explain why a final -y for the ending -ē is not regularly noted in all the comparable documents from the middle Arsacid period.
Four Proto-Kartvelian words with initial *γw- are traditionally held to be borrowings from either Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Armenian. Based on recent progress in Indo-European and Kartvelian linguistics, this paper argues that all four proposed PIE loanwords in PK are untenable; two out of these cannot be Proto-Armenian loanwords either. The third one, the word for ‘wine’, could be a Proto-Armenian loan in PK, but it has formal problems and the alternative proposed here, a Proto-Zan loan in Proto-Armenian, provides a more regular solution. Combined with the last case (the word for ‘juniper’), which also receives a regular solution only as a Proto-Zan loan, we have two Proto-Zan loans in Proto-Armenian instead of PIE/Proto-Armenian loans in Proto-Kartvelian.
The treatise De vino Tokaiensi (On Tokaj Wine) written by Sámuel Domby of Gálfalva (1729–1807), is a valuable source on Hungarian history of culture and science which has become widely accessible thanks to its facsimile edition. This medical doctoral dissertation published in 1758 in Utrecht presents a study of the medicinal effects of Tokaj wine, mirroring the norms of philosophical-scientific literature in eighteenth century Hungary. It is unequivocally an exceptional document of the intellectual heritage of the educated classes in the early modern age regarding growth habitat, viticulture and winemaking, with specific reference to Tokaj-Hegyalja, a wine region and cultural landscape of historic importance in Northeast Hungary. The present paper aims at identifying the perceptions detailed in the candidate's argument in pedological terms.
A popular trend in 16th-century Hungarian Neo-Latin poetry was the transposition of biblical, especially Old Testament books and texts. Georg Purkircher (Georgius Purkircher) paraphrased the Book of Wisdom, Péter Laskai Csókás (Petrus C. Lascovius) the Song of Songs, János Bocatius (Johannes Bocatius) the Book of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus, and Leonhardus Mokoschinus (Leonhardus Mokoschinus) a part of the Old Testament books (from Genesis to II Kings) in Latin. Internationally, only Mokoschinus' paraphrase of the Old Testament is known to any extent. In the present paper I will attempt to outline the main similarities and differences between the paraphrases of the Old Testament in Germany and in Hungary by means of a detailed philological analysis of the domestic corpus of texts and by highlighting some related parallels in Germany.
Originally a small market town in Northern Hungary, Sárospatak (Patak) deserves attention for more than just the role it played in a series of historical events that were to define the future of this country throughout the 17th–18th centuries. The cultural, educational and musical legacy of the period is also outstanding, and the functioning of the Patak College (Pataki Kollégium), which soon gained considerable prestige, played a key part in this. The aim of this paper is to present the musical aspects of this most valuable set of interconnected cultural assets.
First attested among the administrative titles used in the Türk Qaghanate, the Old Turkic title Buyruq was used by various Eurasian steppe peoples and polities from the 6th to the 13th centuries. In this paper, examples of the title Buyruq seen in historical sources are identified and examined, while different views put forth by modern scholars up to the present day are also brought together. Apparently, instead of indicating a fixed ministerial office or a commandership, this title, generally understood as meaning ‘having received an order’, indicates a position for dignitaries that was bestowed by rulers upon officials who were holding numerous administrative titles and were also tasked with certain duties by their rulers.
This paper presents the archaeological excavation conducted between 2014 and 2022 in the medieval Benedictine monastery of Almád, located on the outskirts of the village of Monostorapáti in Hungary. After describing the excavations of each year, it reconstructs the building history of the monastery based on the results of the research, then discusses the history of the abbey as known from written sources and compares it with the results of the excavations.
Egy félelmetes ragadozó-dögevő Magyarországon: A barlangi hiéna szerepe az érdi (Dunántúl, Kárpát-medence) középső paleolitikus lelőhely állatcsontmaradványainak felhalmozódásában tafonómiai és archaeozoológiai vizsgálat alapján
This research is helping to understand the role of the hyena in the origin and accumulation history of the site of Érd's bone assemblage, in which the role of Neanderthals is also clearly highlighted. It attempts to provide an insight into the destructive potential of this carnivore at Érd and in the corpus of Hungarian sites.
