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The self-definitions of today's folk artists, as well as the concept(s) of folk art of official umbrella and quality assurance organizations, are rooted in complex, interrelated processes. In my study, I focus on the post-World War II concept of folk art, which is full of contradictions, but, despite all protests, has had an undeniable impact on the folk art of today. The system of applied folk arts paradoxically fostered the prominence of individual creators, in contrast to the communication of its novel cooperatives in the decades after World War II, which emphasized communal work. These creators – often possessing truly authentic folk art knowledge (some having gained their reputation before World War II) but no longer following the peasant way of life – were depicted by the media in rural or bucolic genre situations, thereby heavily aestheticizing the concepts of folk and folk art. At the same time, socialist cultural policy also emphasized their status as artists and creators, making them key figures in the cooperatives' work for decades as lead designers, prompting them to revitalize their local motif stock. At this point, another paradox of the Applied Folk Arts Council's perspective emerges, as the representation of the folk art of emblematic regions can increasingly be seen as the representation of the style of an individual (lead designer or charismatic artist). In my opinion, considering the 19th-century roots of the process, the definition of today's folk artists' products as unique works of art and the profound respect for design skills is rooted in this perspective that focuses on the work of iconic personalities, as I also point out in my case study analyzing Tiszafüred pottery through the work of several generations, a style that was adapted by Sándor Kántor and became known as Karcag pottery.

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The Royal Hungarian State School of Lacemaking in Körmöcbánya was the earliest independent institution in the field of Hungarian bobbin lacemaking. Unfortunately, there is little information available about the school, largely due to the revision of national borders as a result of the Treaty of Trianon. Following a survey of what remained of the lacemaking cottage industry in Upper Hungary [now mostly present-day Slovakia], teaching was organized from 1883 in itinerant workshops in Bars and Zólyom counties (in Úrvölgy, Sóvár, Eperjes, and Hodrusbánya). Annual training courses, as part of a school-based teaching system, were introduced probably in around 1894, and from 1899 yearbooks were published by the Royal Hungarian State School of Lacemaking in Körmöcbánya. Until 1909 (with the exception of the 1888/89 academic year), Körmöcbánya functioned as the administrative center, while teaching took place in local schools, first in Jánoshegy and subsequently in Óhegy, Jánosrét, Kunosvágás, and Kékellő, where schools opened in succession. Poorer students were awarded scholarships to participate in the two-year training, and those who wished to work in the cottage industry were given employment following graduation. Besides introducing the readily marketable Carlsbad, Idrija, Cluny, and Torchon lace patterns that were taught at the school, Béla Angyal was the first to expand the treasury of Upland lace patterns with the addition of new Hungarian designs, while Emília Angyal was responsible for their technical elaboration. For a while, state-sponsored lacemaking in Upper Hungary provided a relatively good livelihood for the female members of working families, although this situation changed with the influx of cheap foreign lace, and especially with the spread of mass production. Besides popular foreign patterns and techniques, the school in Körmöcbánya also played an important role in the spread of new tools in Hungary.

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The present paper offers a critical reflection on folk inspirations in Polish design in the early 21st century. It discusses the question of folk as an artistic form, pointing to conceptualizations of folk style and its formal qualities within the field of modern artistic production to which design and craft practices belong. It also touches on the role of the rural actors involved in the processes of the construction of folklore and their attitude towards folk conceived as esthetics, artistic form, and style. For rural producers, folk style was a question of conscious choice, sometimes motivated by conformism and sometimes by a deliberate effort to contribute to local/class/national self-presentation, very often in contradiction to the individual's own taste and that of their peers. The paper then examines the involvement of Polish folk-inspired design (etnodizajn) in the early 21st century with national self-presentation, as well as the various folk (lore)-inspired design strategies followed by contemporary Polish designers. It concludes with the observation that 21st-century design practices drawing on folkloric inspiration are part of a long sequence of cultural appropriations, where appropriation can mean both the alienating inequality experienced by the rural manufacturers of folk, as well as a necessary condition for the understanding of alterity by both sides in the cultural exchange.

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New ecovillage communities, and individuals who simply move from the towns to the countryside in Estonia, are inspired by a desire to be involved in heritage preservation, local customs, and traditional skills. Ecovillages are keen to attract people who are skilled in various traditional handicrafts, while craftspeople, in turn, may encounter fewer problems finding the facilities and raw materials needed to practice their crafts on moving to the countryside. The present paper focuses on activities in five new rural communities from the perspective of craftspeople. We asked them to describe their initial incentives for establishing and joining the respective communities, and the directions of their joint activities. We documented a significant diversity among the five communities. Some were self-evolved, while others had been deliberately established. Some communities had local roots, while others were spearheaded from elsewhere. Some of the communities sought idyllic landscapes and indigenous culture, social life, and friendship, while others valued the region's economic potential. We found highly skilled niche producers in excellently equipped workshops who were involved in so-called content-focused activities in various manor estate buildings renovated with the help of European Union funds, as well as those starting from scratch on principle. Community representatives included those striving for the greatest possible economic independence and minimal ecological footprint, as well as those looking for opportunities to recreate the kind of farming life typical of last century, based on work carried out by people and horses — and, across almost all groups, people with a keen interest in a wide variety of handicraft skills from the past. We also observed other, personal motivations and experiences among our respondents — for example, how they had been invited there, what supported their move, and what they found problematic. We were interested in the present state of affairs: how the community contributes to their new skills and practices; how the new community and other local inhabitants manage communication networks; and how they see themselves and their way of life in their new home. We were keen to find out whether the symbiosis of local nature, old values and skills, and innovative and fresh practical solutions will prove sustainable in the long term.

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In the study, I provide a comparative overview of the aesthetical debate that took place at the turn of the 18th and 19th century in Germany and Denmark concerning the use of the Old Norse versus the classical mythology in literature. I discuss Johann Gottfried Herder’s ideas on this topic, expressed in his work Vom neuern Gebrauch der Mythologie (1767) and especially in his dialogue Iduna oder der Apfel der Verjüngung (1796), with focus on the following question: Does the rejuvenating potential of the Norse myth as suggested by Herder in Iduna, allow any room for the classical inspirations in modern literature? Herder’s view will provide a starting point of the comparison for the cultural situation in Denmark where the University of Copenhagen announced in 1800 a prize question on aesthetics “Would it benefit Northern polite literature if ancient Northern mythology were introduced and generally accepted by our poets in place of its Greek counterpart?”. The entries in this contest represented the view of the younger generation, namely Adam Oehlenschläger, Jens Møller and Ludvig Stoud Platou. I summarize their views and examine Herder’s influence on the debate.

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Although no Aeschylean hypomnemata have been preserved, the papyri have returned evidences of ancient scholarship, such as fragments with marginalia and hypotheseis of several lost tragedies. For this reason, it is difficult to compare the scholia tradition, but it provides particular value for these ancient annotations. If the limited papyrus notes could testify a lower fortune of Aeschylus, the discovery of scholar materials, linked with lost tragedies, denotes that his productions was still available during the first centuries of Imperial Age. Interesting evidence is P.Oxy. XX 2257, which offers important information on the Aitnaiai stagecraft. My purpose is to reconstruct the drama setting and explain the technical modality of scene changes.

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Two enigmatic figures of 20th-century political theory, Eric Voegelin and Simone Weil, stand out with idiosyncratic receptions of ancient Greek texts. Both thinkers diagnosed that, as political agents in late modernity, we have unlearned to read world-making ancient texts and their narratives in their cosmic dimension and thus lost what has rooted European culture and history. Against this backdrop, Voegelin and Weil share ‘antidotal’ practises of combining historically and generically distinct material. These practices aim at fathoming a primordial experience at work in European narratives. With this comparative analysis of Voegelin's and Weil's symbolic readings (exemplified in this paper by passages from the Iliad, the History of the Peloponnesian War, and the Symposium), I present some considerations how their combinatory imagination of ancient material could supply late modern political agents with a pathos, a meaningful self-world relationship that was thought to have gone missing.

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The legend of Ovid’s Hungarian tomb appeared in the historiography in the 16th century: besides the numerous Ovid-tombs that turned up all across Europe, Wolfgang Lazius was the first who mentioned in his work Commentarii Reipublicae Romanae that the grave of the poet destined to a tragic fate was discovered in Savaria-Szombathely. Then – at the end of the 16th century, probably through Polish influence – a four-line ‘epitaph’ expanded the narrative. In my paper I aim to enlighten how the legend of Ovid’s tomb appeared in the Hungarian historiography of the 16–18th century, how the authors tried to eliminate historical contradictions, and also, I intend to present the different concepts on the creation and the authenticity of the alleged epitaph today.

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Ugolino Verino (1438–1516) wrote an impressive Latin epic poem on Charlemagne, the Carlias. In this paper, both internal and contextual arguments are put forth in support of the interpretation of Florence as the New Jerusalem in this poem, a hypothesis already made by the first (and only) modern editor of the work. First, the internal arguments come from an analysis of the passage in which the refoundation of Florence takes place and from the structure of the entire composition, a clearly eschatological narrative. Then, the similarities and debts with relevant previous and contemporary apocalyptic literature on the Second Charlemagne are pointed out.