The study focuses on the ship remains associated with ship mills in the Middle Danube Basin. The earliest finds associated with ship mills date back to the second to third decade of the 14th century and are well matched with the written sources. The extended monoxyl technique can be observed in the construction of mill ships up to the early 19th century, which on the one hand indicates continuity in medieval and modern Hungarian shipbuilding, and on the other hand is an anachronistic technological solution in the light of the development of European (inland water) shipbuilding, which can be explained by the practicality and the availability of high-quality, large oak logs. For the first time, an artificial ship mill winter storage and repairing basin has been surveyed, and further research into this type of deposit promises significant results, especially in the newly defined “multipurpose special water areas”.
The location of the ‘hidden’ medieval castles of Székely Land is strongly connected with other sites nearby (prehistoric fortresses, ramparts from the migration period, chapels, abandoned old roads). Therefore the main conclusion is that these mountain castles were built near ancient and ‘continuously’ used routes so they belonged to the 13th century defence system of the Hungarian Kingdom.
The Inscription of Abercius plays an important role in the research of early Christianity, as evidenced by the multitude of commentaries written on it since its discovery in 1883. In this study, we attempt to prepare a new textual commentary, in which we focus on the possible sources of the highly symbolic text of the inscription: primarily on the Bible, as well as the Shepherd of Hermas and the Sibylline Oracles in addition. At the same time, we also find evidence that the text of the epitaph fits well into the very special epigraphic culture of Phrygia. The original Inscription of Abercius served as the basis for the fourth-century Vita Abercii, which invented a miraculous story explaining the origin of the tomb of the bishop at Hierapolis. According to the “Christocentric version” of the hagiography, the epitaph written by the bishop, was considered as a text “breathed out by God”. This phrase, borrowed from 2 Timothy 3:16, suggests that the original Inscription of Abercius was regarded as a “holy text” by the Christians of Phrygia, just as the tomb of Abercius was regarded as a “holy place” by the local church.
This short paper points out an erotic motif (‘erotic exclusivity’) which is characterized by a great deal of antiquity as well as continuity. Starting out from Goethe, we make some quick forays into the realm of Greek and Latin poetry, ending our adventurous journey with some modern reception cases. Consequently, the motif we are looking at turns out to be an idea which transcends and ties together several eras and genres.
The first section of the study describes an unknown Byzantine icon, part of a private collection, the central image of which is the scene of the crucifixion (staurósis). According to the hypothesis proposed in the second section of the paper, two of the images among the ones framing the central image are the two separated halves of one single scene, the Ascension of Jesus Christ (analépsis). Two other scenes in the frame have not been identified yet due to damage to the silver plate and are subjects of further research.
Our study discusses a specific group of Mesopotamian medical-magical amulets. These are cylindrical clay objects inscribed with incantations that often mention the names of their owners. Our paper aims to collect all such objects to classify and analyse them based on their origins and archaeological contexts and the texts written on them; furthermore, we discuss medical-magical rituals mentioning the use of these amulets. In our study, in addition, we present the research history of these objects and name their owners. The studied incantations can also be found on stone amulets and cylinder seals collected in an appendix at the end of the paper.
The conquests of Athens benefited not only the citizens of Athens, but also the gods themselves. In fact, during the 5th century BC, Athens also dedicated parcels of confiscated land to the gods (Athena, Apollo, Poseidon, etc.) in the conquered territories, which were sometimes organized into cleruchies. This is evidenced in many cases by the boundary stones (horoi) found in Aigina, Chalkis, Samos, Kos etc., which indicate that the land is part of the sanctuary area of the deity. These land holdings were often rented out and the rent received was used to finance the cult place of the deity. The study examines the religious aspects of Athenian expansive foreign policy in the light of the available literary and epigraphical sources.
The paper discusses the work titled From the Exemplary Stories of Syntipas the Philosopher, a late 11th century Byzantine translation of a Syriac collection of 62 fables, attributed to Michael Andreopulos and considered to be descended from the Greek tradition. Following a review and the analysis of the collection in the context of the extensive tradition of the Aesopic corpus I focus on fables that are not known to occur anywhere else in the Greek fable tradition, examine the words of the protagonists and minor characters, then related to this analysis I discuss the moral concluding each fable (epimythia), several of which differ in the Syriac ‘original’ and its translation both in form and content and are often difficult to relate to the moral seen through the eyes of the modern reader. In the Appendix I present a Hungarian translation of the Byzantine collection of fables.
The article discusses the masculinity and femininity of Socrates and argues, in part, against accounts that, in general consider Greek philosophy misogynist, in part, against the distinction of a (masculine) ethic of principles vs. (feminine) ethic of care. For this purpose, it examines traits or facts of the life, tenets and methods of Socrates that attest to typical masculine (military heroism, prowess, endurance) and feminine (the “Socratic gospel”, midwifery, caring and service) qualities and argues that Socrates achieves a harmonic unity of these masculine and feminine attitudes or traits and thus avoids the pitfalls of the destructive archetypes of both the “tyrannical father” and the “devouring mother”. Thus, the philosophy of Socrates is neither masculine or feminine, nor gender-neutral, but androgynous. The androgynous nature of Socratic philosophy is also attested by his ethics, in which the central “principle” is precisely caring, by which he supersedes the antagonism of an ethic of principles vs. an ethic of care.
The Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi was neither the nature boy oriented only to folk song nor the proto-socialist revolutionary as the German reception in the 19th and 20th centuries saw him. The short poems of the “Clouds” cycle published in 1846, for example, are aphoristically pointed pessimistic meditations. In the piece presented (Itt állok a rónaközépen…, Here I stand in the middle of the plain…), the speaker recognises the deep gulf between himself and “the other”. Both a death symbolism can be attributed to “the other” and Sartre's phenomenology of the gaze can be applied to his perception, revealing a complexity of Petőfi's poetry that suggests its reassessment.
In his slightly fictionalized autobiographical essay A Drunken November Night 1918 (written in 1942, first published in 1952), Miroslav Krleža attempts to reconstruct a scandal to whose creation he himself contributed to a large extent. In November 1918, in the interregnum from the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy to the foundation of the South Slav kingdom, the then young author felt compelled at a reception held in Zagreb in honor of the Serbian officers to protest loudly against the speech of the former high Habsburg officer Slavko Kvaternik. The scandal retrospectively reinforced Krleža's conviction of the misery of the contemporary Croatian elite, a circumstance whose reasons, in his opinion, lay not only in political opportunism and moral corruption, but also in unreflected utopianism and the underlying political naivety. His hope that after the dissolution of the compromised Habsburg rule the South Slav peoples could advance towards national and social emancipation was soon replaced by the sober insight that imperial Austro-Hungary was followed by a small-sized, Serb dominated post-imperial structure. By describing the period when the text was written, the Second World War and the Ustashe reign of terror in contemporary Croatia, and in doing so particularly referring to the conversion of many former Habsburg officers to the side of fascist movements, Krleža also emphatically reveals his own conception of history, according to which historical events appear to be an eternal recurrence in which human stupidity is coupled with an excessive use of power and violence.
Although a score of new studies have been published about the various aspects of the history of American–Hungarian relations in the past three decades, there are still a considerable number of uncovered chapters. The present article will introduce one of the American ministers who served in Hungary in the interwar years. Nicholas Roosevelt came from a well-known family that gave two presidents to the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, and the name helped him throughout his storied career. Since he had visited Hungary at the time of the establishment of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in March 1919, he had first-hand experience regarding his host country. His service as American minister (1930–1933) fell in the first years of the unfolding Great Depression, which defined the basic conditions for Hungary, as well for the United States and Europe. Nicholas Roosevelt was an avid writer, and he left behind a plethora of both private and official documents containing, among other things, his thoughts and opinions about Hungary and Hungarians. Building this as a primary source, along with a number of secondary sources, the article will bring closer the economically and politically shaky days of Hungary in the early 1930s through the eyes of the American minister posted in Budapest, thereby enriching our knowledge about the relations between the two countries.