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This paper aims at analysing the character of Briseis, Achilles’ slave in the Iliad, through the lenses of narratology, in order to highlight her importance in the poem. Far from being a pale shadow, Briseis has a privileged position among captive women in the Greek camp not only because she is the cause of the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon, but also because she is endowed with the privilege of direct speech; at the same time, she is also linked to important women on the Trojan side, like Helen and Andromache. Through scattered bits of information about her past, through epithets and periphrases, Homer creates an in fieri portrait of the character which culminates in the lament Briseis performs on the corpse of Patroclus in Il. XIX 282–302: in remarkable lines containing her first and unique speech in the Iliad, Briseis mourns for the death of her beloved friend, while lamenting her unlucky fate. As this paper will hopefully make clear, a refined and accurate characterization provides Briseis with a rich profile, which challenges the possibility of labelling her as a minor Iliadic character.

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Latvian folk crafts are characterized by a predominance of women's handicrafts: weaving, knitting, embroidery, and so on, which are practiced both in groups and individually. This article focuses on the interaction between cultural heritage and creative trends in folk crafts in Latvia, examining the way in which artisans learn traditional crafts and the main areas of their activity. Given the context, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the development of Latvian handicrafts today based on empirical study which relied on information found on social networks about the latest activities of craftspeople. In addition to personal observations, publications dedicated to the development of folk art in Latvia during the Soviet period and today were also used as sources for the study. In recent years, the growing popularity of the Latvian national costume has stimulated the desire of many people to not only wear the costume but also learn how to make their own version. The Latvian national costume is a combination of various types of handicrafts, and some elements of folk costumes are also used in modern clothing. Nowadays, learning crafts in studios and hobby groups has become the main way to acquire handicraft skills. Training in these settings is based on ethnographic research and information available from modern sources. Works created in handicraft studios and hobby groups are regularly exhibited at local and national exhibitions. Craftspeople in modern-day Latvia merge the study of traditional, ethnographic material with creative self-expression in the production of objects for modern use. Creativity and inherited traditions are therefore combined to various extents depending on the type of objects and their use. Masters of traditional handicrafts participate in the annual public workshop series called Meet Your Master!, which has become a well-known event for popularizing folk crafts in Latvia.

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The paper aims to investigate the influence of the Peripatus on the Alexandrian Homeric philology and exegesis. This relationship is examined through the study of the Homeric fragments of the Peripatetic Megaclides of Athens. In a fragment specifically dedicated to the poetic portrayal of Heracles, it is possible to observe a distinction between Homer and post-Homeric poets and a devaluation of the latter’s renewal of Homeric themes. Both observations recur also in the Aristarchean exegesis, which indicates the post-Homeric poets with the derogatory expression οἱ νϵώτϵροι, perhaps already employed for this purpose by the Peripatus.

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In addition to other sources, Plato's dialogues are transmitted via 130 papyri that contribute to the constitution of the text. Starting from the Corpus dei papiri filosofici greci e latini volumes, about 1070 readings preserved by the Platonic papyri have been collected in a database, where they have been classified in different lists. For instance, the papyri may preserve new correct readings or, since in principle they represent half of the tradition, they can be seen as contributing to the choice between adiaphora. In addition, papyri belie conjectures much more than they confirm them, thus rehabilitating the mistrusted medieval text.

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In the paper, I am revisiting the complicated and many-layered interpretation of Ven. Fort. Carm. 5. 6, letter and figure poem. I am adding another layer by including the role of St. Symphorian, who is implicitly present in the poem through the addressee Syagrius, the bishop of Autun, Symphorian’s hometown. The presence of the saint plays together with the story of father and son that is told in the letter; the parallelism of the story in the letter and the saint’s legend could have laid additional pressure on Bishop Syagrius to give into Fortunatus’s plea.

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A Barlám és Jozafát regény 26-27. fejezetében Nákhór ál-tanúságtétele nem más, mint Aristeidés eltűntnek hitt Apológiájának átirata. A tanulmány az Apologia utóéletének áttekintése, és a „kölcsönzött szöveg" elbeszélésen belüli szerepének vizsgálatán túl, a védőbeszéd Iviron kódexben megőrzött - ez- idáig kiadatlan - görög és ófrancia nyelvű változatából is közöl részleteket.

The speech in the Barlaam and Josaphat novel, Nachor’s pseudo-testimony, is in fact a transcription of Aristides’ Apology, previously thought to be lost. Although it is mentioned by Eusebius and St. Jerome, the sermon was considered lost until 1878. In the 19th century, Armenian and Syriac translations came to light, as well as Greek papyrus fragments, also preserving excerpts from the original text of the sermon. In the light of the Greek fragments, it became clear that the romanced saint’s biography Barlaam and Josaphat also preserved a metaphrase of the sermon in Greek. Codex Iviron 463, which contains the Greek abridged version of the Barlaam novel, includes not only the Greek transcription of the Apology, but also its Old French translation. In addition to an overview of the afterlife of the Apology and an examination of the role of the “loaned text” within the narrative, this paper will also provide extracts from the heretofore unpublished Greek and Old French versions of the apology preserved in the Iviron codex.

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Az észak-afrikai latin szerzők sajátos írásmódjára vonatkozó megjegyzéseket már késő ókori grammatikusoknál is olvashatunk, az afrikai latinság kérdése pedig hosszú múltra és változatos tudománytörténetre tekinthet vissza. Sokszor maguk a szerzők - így Apuleius, Szent Ágoston - térnek ki afrikai származásukra, többnyelvűségükre, sok esetben mentegetőzve az őket ért vádak miatt, melyek az általuk használt latin sajátosságaira vonatkoztak. Élt tehát egyfajta elképzelés a köztudatban az ókortól kezdve, miszerint az észak-afrikai területeken beszélt és használt latin nyelv bizonyos sajátosságokkal rendelkezik. Természetesen a kiejtés és a beszéd tekintetében nincsenek ellenőrző eszközeink, azonban ezek lenyomatain, az afrikai területekről származó szövegeken tetten érhetjük és vizsgálatuk révén közelebb kerülhetünk az afrikai latin nyelv esetleges jellegzetességeihez. A korai keresztény szövegek egyik legfontosabb emléke az úgynevezett Codex Bobbiensisben hagyományozódott, amely amellett, hogy a legrégebbi fennmaradt, a Kr. u. IV. századból származó latin evangéliumfordítás, a Vetus Latina szöveghagyomány afrikai (vetus Afra) tradíciójának fő képviselője is egyben. Jelen tanulmányban annak megállapítására teszek kísérletet, hogy a kódex szövegében esetleg kimutathatók-e olyan (nyelvi) jelenségek, amelyek az eddig - elsősorban az afrikai feliratos anyag elemzéséből - kirajzolódott nyelvi képünk, elképzelésünk alapján valóban afrikai sajátosságnak, africanismusnak tekinthetők.

Comments on the unique writing style of the North-African Latin writers can already be found in the ancient grammarians’ texts. The question of the African Latin language has been around for long and it also has a diverse scientific history. It was often the authors themselves - Apuleius or St. Augustine - who commented on their African ancestry, their multilingualism, and their own use of Latin. They often tried to excuse themselves for the accusations, which their (incorrect?) language use attracted. There was - already in Antiquity - a notion, that both the written and the spoken Latin of North Africa had some unique features, which set them apart from the language used in Rome. Obviously, we do not have any instruments to experience pronunciation and spoken language in antiquity, but through the study of texts written in the region, we can get a closer look on the specific features of Latin used in the region. One of the most important early Christian texts, which has been preserved in the so-called Codex Bob- biensis is a fourth century Latin translation of the gospel. This text is also the main representative of the african (vetus Afra) version of the Vetus Latina. In this article I am trying to investigate this text, to see if there are any linguistic features, which can be (based on the already existing notions we have of the language from studying the inscriptions of the region) called specifically african features („africanismus”).

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Az Ókortudományi Társaság működését a 2020/21-es akadémiai évben a világjárvány miatti kényszerű korlátozások határozták meg. Társaságunk az országos rendelkezéseket követve és tagjai egészsége védelmében úgy döntött, hogy 2020 novembere után nem tart felolvasóüléseket személyes jelenléttel. Korábbi állásfoglalásunkat követve ugyanakkor továbbra is ragaszkodtunk ahhoz az elvhez, hogy a Társaság csak akkor tart felolvasóüléseket, ha azokat legalább részben jelenléti formában lehet megtartani. A tapasztalatok igazolni látszanak ezt a döntést, hiszen az előre meghirdetett tudományos konferenciák, illetve a teljes felsőoktatás kizárólag az online térbe szorult, így tagjainkra amúgy is nagy terhet rótt a kommunikációnak ez a nehezebb formája, és szinte a teljes tudományos

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A tanulmány Venantius Fortunatus Galsuinthának, egy meroving családba házasodott vizigót hercegnőnek a halálára írt consolatióját vizsgálja. Galsuinthát Tours-i Gergely beszámolója szerint férje ölte meg, az incidens pedig újra testvérháborúhoz vezetett a meroving királyok között. A feszült politikai helyzetben Fortunatus hallgat az erőszakos részletekről. Ezt a magatartást korábban az aulikus költő óvatosságával magyarázták, a vers Vergiliusra és Claudianus De raptu Proserpinae-jére történő utalásainak elemzése viszont ennél bonyolultabb olvasatot tesz lehetővé.