Carolus Clusius (Charles de l’Écluse, 1526–1609), one of the most renowned naturalists of sixteenth-century Europe, was a versatile man of letters. One of his fields of interest neglected in scholarship is his attitude and activities around what was called fossilia at that time, and what can today be called non-living naturalia: metals, gems, various strange “stones”, fossils or medicinal earths. Such naturalia appear several times in his correspondence. This two-part study reviews how Clusius took part in the collecting, exchange and discussions about these inorganic objects in the European respublica litteraria. He could even be involved in geological or palaeontological issues of his age. The investigation not only throws light on the activities of Clusius and some of his correspondents, but also taps into the broader topic of communication and exchange in the Literary Republic of the time, and may even contribute to the history of the natural sciences in the period. Some of the non-living naturalia Clusius was interested in (like “Saint Ladislaus's coin” or the medicinal earth of Tokaj) could be found in Hungary and he looked for them by way of friends in that region (it is known that one of his most important patrons was the Hungarian aristocrat Boldizsár Batthyány). For reasons of space, the present study has been published in two parts: Sections 1–3 appeared in the previous issue, while Sections 4–7 are published in this one. A map to the entire study is included at the end of the present part.
Have you ever wanted to celebrate the New Year twice? If yes, then welcome to the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, where, in addition to the official Eastern European Time (UTC+2), there is also an unofficial one (Central European Time, UTC+1), which is exactly one hour behind the first.
During the 20th century, Transcarpathia was part of different states but until the mid-1940s, this region did not know any other time zone than the Central European (or UTC+1). This time was considered official in Austria–Hungary (until 1918), the Czechoslovak Republic (1919–1938/1939), and the Kingdom of Hungary (1939–1944). The issue of switching to Moscow time (UTC+3) arose immediately with the arrival of the Red Army here in 1944. In other words, it was decided to add an extra two hours to the existing Central European Time (UTC+1). Of course, this caused discontent among the locals. However, since it was very dangerous to protest in the USSR, some of them decided to continue using the time they were already used to (UTC+1) but they did it in secret. Thus, the Transcarpathians created “their own”, so-called “local” time (UTC+1). It was used along with the official Moscow one at that time (UTC+3).
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of independent Ukraine in 1991, the official time zone was changed from Moscow (UTC+3) to Kyiv (UTC+2). Although the UTC+2 time zone geographically includes most of the territory of Transcarpathia, some people did not want to give up the “local” time (UTC+1), which still exists in the region.
A characteristic feature of the “double perception” of time in Transcarpathia is that this phenomenon can be seen on street signs (for instance, on shop hours or bus timetables). This includes various kinds of clarifications of time (Kyiv or “local”) in the form of certain phrases or their abbreviations, the use of two time zones on one inscription, and much more. Therefore, it makes sense to explore the time issue of Trans-carpathia within the framework of the analysis of the linguistic landscape.
This paper shows all possible scenarios for the use of time on street signs in the Transcarpathian region in different languages (Ukrainian, Russian, Slovak, and English). All materials presented in the work are based on real photographs from the streets. Most of them were made by the author of this paper during a working trip to eight Transcarpathian cities (Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, Berehove, Khust, Rakhiv, Tyachiv, Chop, and Irshava) from 2019 to 2021.
A tanulmány egy Röjtökmuzsajról előkerült, Magyarországon eddig egyedülálló leletegyüttest mutat be. Az Aunjetitz-kultúrára, ill. a körülötte lévő területekre jellemző nyakperec alakú fémöntvényeket tartalmazó kincsleletek szerepe ma még a közép- és nyugat-európai őskorkutatásban is viták tárgyát képezi, de jelenlétük fontos adatokkal szolgál a bronzkori fémművesség specializációjával és ezzel összefüggésben a központosított társadalom kérdéskörével kapcsolatban. A Röjtökmuzsaj-Tölgyerdőben napvilágot látott nyakperec öntvényeket tartalmazó raktárlelet (Ringbarrenhort) új megvilágításba helyezi az Északnyugat-Dunántúl kora és középső bronzkori történelmét a Kr. e. 2200–1500/1450 közötti időszakban.
A jól ismert Pécs-Jakab-hegyi lelőhelytől mindössze 30 km-re, Dencsháza határában került elő egy újabb, Kabardino–Pjatigorszk-típusú, bimetál tőr. A sztyeppei kapcsolatokat mutató tőr a kaukázusi konfliktusövezetből, a Kr. e. 8. század végén menekülni kényszerülő lakossággal kerülhetett a Kárpát-medencébe.
In the paper, the collection of composite nominations (over 600) denoting objects and phenomena of the Internet space, which are interpreted in the spirit of modern philosophy as virtual analogues of the real world, is considered on the material of the Russian language. The purpose of the study is to reveal the general cognitive principle of creating of the Internet nominations as well as some peculiarities of their structure and semantics determining overall the character of neological processes in the formation of the vocabulary of the digital era. Both attributive phrases of the different degrees of stability (such as виртуальный музей) and analytic constructions (or composites, according to other terminology), for example, онлайн-голосование, интернет-магазин, кибермир, etc., are involved for the research.
As a result of the study, the transfer of names from the real world to the virtual world was determined as the main cognitive mechanism for creating composite Internet nominations; regular units involved in this process as attributive components (интернет-, виртуальный, электронный, сетевой, онлайн-, веб-, кибер-, etc.) were identified. On the basis of thematic classification of Internet nominations and semantic analysis of attributes, the author defines their paradigmatic connections, and states the specific character of their semantic development, namely, the formation of common meaning ‘realized, existing in the net’. The research was carried out within the framework of functional sociolinguistics and is mostly a case study of usual units.
Our results showed that the process of verbalization of virtual analogues of the real world by means of composite nominations is characterized by a thematic diversity of basic substantives (богослужение, газета, знакомство, сделка, урок, экскурсия, etc.), which indicates the wide involvement of various spheres of modern human activity in the virtual space. At the same time, it was found that the creation of Internet nominations in the Russian language or their borrowing from English demonstrate the currentness of certain subject areas in terms of the activity of nominating their objects as well as the different volume of the nominations themselves related to these areas (the largest group of nominations relates to business sphere).
The study of paradigmatic connections between units in the analyzed material proves the idea expressed by the author of the paper earlier about the principle of plurality of names of the same object, which could be considered a tendency appearing, as a rule, during periods of activation of the neological process. Further monitoring of the development of the Russian language vocabulary of the digital era is planned to realize on the material of composite nominations based on personal nouns.
The paper presents the first part of the review highlighting the results of the compilation of The Electronic Historical Dictionary of Loanwords in the Russian Language of the 11th–17th Centuries: Greek and Polish Loanwords, the first electronic dictionary of borrowings in Russian historical lexicography containing about eight thousand lexemes. Grecisms and Polonisms represent completely different layers of vocabulary due to their genetic, chronological, and functional indicators. Each layer requires an independent description and the use of an individual research methodology. They are presented in two separate essays.
The first part is devoted to the Grecisms (more than four thousand lexemes are described in the Electron- ic Dictionary). The structure of the electronic dictionary and its parameters (fields) are shown. The main tasks that were solved during the creation of the first part were the following: identification with the Greek language; the expansion of the volume of the described vocabulary; the identification of diverse phonetic and morphological variants; the determination of the first fixations and hapax legomena; the establishment, clarification, and / or correction of semantics in well-known lexicographic descriptions; the introduction of etymological information; the detection of the “Greek layer” in the untranslated Russian script and its word-formation development, etc.
In the course of the study, the layer of the described vocabulary was expanded due to a broader understanding of the term Grecism. This allowed to show a complex picture of the Greek vocabulary development in all the variety of phonetic and morphological (including unadapted) forms that were found in Russian writings of the 11th–17th centuries. A number of lexemes and lexical forms have been discovered and described, which have not yet been presented in Russian historical and Slavic lexicography. The features of adaptation and reflection of the medieval Greek language in the borrowed vocabulary are shown.
Derivative words were also included in the Electronic Dictionary. Two parameters of the Electronic Dic- tionary – “translated sources” and “original sources” (with an indication of a certain source and date of appearance) – allowed to trace the moment of entry and further existence of the lexeme of Greek origin as well as its survival and word-formation development in original Russian writings of the 11th–17th centuries. This topic needs further research and deserves a separate description.
The electronic dictionary makes it possible to carry out numerous research operations, which create a multi-sided view of the ways of the penetration, survival, and functioning of the vocabulary of Greek origin in the Russian language on a wide chronological scale comprising seven centuries.