In this paper Venantius Fortunatus’ consolation for the death of Galswinth, a Visigoth princess married into the Merovingian family, is analysed. According to Gregory of Tours, Galswinth was killed at the behest of her husband, and this incident led to another civil war among the Merovingian rulers. Fortunatus does not mention any of the violent details, which had been interpreted as the sign of the caution of the aulic poet. However, the references to Vergil and Claudian’s De raptu Proserpinae lead to a different interpretation.

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A Codex Monacensis Graecus 307a Laonikos Chalkokondylés történeti munkája mellett számos lapszéli bejegyzést is tartalmaz. Az egyik ilyen jegyzetet Nikolaos Malaxos írta. Ebben ismerteti, hogy Theodóros, Mistra despotája hogyan adott el bizonyos városokat a velenceieknek és a rhodosi szerzeteseknek. Ugyanez a bejegyzés szóról szóra megtalálható a Chalkokondylés-hagyomány egy másik kéziratában, az Escorialensis Graecus 243 (Y-I-4) jelzetűben. Jelen írás célja, hogy megvizsgáljuk a szóban forgó Chalkokondylés-részletet, Malaxos széljegyzetének szövegét, valamint kisebb javaslatot tegyünk Chalkokondylés kézirati hagyományával kapcsolatban.

Codex Monacensis Graecus 307a contains several marginal notes in addition to Laonikos Chalkokon- dyles’ historical work. One of these notes was written by Nikolaos Malaxos. In this he describes how Theodoros, the despot of Mistra sold certain cities to the Venetians and to the monks from Rhodes. The same note made by the same hand can be found word for word in another manuscript of Chalkokon- dyles’ tradition marked Escorialensis Graecus 243 (Y-I-4) . The aim of the present paper is to examine Chalkokondyles’ passage in question and the text of Malaxos’ marginal note, and to propose a minor suggestion regarding the manuscript tradition of Chalkokondyles.

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A középkori vágánsköltészet legkiemelkedőbb alkotásainak egyike a manapság Phyllis és Flora néven ismertté vált költemény, amely számos, különböző terjedelmű részeit megőrző kéziratban maradt ránk. Ezek között megtalálható egy meglehetősen különös szövegváltozat, amely mind tartalmában, mind terjedelmében jelentős eltéréseket mutat a többi kézirat szövegéhez képest: ez a költemény kezdeti nyolc strófája után mindössze hét hozzáköltött versszakkal le is zárul. Felfedezését követően a kutatás ugyan látóterében tartotta a kéziratot, ám pusztán az első nyolc strófa egy meglehetősen romlott szövegtanújaként tekintett rá. Szerencsés módon azonban nemrég előkerült az említett kézirat egy másik, megközelítőleg azonos időben keletkezett példánya is, amely alapvetően megváltoztatja az említett kézirathoz fűződő viszonyulásunkat: ezzel ugyanis nyilvánvalóvá lett, hogy nem csupán egyszeri, lejegyzője fejéből kipattant alkotásról beszélhetünk, hanem az említett vágánsköltemény egy kései változatáról, amely minden bizonnyal szélesebb körben is ismeretes lehetett, és amely keletkezési ideje okán a formain kívül gyökeres tartalmi, felfogásbeli, sőt műfaji eltéréseket mutat az eredeti költeményhez képest.

Without doubt, one of the most outstanding piece of the goliard poetry is the anonymous poem which nowadays become known as Phyllis et Flora (Altercatio Phyllidis et Florae). It was preserved to us in many manuscripts, whose each one contains parts of diff erent length of this poem. One of these copies especially diff ers from any of others: it preserves a complete poem that begins with the eight initial stanzas of the original poem, and continues with seven new-composed stanzas until its end. After the discovery of this manuscript, it become part of the tradition of the poem although it was considered just as a very corrupt witness of the poem’s fi rst eight stanzas. However, in the recent past, thanks to a lucky occasion, it was discovered a second copy of this variant poem, transcribed at the same period as the already known one. Th e new discovery fundamentally changes our relation to the variant: the new copy has made it obvious, that this is not a peculiar composition of the fantasy of its scribe, but a self-suffi cient late variant of the original poem, which had been supposedly more widespread, than its traces testify. Not only the radical alteration of its length, but – due to its late construction – that of its content and thought is also remarkable.

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A tanulmány Hypereidés Démosthenés ellen című beszédének szöveghagyományát tekinti át a Har- ris-Arden papirusztekercs töredékcsoportjainak bemutatásával. Gianfranco Bartolini fél évszázaddal korábban publikált átfogó elemzését egészíti ki az 1972 óta megismert adatokkal. Az előkészületben lévő Hypereidés-szövegkiadás (Bibliotheca Teubneriana) előszavának egyik, bővített fejezetét jelenti.

This paper reviews the textual tradition of Hyperides’ speech Against Demosthenes by presenting fragment groups of the Harris-Arden papyrus scroll. It complements Gianfranco Bartolini’s comprehensive analysis published half a century ago with data acquired since 1972. It constitutes an extended chapter of the preface to the forthcoming Hyperides edition (Bibliotheca Teubneriana).

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Kallimachos: Ektheósis Arsinoés

Rekonstrukciós kísérlet

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Zsolt Adorjáni

E tanulmány Kallimachos az elhunyt II. Arsinoé előtt tisztelgő költeményét elemzi. Először az Ektheósis Arsinoés a költői életműben elfoglalt helyét, a műfaj kérdéseit és a mű szerkezetét vizsgáljuk. Ez vezet át a versben fellelhető irodalmi allúziók értelmezéséhez (főként Hésiodos, Ibykos, Simónidés, Pindaros). Ezenfelül részletesen tárgyaljuk a történelmi hátteret és a töredékes hagyományból származó filológiai nehézségeket. A befejező rész a kallimachosi költemény utóéletét térképezi fel a görög és latin irodalomban.

This article aims to present an overall interpretation of a poem by Callimachus on the dead Ptolemaic queen Arsinoe II. Firstly the position of the Ectheosis Arsinoes in Callimachus’ rnuvre, the genre to which it belongs and its structure will be investigated. This leads to the analysis of the highly allusive character of the work (above all to Hesiod, Ibycus, Simonides and Pindar as well as to hymnic poetry). In addition, realia (the historical background) and textual difficulties arising from the fragmentary transmission will also be treated. The conclusive part looks at the reception of Callimachus’ poem in later Greek and Latin poetry.

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A tanulmány a Moreai Krónikában (Τό Χρονικόν του Μορέως) megjelenő magyarok szerepét és megítélését vizsgálja. Bemutatja azokat a szöveghelyeket, amelyekben a Krónika megemlíti a magyar népet vagy a Magyar Királyságot, majd összehasonlítja ezeket más ófrancia és bizánci görög nyelvű, kortárs irodalmi és történeti művek olyan részleteivel, amelyekben szintén említésre kerülnek a magyarok. Megoldási javaslatot tesz arra a kérdésre, hogy miért beszél az általában Bizánc-közeli, illetve a Bizánci Birodalom utódállamait segítő magyarokról az ellenséges keresztes államok történetét megörökítő Krónika a többi korabeli - magyarokhoz közelebb álló - forráshoz képest elismerőbb hangon, dicsérőbb kifejezésekkel: ennek oka elsősorban III. Béla lánya, Margit és dédunokái, a Saint-Omer fivérek hírnevében keresendő. A tanulmány vizsgálja továbbá a Saint-Omer fivérek irodalmi és történeti szerepét, illetve bemutatja a Krónika azon részletének részletes filológiai elemzését, amelyben a szerző Akova báróságának örökösödési tárgyalását részletezi.

The study examines the role and perception of Hungarians in the Chronicle of Morea (Τό Χρονικόν του Μορέως). It presents the passages in which the Chronicle mentions the Hungarian people or the Kingdom of Hungary, and compares them with passages in other contemporary literary and historical works in Old French and Byzantine Greek that also mention Hungarians. It proposes a solution to the question of why the Chronicle - which records the history of the hostile Crusader states - speaks of the Hungarians - who were generally close to Byzantium and helped the successor states of the Byzantine Empire - in a more laudatory tone and in more praiseworthy terms than other contemporary sources closer to the Hungarians: the reason for this is to be found primarily in the reputation of Béla Ill’s daughter Margaret and her grandchildren, the Saint-Omer brothers. The study also examines the literary and historical role of the Saint-Omer brothers and presents a detailed philological analysis of the excerpt from the Chronicle in which the author discusses the succession of the Barony of Akova.

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Ha valaki arra az elhatározásra jut, hogy újgörögül szeretne tanulni, sokszor szembesül azzal, hogy a megvásárolt vagy ajándékba kapott görög nyelvű tankönyv vagy nyelvtan nem a ma élő görögök nyelvét írja le, hanem Homéros, Sophoklés vagy az Újszövetség nyelvét. Aki már újgörögöt oktat, az nehéz helyzetbe kerül, ha modern szemléletű és magyar nyelvű összefoglalót szeretne diákjainak ajánlani, a számos egynyelvű újgörög tankönyv pedig sok esetben nem tisztázza megfelelően a felmerülő nyelvtani jelenségeket.