Bognár Katalin Boglárka dolgozta fel a Balatonőszöd-Temetői dűlőben előkerült, tíz darabból álló vaseszköz leletet. Szerintem azt nem a 13–14. században rejtették el, hanem a kora középkorban, feltehetően a 9. század folyamán. A középkori vaseszköz leletekről közölt térképét korrigálva bemutatom a Magyarország területén előkerült kora középkori, döntően 9. századi, az Árpád-kori – nagyrészt a tatárjáráshoz köthető – és a késő középkori, a török kor folyamán elásott vaseszköz leleteket.
Since the start of the new millennium, there has been a marked turn in nutrition-related ethnographic research in Hungary. Following the reconstruction of the historical and regional processes of change in Hungarian dietary traditions, professional attention has increasingly shifted towards the present day. In this study, I first summarize the most important aspects of contemporary gastronomy and the respective research opportunities, before exploring the question of the relationship between contemporary food culture and public catering for children. The conclusion reached is that public catering for children and the food on offer in school canteens cannot be discussed without an understanding of the changes taking place in contemporary food culture, which in turn cannot be understood without taking into account contemporary social and cultural developments. Until the slowly changing culture of public catering becomes more closely aligned with the rapid changes in eating at home and in restaurants, fewer and fewer children will make use of school canteens, and where they do, they will barely touch the food but prefer to go hungry.
The growth in Budapest's population at the end of the 19th century was based on the influx of migrants from the countryside, mostly industrial workers. The examination of the social tensions generated by their arrival provides a good illustration of the changes in social policy, one element of which was the operation of soup kitchens. In the mid-19th century, the main driving force behind the founding of soup kitchens was individual religious charity, although by the end of the century, social solidarity and state involvement also contributed to the relief efforts. The present study examines the development of soup kitchens in Budapest based on the historical sources: official documents, and the contemporary press. Using the ethnographic findings of food culture research, it seeks to explain why official soup kitchens were not popular. From an ethnographic point of view, the process of lifestyle change among workers newly breaking away from peasant life and moving to Budapest and its metropolitan area has been little explored to date, and the same applies to the embourgeoisement of the peasantry. When interpreting the processes that accompany labor migration, parallels can be drawn between the eating habits of the workers' regions of origin, the value systems connected with work and food, and the common meals organized for agricultural workers when working away from home. Through a historical and ethnographic approach, the transitional, evolving features of urban foodways emerge in the context of soup kitchens in parallel with the change in lifestyle.
The introduction of school meals in the 20th century has its roots in several parallel but independent initiatives. The common source of these initiatives was the practice of philanthropy and charity, based on religious upbringing. Public catering for children was first institutionalized in Budapest by a charitable organization, the Children's Society (Gyermekbarátok Egyesülete), after which several denominational associations followed suit. In the early 20th century, the City of Budapest itself also took the initiative, setting up its first daycare centers where needy children were not only fed but also participated in educational and recreational activities. Resources for social welfare were eroded during the war, thus foreign aid organizations stepped in to help the children of Budapest immediately after the war, while childcare became the sole responsibility of the public authorities from the 1920s. From then on, the state covered the entire costs of providing meals, similar to the system of soup kitchens established specifically for supplying food to destitute adults.
The Hungarian writer Sándor Petőfi (1823–1849) achieved the union of the Hungarian people thanks to the verses of his National Song (Nemzeti dal), which have always been quoted and recited with great interest. Therefore, the following paper aims to analyse some problems with the poem's translation into Spanish and present a new version of this emblematic poem for the Hungarians.
The study includes two inscriptions from Poetovio both on altars, one dedicated to Mithras, the other to Isis, both erected for the wellbeing of a person. In addition to the findspot they have in common that both persons mentioned in them were employees of the publicum portorium Illyrici customs office. This insight is the basis for the new additions to the study, as for both inscriptions it was possible to reinterpret the previously known inscriptions based on the pattern used by customs post employees, which could be observed on other inscriptions. The new addition will allow the two inscriptions to be included in the research on the operation and staffing of the Illyricum customs district.