Ezt a hiányt hivatott pótolni a Studia Hellenica kiadványsorozat 2021-ben megjelent III. kötete Újgörög nyelvtan és gyakorlókönyv címen, melyet az ELTE Eötvös József Collegium

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This paper draws attention to a robust grammatical change trajectory, here dubbed the copula-to-cleft pathway. We show that the emergence of the copular clause construction tends to lead to the emergence of the cleft construction, and the decline of one tends to be in tandem with the other. We further propose that the above pattern follows from a syntactic treatment that derives the cleft structure from a copular clause. Such copular syntax can be further combined with a semantic analysis where the focus interpretation of clefts is computed based on a copular structure.

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Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning technologies have impacted on the language mediation market with the spread of machine translation (MT) and the creation of sub-tasks such as text preparation for translation and post-editing. Up until this time, the impact of machine interpretation on the interpretation profession cannot be felt to the same extent as that of MT on the translation profession. Technological advances, however, have not come to an end and nowadays fully-automated machine interpretation and AI-based computer assisted interpreting (CAI) tools are increasingly common in the interpreting profession. However, the use of AI and big data in interpreting raises several ethical questions in terms of data protection and confidentiality. The earliest references to MT date back to the 1930s. Despite this long history ethical considerations in MT have rarely been discussed in Translation Studies, and to our knowledge, they have not been discussed at all in Interpreting Studies. This article first examines how AI can be used in interpreting as well as the various tools already available, then discusses the ethical considerations raised by the use of AI in general and in interpreting in particular.

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The editors of ACROSS welcome review copies of publications and also appreciate candidates for reviewing incoming copies.

Published in 2021

Mira Kim, Jeremy Munday, Zhenhua Wang & Pin Wang (eds): Systemic Functional Linguistics and Translation Studies. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021. 242 pp. ISBN 978-1-3500-9186-3 (reviewed in this issue by János Nagy).

Published in 2020

Roy Youdale: Using Computers in the Translation of Literary Style. Challenges and Opportunities. New York and London: Routledge, 2020. xv + 242 pp. ISBN 978-0-367-14123-3 (hbk), ISBN 978-0-429-03034-5 (ebk) (reviewed in Vol. 21. No. 2. by Szilvia Szakály).

Published in 2019


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Translation and Interpreting Studies (TIS) usually investigates translation and interpreting by adults who perform either as professionals or amateurs. However, under the current migration reality, there are many children and teenagers who act as translators and interpreters for their parents and (extended) families or communities, without any training or acknowledgement. To distinguish them from professional, adult translators and interpreters they are called Child Language Brokers. This article seeks to shed some light on their reality, which has received little, if any, attention from scholars in the translation, interpreting and interculturality fields. After a general overview of the existing literature, the design and results of a study conducted in Barcelona (Spain) in 2019 and 2020 are reported. The aim of the study is to describe the existing reality with a view to contributing to mapping the actual situation of child language brokering around the world.

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Although co-translation has received considerable scholarly attention recently, how co-translated texts converge and diverge stylistically, and how co-translators affect translated texts and each other remain under-researched. Based on two specialized corpora, this paper innovatively employs L2SCA and MAT to investigate the various stylistic and linguistic features of A Hero Born (translated by Anna Holmwood) and A Bond Undone (translated by Gigi Chang), English translations of the two consecutive volumes of “射雕英雄传” (shè diāo yīng xióng zhuàn), a Chinese wuxia novel by Jin Yong. It then explores the dynamics of collaboration between the two translators in translating and promoting Jin Yong's wuxia novels, based on interview records, email exchanges, and public discourses. The study reveals that the two translations are homogenized to a considerable degree and at various syntactic and lexico-grammatical levels, and that the two translators' discourses concerning Jin Yong's wuxia are also essentially identical. These similarities are attributed to several factors. In particular, Holmwood, as the principal translator and co-literary agent of the translation project, has played a dominant role and has put her “fingerprints” on Chang's translation, thus considerably smoothing out stylistic divergences of their translated texts. The two translators have deftly co-projected Jin Yong's wuxia as modern, cosmopolitan, and entertaining, thus facilitating the reception of their translations. This study sheds new light on the dynamics of collaboration between literary translators and contributes to the research methodology of translation style.

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This study explores the interaction effect between source text (ST) complexity and machine translation (MT) quality on the task difficulty of neural machine translation (NMT) post-editing from English to Chinese. When investigating human effort exerted in post-editing, existing studies have seldom taken both ST complexity and MT quality levels into account, and have mainly focused on MT systems used before the emergence of NMT. Drawing on process and product data of post-editing from 60 trainee translators, this study adopted a multi-method approach to measure post-editing task difficulty, including eye-tracking, keystroke logging, quality evaluation, subjective rating, and retrospective written protocols. The results show that: 1) ST complexity and MT quality present a significant interaction effect on task difficulty of NMT post-editing; 2) ST complexity level has a positive impact on post-editing low-quality NMT (i.e., post-editing task becomes less difficult when ST complexity decreases); while for post-editing high-quality NMT, it has a positive impact only on the subjective ratings received from participants; and 3) NMT quality has a negative impact on its post-editing task difficulty (i.e., the post-editing task becomes less difficult when MT quality goes higher), and this impact becomes stronger when ST complexity increases. This paper concludes that both ST complexity and MT quality should be considered when testing post-editing difficulty, designing tasks for post-editor training, and setting fair post-editing pricing schemes.

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Prefabricated orality is an inherent trait of dramatic texts, given their written-to-be-spoken nature. From the perspective of translation, it has been observed in the literature that rendering this specific mode of discourse into another language poses a major challenge (Baños & Chaume, 2009). However, scant attention has thus far been paid to how prefabricated orality is realised linguistically in translations of theatre plays. This article sets out to offer an overview of syntactic and lexical-semantic features that mirror spoken discourse in a parallel corpus of theatre texts. More specifically, by drawing on an analytical framework proposed for audiovisual texts (Baños, 2014: 414), it aims (1) to verify the presence and incidence of orality markers in the original plays and their translations, and (2) to identify tendencies in translation techniques. Our findings reveal that playwrights and translators resort to a wide range of linguistic features typical of spoken discourse, especially vocatives, repetitions, discourse markers, intensifiers and deixis. In addition, results bring to light the use of different translation options and a possible compensation strategy.

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The Routledge Handbook of Audiovisual Translation appeared as the sixth volume in the prestigious Routledge Handbooks in Translation and Interpreting Studies series. The topicality of this review is justified by the recent publication of the paperback edition (2021) while the hardcover version came out in 2019. Although entries on audiovisual translation (AVT) can be found in many of the handbooks, encyclopedias and companions published on translation studies (TS) since the turn of the millennium, this volume is unique in that it is devoted solely to AVT and covers a wide array of theoretical and methodological issues

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The book reviewed here constitutes an extremely important volume in current Hungarian sociolinguistics literature. It contains the results of research, deeply empirically grounded, on the language – primarily speech, grammar and style – used by native speakers of Hungarian who live in the Hungarian capital city of Budapest. The edited volume contains 3 introductory + 16 research-based studies, based on a large-scale data-collection of texts gained via interviewing of speakers. Almost a quarter of the present population of Hungary live in the capital on a permanent basis. The project of investigating Budapest speech in the framework of the Budapest Sociolinguistics

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In the late 90s, there was a general assumption that Translation Studies (TS) turned away from linguistics and irrevocably entered into an alliance with different cultural studies. The recently published volume, Systemic Functional Linguistic and Translation Studies edited by Mira Kim, Jeremy Munday, Zhenhua Wang and Pin Wang, proves otherwise: the union between Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and TS is flourishing.

The hardcover edition contains ten studies that are the outcome of ten years of collaboration between researchers of both disciplines and whose undertaking was accompanied by several round tables and conferences in China and Australia, as we

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Translation assessment represents a productive line of research in Translation Studies. An array of methods has been trialled to assess translation quality, ranging from intuitive assessment to error analysis and from rubric scoring to item-based assessment. In this article, we introduce a lesser-known approach to translation assessment called comparative judgement. Rooted in psychophysical analysis, comparative judgement grounds itself on the assumption that humans tend to be more accurate in making relative judgements than in making absolute judgements. We conducted an experiment, as both a methodological exploration and a feasibility investigation, in which novice and experienced judges were recruited to assess English-Chinese translation, using a computerised comparative judgement platform. The collected data were analysed to shed light on the validity and reliability of assessment results and the judges’ perceptions. Our analysis shows that (1) overall, comparative judgement produced valid measures and facilitated judgement reliability, although such results seemed to be affected by translation directionality and judges’ experience, and (2) the judges were generally confident about their decisions, despite some emergent factors undermining the validity of their decision making. Finally, we discuss the use of comparative judgement as a possible method in translation assessment and its implications for future practice and research.

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The paper presents the concept of a comparative topical dictionary of set similes, which allows to fully reflect the axiological parameters of phraseological material. The choice of the object of vocabulary description which is set similes (comparative phraseological units) is justified by their direct correlation with the category of evaluation and the individual value system. It is emphasized that in the act of phraseological nomination, axiologically oriented is the choice of the object of comparison that requires evaluation, and the image of comparison that refers the native speaker and the researcher to the sphere of origin of the turnover, to its history. These phraseological parameters have been thoroughly investigated on the material of various languages. However, bilingual dictionaries do not give a complete picture of the evaluative phraseological universals and the ethnocultural specifics of phraseological comparisons. A bilingual dictionary of a special type will help solve this problem, realizing the idea of parallel-contrastive representation of the material, which determines the relevance of our research presented in this article on the material of the Russian and Czech languages. The article deals with such theoretical issues of phraseology as the axiological potential of a comparative phraseological unit, the paradigmatics of the axiological space of comparative phraseology, axiological characteristics of the comparison standard, etc.

Referring to the dictionary entries formed within the framework of the concept, the feasibility of multi-directional linguoaxiological development of set similes in two sections of the comparative dictionary has been proved: from the general phraseological image to the meaning of phraseological units and their axiological orientation as well as from the meaning of a phraseological unit to methods of associative-figurative transmission of evaluative connotations.

In the first case, the phrase-forming potential of the figurative cores representing the model manifestations of the evaluated attributes is revealed, while ethnoculturally determined discrepancies of the axiological charge of the image are commented on. In the second case, the attribute itself is characterized from the standpoint of its practical significance for speakers of different linguistic cultures. A model of parallel-contrasting dictionary macro-entry structuring is presented: the filling of parametric zones, the features of metalanguage use, and the graphic ways of displaying types of figurative-axiological correspondences.

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Kristijanovićeve kajkavske prerade Ezopa •

Raščlamba devet parova basni iz Danice zagrebečke i Ezopuševih basni pohorvačenih

Kristijanović’s Kajkavian Adaptations of Aesop •

An Analysis of Nine Pairs of Fables from Danica zagrebečka and Ezopuševe basne pohorvačene
Studia Slavica
Authors: Vladimira Rezo and Barbara Štebih Golub

U radu se uspoređuje devet parova kajkavskih obrada Ezopovih basni. Preradio ih je Ignac Kristijanović, posljednji borac za kajkavski književni jezik, a objavio u kajkavskom kalendaru Danica zagrebečka (1842– 1848) i u knjizi Ezopove basne pohorvačene (1843).

Već je na prvi pogled vidljivo da su basne objavljene u knjizi kraće, a Olga Šojat navela je sadržajne i stilske razlike između basni iz Danice i knjige, dok je Joža Skok naglasio kako kraće basne imaju više kajkavskih elemenata. Prva tvrdnja zahtijevala je sadržajnu i strukturnu analizu, a druga jezičnu usporedbu dviju vrsta basni na svim jezičnim razinama.

Analizi strukture i sadržaja pristupilo se sa stajališta teorije recepcije koja je usmjerena na čitatelja knji-ževnog djela. Basne su analizirane metodom usporedbe, a na promatrane su sastavnice primijenjena saznanja teoretičara i povjesničara basne.

Teorijski okvir jezične analize korpusa čini povijesna sociolingvistika, koja jezične probleme nastoji uklopiti i promatrati u širem društveno-povijesnome kontekstu. Kombinirajući navedene metode (analiziramo varijantnost na inačicama teksta istoga autora / prevoditelja / prerađivača objavljene u različitim izdanjima i unutar vremenskoga okvira od nekoliko godina), nastojali smo odgovoriti na pitanje koliko se Kristijanovićev jezik u knjižici basni razlikuje od onoga u Danici te potvrditi ili opovrgnuti spomenutu Skokovu tvrdnju kako je u kalendaru Kristijanović štokavizirao svoje tekstove.

Raščlamba strukture i sadržaja devet parova basni dovela nas je do zaključka o naglašenu fabuliranju dužih inačica iz Danice. Nju je Kristijanović postigao zamjetnom uporabom dijaloga, mjestimičnom ironijom stvorenom upravo dijaloškim dionicama, podrobnijim opisima i najavama okolnosti radnje te raznim konkretizacijama, tipičnima za narodnu bajku i pripovijetku. Držimo da je cilj takvoga naglaska na gradnji fabule privlačenje nesofisticirane publike, one koju treba animirati i čiju pažnju treba zadržati.

Raščlamba provedena na jezičnoj razini pokazala je da jezik Kristijanovićevih basni, i onih objavljenih u samostalnoj knjižici i onih iz Danice, ima obilježja tipična za kajkavski književni jezik 19. st. Usporedbom s jezičnim osobinama drugih Kristijanovićevih djela utvrdili smo da se analizirani tekstovi uklapaju u njegov opus. Istom smo usporedbom ustanovili i da se neke jezične osobitosti (van, dan) jezika basni ne mogu interpretirati kao štokavizacija teksta jer su prisutne na razini čitavoga autorova opusa.

Istraživanje je pokazalo da je Kristijanović priređujući basne objavljene u Danici, nerijetko birao književnokajkavske elemente (npr. futur tvoren s pomoćnim glagolom hoteti, na leksičkoj razini izbor riječi lisica) kojima je svoje tekstove činio pristupačnijima i govornicima drugih narječja. Poznajući oštre Kristijanovićeve stavove o ilircima i njihovoj jezičnoj koncepciji, smatramo da unošenje takvih elemenata nikako nije znakom autorova prihvaćanja ilirskih stavova ili književnoga jezika štokavske osnovice, već je eventualno riječ o pokušaju širenja čitateljske publike.

The paper compares nine pairs of Kajkavian adaptations of Aesop’s fables. They were reworked by Ignac Kristijanović, the last fighter for the Kajkavian literary language, and published in the Kajkavian calendar Danica zagrebečka (1842–1848) and in the book Ezopove basne pohorvačene (1843).

At first glance, it is obvious that the fables published in the book are shorter, and Olga Šojat mentioned the content and stylistic differences between the fables from Danica and the book, while Joža Skok emphasized that shorter fables have more Kajkavian elements. The first statement required an analysis of the content and structure, and the second a linguistic comparison of the two types of fables at all language levels.

The analysis of the structure and content was approached from the point of view of the reception theory, which focuses on the reader of the literary work. Fables were analyzed by the method of comparison, and the findings of fable theorists and historians were applied to the observed components.

The theoretical framework of language analysis was historical sociolinguistics, which seeks to fit and observe language problems in a broader sociohistorical context. The combination of three sociolinguistic methods, the analysis of variance in the same text, in its versions, and in other texts by the same author, sought to answer the question of how much Kristijanović’s language in the book differs from the language in Danica and to confirm or refute Skok’s claim that Kristijanović made his texts in Danica more Štokavian.

The analysis of the structure and content led us to the conclusion that the longer fable versions from Danica are more fabled. Kristijanović achieved this through a noticeable use of dialogue, occasional irony created through dialogue components, more detailed descriptions and announcements of the circumstances of the action, and various concretizations, typical of folk tales and short stories. We believe that the goal of such an emphasis on storytelling was to attract an unsophisticated audience, which needs to be animated.

The analysis conducted at the linguistic level showed that the language of both types of fables has features typical of the Kajkavian literary language of the 19th century, the analyzed texts fit into the author’s opus, and some linguistic features (van, dan) of the fable cannot be interpreted as Štokavization because they are present at the level of the entire opus of the author.

The research showed that in longer fables Kristijanović often chose elements of the Kajkavian literary language (e.g. the future tense created with an auxiliary verb hotel, on the lexical level by choosing the word lesica), thus making his texts available to speakers of other dialects. Knowing his sharp views on the Illyrian linguistic conception, we believe that such elements in fables do not mean the author’s acceptance of the Illyrian views or the literary language on the Štokavian basis but it is an attempt to expand the readership.

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The Narrator (Author) and the Hero in T. Shevchenko’s Poem The Funeral Feast

To the History of the Establishment of the National Prophet-Poet

Studia Slavica
Authors: Mykola Filon and Tatiana Shekhovtsova

The study deals with the images of the narrator / author and the prophet – the lyrical character in T. Shevchenko’s poem The Funeral Feast [Tryzna]. The purpose of the study is to comprehend the author’s conception and to reveal the whole range of the ways of expressing the author’s “self ”.

In this poem, the lyrical subject is variable. He functions as the author proper as well as the narrating author and the lyrical “I”, sometimes getting the features of the lyrical character. At the same time, the narrator and the character have in common the motif of prophetical service, prophetical mission.

The sense structure of the image of the prophet presents in Shevchenko’s poem a synthesis of traditional and original senses. Shevchenko combines the social with the philosophic and the ethical, the universal artistic with the individual ontological. A prophet is not just an artistic image but also a modus of social existence of the writer in his ambition through his works to promote God’s laws of society and personality on the earth as a continuation of life itself.

Instead of abstract philosophic speculations and complete negation, the poet creates a special modus of his view of life and attitude towards people. This modus is love; however, it is not love in a simplified, trivial and commonplace meaning but in a deeper, religious-ontological comprehensive sense.

The Funeral Feast appears to have the main elements of the motif-symbolic complex of romantic literature: the estrangement of the hero longing for heavenly harmony, prayerful yearning for the heaven he keeps memories of, selectness, loneliness, and orphanhood in earthly captivity, the motifs of the lost heaven, of death as rest and death as meeting. The hero is represented as a creative personality that finds itself in a tragic contradiction with the world.