Prescribed and supported by the state, public catering in Hungary fulfils a common social need; its aim is to meet the nutritional requirements of consumers in terms of both quantity and quality. Public catering is legally regulated and is also important from the perspective of health policy. As the smallest unit of common catering, family meals differ from public catering in several respects. One fundamental difference is that public catering rests on scientific foundations: it is planned, organized, and controlled by a qualified manager. This manager may be a trained dietitian or a catering manager, according to the National Qualifications Register. The training for these two roles is interlinked and goes back more than a century.
The present study examines the Hungarian practice of public catering for children from an economic perspective, bearing in mind that the production and consumption of food is, at the same time, an economic activity. Taking this approach, we focus on which institutions contribute to or hinder efficiency, by which we mean the efforts of economic agents to generate maximum welfare from the available (meager) resources. For social reasons, the supply of public catering for children is a statutory obligation on the part of local authorities, where efficiency must be combined with social considerations. The study reviews the rationing mechanism of school meals catering as a public service, looking first at the main factors determining the level of demand for public catering for children, and then at the main factors that influence supply.
The study examines the provision of school-holiday meals for children and shows how it is embedded in society. Proper nutrition is very important for children's physical and cognitive development. However, international research shows that children's social and cultural background has a significant impact on their nutrition. To reduce these disparities and ensure that all children have a healthy diet, effective government intervention is necessary. In Hungary, school canteens and free meals during school holidays for children in need serve this purpose. The latter service is of great importance for the children of families affected by food poverty. Yet, statistics show that some of these children are unable to use this service. This study examines the period before 2016 and highlights the social embeddedness of the service and its consequences on the provision. Whether child food poverty is perceived as a social issue and a common cause generating community intervention largely depends on the local actor's correct perception of the issue, the local appraisal of need, and the consideration of parents' “deservingness.” The study also makes some suggestions about areas where further interventions should focus to improve the nutrition of children affected by food poverty.
In Sweden, free school lunch has been served for more than a hundred years, and it is now a democratic right of all elementary school children. The school meal has always been associated with different opinions and subject to much debate. The aim of the study is to explore school meal food and taste memories in a convenient sample of Swedish adults. A web-based survey was carried out in the summer of 2020. The 246 respondents attended school between the 1940s and the early 2000s. The material was collectively analyzed using NVivo 12 Pro (QSR International), resulting in two overarching themes. “The traditional school food heritage” theme consisted of accounts of traditional Swedish food through the ages and meanings attached to it. Memories were connected to likes and dislikes of certain foods and dishes. “The social school food heritage” theme consisted of accounts of coercion, control, and peer pressure, but also joy, friendship, and commensality. The Swedish school meal is a shared experience surrounded by strong feelings and memories regarding the food and the context. It means a lot both culturally and socially, acting as a carrier of a common food heritage.
In the social sciences, it is a classic practice to contrast the development of the countryside and the city as two endpoints of a chain. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, the validity of the rural-urban dichotomy has been increasingly questioned, and we are now talking about two interconnected and complementary systems instead. In examining contemporary school meals, we ourselves observed this close and varied pattern of intertwining between the city and the countryside. Therefore, we believe it is useful to identify rural and urban features in contemporary public catering practices, and to outline mixed models that can be placed between the two endpoints in space and time. All of this can be edifying because urbanized foodways, following current food health and gastronomic trends, sustainability, climate and environmental protection requirements, as well as social considerations, return from time to time to the old village farming practices and foodways in various ways, and utilize knowledge related to traditional farming. Illustrated with specific examples, the study outlines three types of school catering models, from the oldest practice called “rural” to the “urban” (urbanized) type. A comparison of these types of public catering practices reveals the problems observed in today’s public catering.
The present paper has in its focus a letter written in Buda in the mid-1480s by a mysterious Hungarian author, Ioannes Pannonius, whose figure is shrouded in obscurity. After a brief overview of the letter, the paper summarises the misconceptions and uncertainties surrounding the identity of the mysterious author and then attempts to outline his biography on the basis of fragmentary information. Contrary to the Anglo-Saxon scholarly literature, it argues that the Hungarian author is neither a fiction nor an intellectual “avatar” of Ficino, whom he could challenge in the public ring of contemporary intellectual space in order to defend his own Platonic theory. And if he is not a fictional author, the significance of the short letter is not only that the head of the Florentine Platonic school, Marsilio Ficino, anticipating the later theological debates around Platonism in the 16th century, replies to the letter, but also that it is perhaps the first known, highly publicised debate in the history of Hungarian philosophy.
Károly Kós, a pioneering master of 20th century Hungarian architecture, spent two years in Istanbul as a fellow of the newly established Hungarian Institute for Science in Constantinople between 1916 and 1917 to pursue research on the architecture of the Ottoman Empire. During this period, he created a whole series of drawings of numerous Byzantine and Ottoman historical buildings and street sections. A volume entitled Istanbul - Urban History and Architecture was published as a summary of his research. However, this historical event and the resulting publication have a far-reaching significance beyond themselves in many ways. Firstly, the aforementioned period was a significant turning point in Ottoman-Turkish architectural history. On the other hand, Kós's work is more than just an analysis of architectural and urban history.
This paper aims to provide an insight into the period and the turning point between the late Ottoman and the early Republican era of Turkey's history; the local context of Kós's activities in Istanbul and, at also to analyse the architectural-historical achievements of the Hungarian master's work in the location which he himself described as ‘The City”.
The news of the peace of Westphalia in the autumn of 1648 certainly elicited great sighs of relief all over Europe, though contentedness was not yet universal. In countries over which the menace of the expansion and further advance of the Ottoman Empire loomed larger, the news generated a period of great hopes. This applied first of all to Hungary and Croatia where an optimistic public feeling began to spread wide. The main sources of this optimism were the influential politicians and their statements, who were both mouthpieces and shapers of the general attitude. Who were convinced that after 30 years of warfare a period of regeneration ought to come, and sooner or later – not in the distant future – what they had been painfully missing for decades, exactly since the reign of Emperor rudolph (†1612, rudolph I as king of Hungary): a major concerted anti-Ottoman military undertaking would be launched, a comprehensive campaign with the participation and support by Europe’s Christian countries initiated and controlled by the ruler of the Holy roman Empire and also king of Hungary ferdinand III. As the contemporary utterance of the politicizing Hungarian estates reveal, this optimistic expectation was paired with a zealous manifestation of a readiness to act. They voiced their great resolve with which the eligible population would take part and fight as effectively as their reserves allowed against the porte. This uncompromising intrepidity, the fight against the Ottomans at any price was fed – in addition to many glorious examples in the past – by several contemporary events. Clashes with great casualties which made great stirs in the Hungarian and European public life. Contemporaries hailed the fallen, including those of the ill-starred military encounter at vezekény on 26 August 1652, as inflaming examples of perseverance. In the eye of the contemporaries those killed in the clash – including four members of the aristocratic Esterházy family – set an inspiring example of moral courage in the teeth of Turkish superiority in numbers: in a hopeless battle they chose perseverance to the end, that is, heroic self-sacrifice, instead of surrendering. In addition to numerous quondam utterances including some quality works of literature testifying to the intrepidity and fighting value of the Hungarian estates, two works of the applied arts were also created with the aim of perpetuating the glorious memory of the fallen heroes.
The historic military events of the last one and a half decades in the 17th century – the triumphant termination of the Ottoman wars in Hungary, the expulsion of the Turks – overruled the original meaning of the time-honoured adage known all over Europe, the idea that Hungary was one of the safeguards/bulwarks of the western Christian community. Although it might have lost its topicality, it did not fall out of public remembrance. It underwent some modification, some shift of tone, the militant slogan of mobilization giving way to reference to the heroic deeds of the forefathers, to the glorious past, the historical merits of the kingdom, of Hungaria. Added to this – by way of a conclusion – is the profound conviction rooted in historical experience that it was not in vain to persevere above their strength against the pagan world power in calamitous times. To the contrary, the nation owed her well-nigh miraculous survival to it. After all, the fact that her disintegration and perdition could be avoided must have been by the will of divine providence. This idea is conveyed in a visual language by an extremely effective composition, an engraving made in Augsburg in the first decade of the 18th century undoubtedly upon a Hungarian commission. What were the Archabbot of pannonhalma p. Aegidius Karner’s ideas or intentions to have this engraving made? In the closing section of the paper an attempt is made to answer this question.