One of the significant semantic oppositions is that of the word and silence. In Shevchenko’s poem, this problem is considered in terms of a transition from silent act to action word. The work on The Funeral Feast actually reveals the insolvability of the contradiction between the prophet’s two guises (“the meek prophet” – “the severe prophet”), thus forming a complex dualistic image.

In Shevchenko’s creative development, The Funeral Feast was an important step in comprehending the theme of the poet and his prophetic vocation, it marks a significant stage of the author’s spiritual and creative establishment. The poet in his higher mission is understood in the poem as a personality of a national and supernational, seraphic scale, which determines his role and place in society and in the world. The lyrical-epic nature of the genre made it possible to refer the self-expression of the author’s lyrical “I” to the objectification and personification of the lyrical character. The lyrical subject includes various forms of expressing the author’s consciousness, while the hero conceptualizes the perfect model of a creative personality in his / her prophetic essence.

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O leksiku u kajkavskom narječju

Vocabulary in the Kajkavian Dialect

Studia Slavica
Author: Đuro Blažeka

U radu se daju temeljni podatci o kajkavskom leksiku, njegovu podrijetlu, kontaktu s mađarskim i njemačkim jezikom te suvremenim pojavama u interferenciji s hrvatskim standardnim jezikom (pseudoanalogonimija, najnovije semantičke adaptacije). Kako je leksik hrvatskih kajkavskih govora rubno zastupljen u postojećim etimološkim rječnicima hrvatskoga jezika, u radu se ističe da je teško napraviti klasifikaciju velikog broja leksema koji se ne nalaze ni u kojem od slavenskih jezika.

Kod leksičkog posuđivanja hungarizama vrlo je rijetko riječ o popunjavanju leksičkih praznina, a mnogo češće o posuđivanju zbog izvanjezičnih razloga (zemljopisnih i političkih) jer ih je velika većina u trenutku primarne adaptacije imala ekvivalente u govorima primaocima. Od semantičkih polja koje pokrivaju hungarizmi najbrojnije je ono koje se odnosi na pejorativna značenja u kontekstu osobina, izgleda i ponašanja ljudi, a od onih koje pokrivaju germanizmi je ono koje se odnosi na tehničke izraze iz najrazličitijih obrta.

Arhaičan kajkavski leksik ili nestaje ili suvremenim semantičkim adaptacijama pronalazi novo mjesto u vokabularu suvremenih govornika kajkavskog narječja. Apostrofira se velika učestalost deminutiva / hipokoristika, i to ne samo kao tvorbena mogućnost ili rubni sloj leksika, već kao izuzetno često korišteni leksik u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji. Opisuju se istraživanja pseudoanalogonimije koja su osim za lingvističke spoznaje važna i za metodiku nastave hrvatskog jezika, što bi mogla biti stožerna točka oko koje bi i kajkavsko narječje dobilo bolji položaj u školama.

Na kraju se govori o najnovijim trendovima u istraživanju kajkavskog leksika i solidnom razvoju kajkavske dijalektne leksikologije zbog pojave velikog broja amatera koji cijeli život skupljaju leksik i prepuštaju njegovu obradu jezikoslovcima pa djelo objave kao zajednički rad. Na kraju se predlaže metodologija istraživanja razlikovnosti leksika između pojedinih mjesnih govora kad za neki mjesni govor već postoji objavljeni opsežni znanstveni rječnik. Na taj bi se način lakše pratili procesi širenja i rasprostranjenosti najrazličitijih jezičnih pojava iz područja semantike i tvorbe riječi, a ne samo općepoznatih jezičnih izoglosa koje se tiču uglavnom fonologije.

U zaključku se ističe da je posljednji trenutak da se leksička istraživanja kajkavskog narječja intenziviraju jer za razliku od fonologije i morfologije, semantika je puno brže podložnija promjenama s obzirom na to da nove realije doslovce svakodnevno prodiru u suvremeni život, a to se manifestira na i na standardni jezik i na interdijalekt i na mjesne govore.

The paper provides basic information about the Kajkavian lexicon, its origin, its contact with the Hungarian and German languages and about contemporary phenomena in its interference with the Croatian standard language (pseudo-analogonymy and the latest semantic adaptations). As the lexicon of Croatian Kajkavian dialects is marginally represented in the existing etymological dictionaries of the Croatian language, the paper points out that it is difficult to classify a large number of lexemes that are not found in any of the Slavic languages.

Lexical borrowing of Hungarianisms occurs very rarely to fill in lexical gaps and is much more common for non-linguistic reasons (geographical and political) because the vast majority of them had equivalents in the recipients’ vernaculars at the time of primary adaptation. Of the semantic fields covered by Hungarianisms, the most numerous is the one that refers to pejorative meanings in the context of human characteristics, appearance and behaviour, whereas those covered by Germanisms refer to technical expressions from various trades.

The archaic Kajkavian lexicon either disappears or finds a new place in the vocabulary of modern speakers of the Kajkavian dialect with modern semantic adaptations. A high frequency of diminutives / hypocorisms is emphasized, not only as a creative possibility or a marginal layer of vocabulary but also as an extremely frequently used vocabulary in everyday communication. Research activities of pseudo-analogonymy are described. They are important not only for linguistic knowledge but also for the methodology of teaching the Croatian language, which could be a pivotal point around which the Kajkavian dialect could get a better position in schools.

The paper continues to talk about the latest trends in the research of Kajkavian lexicon and the solid development of Kajkavian dialect lexicology due to the emergence of a large number of amateurs who collect lexicon all their lives and leave it to linguists and publish the work as a joint work. Finally, a methodology for researching the distinctiveness of lexicons between individual local dialects is proposed, when an extensive scientific dictionary already exists for a local dialect. In this way, it would be easier to follow the processes of spreading and prevalence of various linguistic phenomena in the field of semantics and word formation, and not only the well-known linguistic isoglosses that concern mainly phonology.

In conclusion, it is pointed out that it is the last moment to intensify the lexical research studies of the Kajkavian dialect because, unlike phonology and morphology, semantics is much more susceptible to change, given that new real objects literally penetrate modern life on a daily basis and this is manifested in both the standard language and in the interdialect and the local vernaculars.

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This paper aims to explore the literary creations of the Czech poet Julius Zeyer (1841–1901) within the complexity of his poetic works, except dramas. The poet, prosaist, and dramatist Julius Zeyer ranks among the classic Czech authors active in the second half of the 19th century. Literary historians traditionally link him with the Lumír generation but he is often grouped also with the New Romantics contributing to periodicals Ruch, Lumír, and Květy, or, possibly, with the ‘sensitives’ of the 19th-century European culture.

His works comprise texts of indisputable, time-honoured value, beside the texts on the verge of conventional fiction. Quantitatively, the literary production of Julius Zeyer comprises more than two thirds of epic works; almost two fifths are dramas; only a few of them are (purely) lyrical poems representing just a fraction of his comprehensive output. The proportions of the explored poetry and prose also feature two-third ratio in favour of prose against (in Zeyer, mostly epic) poetry.

The starting point of our search for specific features of his authorial style was the accentuation of Zeyer’s “epicism” and “lyricism” in references, i.e. throughout the overall reception of the poet’s texts, regardless of literary genres, often coexisting in contradictory meanings. Specifically, this study aims at the identification and linguistic analysis of selected devices to convey epic and lyric aspects in Zeyer’s epic poetry and prose.

Despite the dominant representation of epics and prose, Zeyer’s style shows distinctly lyrical features, even within the extent of his production as a whole. The lyrical nature of his epic works is enhanced by his exclusively visual imagery, purposely different from common speech, with stylistically marked bookish and archaic elements, bearing the marks of literary art nouveau.

In the middle and final stages of the poet’s creative career, his lyricism is enhanced by the changing rhythm of his narrative accentuated by the receding textual dramatization; by a greater share of non-narrative segments in the story; and through the tension ensuing from the contrasts between subjectivity / objectivity; between personification / impersonality; or between outer / inner perspective of the narrative, based on the linguistic form of concrete fictional texts and on the concrete perspective in which the story is actually mediated. Displayed in all of his literary works, lyricism is a characteristic and permanent feature of Julius Zeyer’s authorial style.

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В последнее время интерес к пищевому коду разных народов и его «консервации» в фразеологии заметно вырос, о чем свидетельствуют разноаспектные работы. В данной статье рассматриваются некоторые лексико-тематические группы устойчивых сравнений, в которых содержатся названия блюд национальной кухни украинцев (борщ, тестяные изделия, шкварки). Даже этот небольшой об-зор блюд национальной кухни характеризует пищевой стереотип украинцев, отразившийся в таком обширном пласте фразеологии, как устойчивые сравнения.

Одни из блюд до сих пор остаются константами традиционной национальной кухни, другие стали архаизмами, встречаясь в составе компаративизмов как лексико-семантически устаревшие слова, сохраняя информацию о том, что ели предшествующие поколения. Время, разного рода об-стоятельства и реалии современности внесли свои коррективы, и многие блюда готовятся иначе, не так, как раньше, с измененным внешним видом, составом ингредиентов и пр.; обрядовая же сим-волика их практически утрачена, забыта. Метафорически переосмысленные, блюда национальной кухни этноса характеризуют особенности поведения, черты характера, внешность, манеру речи и т. д. человека.

В статье рассматриваются как устаревшие сравнения, так и те, которые активно используются в настоящее время. К анализу привлекается не только зафиксированный словарями материал, но и не получивший словарную «прописку». В дополнение к этому автор дает возможные культурные, исторические и этимологические комментарии к устойчивым сравнениям; показывает значение фразеологических единиц и компонентов, входящих в состав сравнений.

Рассмотренный материал иллюстрирует богатый фразеологический потенциал названий блюд в украинских сравнениях, что особенно заметно на фоне других языков. Для выявления эквива-лентности – безэквивалентности сравнений был использован фразеологический материал других славянских языков. Также задействован неславянский материал. В некоторых случаях использо-вался метод структурно-семантического моделирования. Сопоставительный анализ устойчивых сравнений иллюстрируют как межъязыковую общность мотивационных идей, так и национально-спе цифичное, выявляемое на уровне образа сравнения, структурно-семантической модели или того и другого одновременно.

Recently, the interest in the names of dishes of different peoples and their “conservation” in phraseology has significantly grown, as it is evidenced by a diversity of works on this topic. The paper considers some lexico-thematic groups of similes which contain the names of dishes of the national cuisine of Ukrainians (borsch, dough dishes, and pork rinds). Even this small review of the dishes of the national cuisine characterizes the food stereotypes of Ukrainians, reflected in such an extensive layer of phraseology as similes.

Some of them still remain constant elements of the traditional national cuisine, while others have become archaisms occurring as lexico-semantically obsolete words in the composition of similes, preserving information about what previous generations ate. Time, various circumstances, and realia of modernity have made their own adjustments, and many dishes are prepared differently, not as before, with a changed form, composition of ingredients, etc.; their ritual symbolism is practically lost and forgotten. Metaphorically reinterpreted, the dishes of the national cuisine of an ethnic group characterize the features of the behaviour, character traits, appearance, manner of speech, etc. of a person.

The paper deals with both outdated similes and those that are actively used nowadays. The analysis involves not only the material recorded by dictionaries but also the material that has not received registration in dictionaries. In addition to this, the author gives some cultural, historical, and etymological comments to similes as well as shows the meaning of phraseological units and components that are parts of similes.

The analyzed material illustrates the rich phraseological potential of the names of dishes in Ukrainian similes, which is especially noticeable against the background of other languages. The phraseological material of other Slavic languages was used to identify the equivalence or non-equivalence of similes. The author also involves non-Slavic material. In some cases, the method of structural and semantic modelling was used. The comparative analysis of similes illustrates both the interlingual commonality of motivating ideas, and the nationally specific peculiarities revealed at the level of the image of comparison, the structural-semantic model, or both at the same time.

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Studia Slavica
Authors: Полина Оленева and Анна Литовкина

В течение многих столетий паремии (пословицы и поговорки) служили великолепной почвой для бесконечной трансформации. В последние же десятилетия паремиологическая трансформация приняла такие масштабы, что порой можно чаще встретить трансформы, чем традиционные паре-мии. Вольфганг Мидер назвал такого рода паремии антипословицами (нем. Antisprichwörter, англ. anti-proverbs). Этот термин был широко принят паремиологами всего мира.

Данная статья посвящена анализу русских пословиц и антипословиц о деньгах. В первой части работы были рассмотрены способы трансформации традиционных русских по-словиц: замена одного или двух слов; замена второй или первой части пословицы; добавление новых слов или, наоборот, выпадение слов; использование буквального значения вместо метафоричного; смешение нескольких пословиц. Многие антипословицы одновременно включают в себя несколько способов трансформации.

Во второй части статьи мы кратко осветили такие понятия как семантическое поле и гиперсема в контексте денег (к которой относятся помимо лексемы деньги также и такие слова как рубль, ко- пейка, платить, богатый, бедный, золото, долг, платеж и др.), а также мы привели примеры по-словиц о деньгах из различных языков мира (например, из английского, немецкого, французского, испанского, итальянского).

Третья часть статьи была посвящена анализу русских пословиц и антипословиц о деньгах. Сна-чала нами были рассмотрены примеры трансформации пословиц, в текстах которых есть слова, относящиеся к гиперсеме «деньги» (19 примеров). Потом мы направили фокус нашего внимания на антипословицы, в текстах которых присутствовала гиперсема «деньги», но в самих пословицах ее не было (14 примеров). Всего в этих двух разделах нами было проанализировано 33 русские пословицы и 88 антипословиц о деньгах. Фокус нашего внимания был прежде всего на том, что происходит в ходе трансформации с пословицами, какие виды трансформации являются наиболее популярны-ми в нашем корпусе, а также мы рассмотрели, какие смысловые изменения происходят с послови-цами во время их модификации. Эту часть статьи мы завершили анализом трех самых популярных в нашем корпусе пословиц о деньгах: Не в деньгах счастье; Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей; Долг платежом красен и их многочисленных переделок.

Большая часть антипословиц о деньгах отражают актуальные реалии для носителей русского языка, в которых добавлены темы секса, коррупции, преступного мира, работы, кредитов, здоровья, ежедневных будней и праздников, качеств характера и др. По мнению В. Мидера, антипословицы нередко становятся моралистичными или даже дидактичными высказываниями, и мы это наглядно увидели на примере многочисленных антипословиц о деньгах.

For centuries, proverbs have provided a framework for endless transformation. In recent decades, the modification of proverbs has taken such proportions that sometimes we can even meet more proverb transformations than traditional proverbs. Wolfgang Mieder has coined the term anti-proverb (or in German, Anti- sprichwort) for such deliberate proverb innovations. This term has been widely accepted by paremiologists all over the world as a general label for such innovative alterations and reactions to traditional proverbs.

This paper is devoted to the analysis of Russian proverbs and anti-proverbs about money.

In the first part of the work, we have demonstrated various mechanisms of proverb variation, e.g. replacing a single word; substituting two or more words; changing the second part of the proverb; adding new words; omitting words; adding literal interpretations; melding two proverbs. Many anti-proverbs include several ways of transformation.

In the second part of the paper, at first, we have briefly covered such notions as the semantic field of the word money (which includes, in addition to the lexeme money, such words as ruble, kopeyka, pay, rich, poor, gold, debt, payment, etc.). Moreover, we have also introduced examples of proverbs about money from various languages of the world (for example, English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian).

The third part of the paper has been devoted to the analysis of Russian proverbs and anti-proverbs about money. In the first section, we have considered examples of transformations of proverbs with words related to the semantic field of the word money (19 proverbs). In the second section, we have focused on anti-proverbs in which the words belonging to this semantic field are present but in the original proverbs are absent (14 proverbs). In a nutshell, in these two sections, we have analyzed 33 Russian proverbs and 88 anti-proverbs about money. Mainly, we have focused on what happens during proverb transformation as well as on what types of transformation are the most common in our corpus. In addition, we have also examined various types of semantic change occurring to proverbs during their modification. We have finished the third part of the paper with an analysis of three most common proverbs about money in our corpus: Не в деньгах счастье [Money does not bring happiness]; Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей [Do not have a hundred roubles but have a hundred friends]; Долг платежом красен [Debt should be returned by paying back].

The vast majority of the anti-proverbs about money portray real situations for native speakers of Russian. Among the themes treated in our proverb alterations are sexuality, corruption, criminal world, work, credits, health, weekdays and holidays, character traits, etc. According to Mieder, anti-proverbs often become moralistic or even didactic statements, and we have observed it in the numerous anti-proverbs about money treated in our study.

Open access
Studia Slavica
Authors: Микола Калько and Валентина Калько

У статті на матеріалі одного з багатозначних дієслів сучасної української літературної мови уна-очнено можливість, доцільність та ефективність застосування об’єктивістського підходу до опису категорій аспектуальності та виду, що акцентує увагу на залежності оцінки внутрішньочасового характеру ситуації від онтологічної специфіки екстралінгвальних корелятів дієслова, визначальної для способу їхньої мовної категоризації і неодмінно передбачає передовсім розмежування грама-тичного (категорії виду) та лексичного (аспектуальні класи) компонентів аспектуальності. Доведе-но, що такий підхід дає змогу, використовуючи відповідний дослідницький інструментарій (у цій розвідці – комплексна аспектологічна діагностика), створити об’єктивну, удокладнену, а не спроще-ну, схематичну модель аспектуальної парадигми полісемічної дієслівної лексеми.

Аспектуальну макропарадигму конституюють: 1) аспектуально-лексична мікропарадигма, яку наповнюють аспектуально-лексичні класи: термінативний, активітивний, стативний, евентивний, релятивний; 2) аспектуально-граматична парадигма, що об’єднує аспектуально-граматичні класи: імперфективи-партнери, перфективи-партнери, imperfeсtiva tantum, perfeсtiva tantum, біаспективи; 3) аспектуально-прагматична парадигма, що інтегрує конкретно-видові функції, зокрема прогре-сивну, ітеративну, preasens historicum, конкретно-фактичну тощо; 4) аспектуально-дериватологіч-на мікропарадигма, яка консолідує акціональні підкласи (традиційні роди, чи способи дії) як мор-фолого-словотвірні префіксальні, суфіксальні, конфіксальні деривати: атенуативи, дистрибутиви, дуративи, пердуративи, сатуративи, семельфактиви, кумулятиви, редуплікативи тощо.

На особливу увагу заслуговують у цьому дослідницькому контексті безпрефіксні імперфективи з дифузною семантикою. Комплексна аспектологічна діагностика таких дієслів дає змогу виявити всі тонкощі аспектуальної «палітри» дієслівного полісеманта. Зокрема, моделювання аспектуаль-ної макропарадигми полісемічного дієслова рвати засвідчує наявність у його аспектуально-лек-сичній мікропарадигмі семантем, що належать до п’яти різних аспектуальних класів: термінативів, активітивів, евентивів, стативів і релятивів. Аспектуальний клас визначає відповідний тип аспек-туально-граматичної, аспектуально-прагматичної, аспектуально-дериватологічної мікропарадигм: скажімо, термінативам притаманні суто видове, функціонально-видове й акціональне партнерство, прогресивна функція. Термінативними є одинадцять семантем, що відображають агентивні подіє-спрямовані процеси. Активітиви, евентиви, стативи та релятиви мають свою специфіку, яка описа-на у статті.

Усебічне дослідження закономірностей категоризації аспектуальної семантики на засадах об’єк-тивістського підходу із застосуванням комплексної аспектологічної діагностики уможливлює ви-явлення всього спектра аспектуальних характеристик дієслівної лексеми й найтонших нюансів її аспектуальної поведінки, а отже, об’єктивне моделювання аспектуальної парадигми.

Based on the case of a modern Ukrainian polysemantic verb, the paper regards the perspective of employing the objective means for describing the categories of aspect and aspectuality, which focuses on the dependence of the assessment of the intratemporal nature of the situation on the ontological specification of the verb’s extralingual correlates that is significant to their linguistic category of arrangement and predominantly lies in differentiating between grammatical (aspect categories) and lexical (aspectuality classes) components of aspectuality. Carried out through appropriate investigatory means (i.e. complex aspectology survey), the paper supports that the approach enables to create an objective and detailed but not simplified or schematic model for the aspectual paradigm in a polysemantic verbal lexeme.

The aspectual macroparadigm is constituted by: 1) an aspectual lexical microparadigm, consisting of aspectual lexical classes: terminative, activitive, stative, eventive, and relative; 2) an aspectual grammatical microparadigm with aspectual grammatical classes: imperfective partners, perfective partners, imperfeсtiva tantum, perfeсtiva tantum, and biaspectives; 3) an aspectual pragmatic microparadigm, integrating concrete aspect functions, among them progressive, iterative, praesens historicum, concrete factual, etc.; 4) an aspectual derivatological microparadigm, consolidating actional subclasses (traditional genders, or moods), like morphologic word-building prefixal, suffixal, and confixal derivatives: atenuatives, distributives, duratives, perduratives, saturatives, semelfactives, cumulatives, reduplicatives, etc.

In the investigation, special attention should be paid to prefixless imperfective forms with diffusive semantics. The complex aspect-centred analysis of these verbs enables to single out all shades of aspectuality in the polysemantic meaning of the verb. Thus, modelling an aspectual paradigm of the polysemantic verb рвати ‘tear’ reveals some special semantic units found within its aspectual lexical paradigm: they clearly belong to 5 distinct aspectual classes, those of terminatives, activitives, eventives, statives, and relatives. The aspectual class signifies the correlative type of aspectual lexical, aspectual pragmatic, and aspectual derivatological microparadigms: actually, terminatives contain specifically aspectual, functional-aspectual, and actional partnership in progressive function. The 11 semantic units reflecting agentive action-aimed processes appear to be terminative ones. Activitives, eventives, statives, and relatives contain their own specific features depicted in the paper.

The complex analysis of category arrangement rules for aspectual grammatical meaning under the objective approach, together with complex aspectual investigation, enables to reveal a range of aspectual markers found within a verb unit as well as its subtlest features of aspect character and, thus, to create an actual aspectual paradigm.

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Studia Slavica
Authors: Лідія Кавун and Оксана Вертипорох

У статті досліджується проблема пам’яті в контексті художнього дискурсу української літератури рубежу ХХ–ХХІ століть. Романи Василя Шкляра, Володимира Лиса, Ліни Костенко, Євгена Паш-ковського, Тані Малярчук, Софії Андрухович та інших містять культурний код як засіб передачі інформації, котра історично накопичувалася у вигляді знаків і символів.

У сучасній українській літературі ми спостерігаємо реконструкцію культурного простору на ос-нові засвоєння, зберігання і перекодування знаків колективної та індивідуальної пам’яті. Тут пе-реплітаються історія та сучасність, автори роблять спробу поєднати індивідуальне й колективне українське, історичну автентичність і художню винахідливість; герої переосмислюють своє минуле та свою ідентичність. Зокрема, проаналізовано тексти Євгена Пашковського «Вовча зоря» (1991) та «Безодня» (1992), в яких розкривається автономний код (творчої) пам’яті. Йдеться про фундамен-тальні проблеми української історії, культури та колективної ідентичності, оперуючи якими пись-менник створює «нову пам’ять».

Пам’ять та історія, де пам’ять відображає індивідуальний особистий досвід конкретних історич-них подій, відтворено у романі Василя Шкляра «Чорний ворон» (2009). Володимир Лис розглядає життя особистості на тлі історії України в роки Першої та Другої світових воєн, колективізації, «роз-квіту» та нівелювання соціалізму і занепаду села в перші роки Незалежності. Ці теми представлені в романі «Століття Якова» (2010). Ліна Костенко присвячує роман «Записки українського сумас-шедшого» (2011) подоланню комунікативного розриву між членами родини, між Україною та світом на початку ХХІ століття. Про травматичний досвід, забуття та спогади в романі «Забуття» (2016) розповідає Таня Малярчук. Брати Капранови концептуалізують у романі «Забудь річка» (2016) об-раз пам’яті, який пов’язаний з аналізом проблем провини та спокути в аспекті «жити минулим, викорінюючи життя» тощо.

Культурно-ментальний поділ української родини і подолання розриву між східною та західною Україною, об’єднання різних людей в одну громаду стали предметом художнього осмислення Софії Андрухович у романі «Амадока» (2020). Семантика пам’яті пов’язана із засвоєнням, зберіганням і перекодуванням знаків (символів, образів, алюзій, цитат) культурного коду, який акумулює та пе-редає інформацію через історичний досвід.

The paper explores the problem of memory in the context of the artistic discourse of Ukrainian literature at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. The novels by Vasyl Shklyar, Volodymyr Lys, Lina Kostenko, Evgeny Pashkovsky, Tanya Malyarchuk, Sofia Andrukhovych, and others contain the cultural code as a means of transmitting information that has historically been accumulated here in the form of signs and symbols.

In modern Ukrainian literature, we observe the reconstruction of cultural space on the basis of the assimilation, storage, and recoding of signs of collective and individual memory. Here, history and modernity are intertwined, the authors make an attempt to unite individual and collective Ukrainian, historical authenticity and artistic invention; the heroes come to rethink their past and their identity. In particular, Evgeny Pashkovsky’s texts Wolf Star (1991) and Abyss (1992) are analyzed, in which the autonomous code of (creative) memory reveals itself. It is about the fundamental problems of Ukrainian history, culture, and collective identity, operating on which the writer creates a “new memory”.

Memory and history, where memory reflects the individual personal experience of specific historical events, is reproduced in the work by Vasyl Shklyar The Black Crow (2009). Volodymyr Lys addresses the life of an individual against the background of Ukrainian history during the First and Second World Wars, collectivization, “flourishing” and levelling of socialism, and the decline of the countryside in the first years of Independence. These themes are presented in the novel Jacobs Century (2010). Lina Kostenko dedicates the work Notes of the Ukrainian Madman (2011) to overcoming the communicative gap between family members, between Ukraine and the world at the beginning of the 21st century. Tanya Malyarchuk talks about traumatic experience, forgetfulness, and recollection in Oblivion (2016). The Kapranov Brothers conceptualize the image of memory in the novel Forget the River (2016), which is related to the analysis of the problems of guilt and redemption, living in the past, eradicating life, etc.

The cultural and mental division of the Ukrainian family and overcoming the gap between eastern and western Ukraine, connecting different people into one community became the subject of Sofia Andrukhovych’s artistic comprehension in the novel Amadoka (2020). The semantics of memory is related to the assimilation, storage, and recoding of signs (symbols, images, allusions, and quotations) of the cultural code, which accumulates and transmits information through historical experience.

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Прах и промах. А. Белый и В. Набоков: полигенетизм, параллель, пародия

“Prakh” and “Promakh” (Ashes and Failures). А. Belyi and V. Nabokov: Polygenetics, Parallelism, and Parody

Studia Slavica
Author: Жужа Хетени

В статье проводится анализ концовки двух романов двух авторов, «Серебряного голубя» А. Белого (1909) и «Отчаяния» В. Набокова (1934) с целью раскрыть, каким образом последний отвечает на традицию символизма и на его эмблематического автора-теоретика.

Влияние А. Белого на В. Набокова рассмотрено в статье как многоплановое явление, не только как следование по стопам принятого наследия или его отрицание. Это скорее внимание ученика к мастеру поэтической формы, рождающее стилистические параллели, с одной стороны, а с дру-гой стороны – это отношение к преодолеваемому литературному предшественнику, выражающееся в сложных трансформациях. Тончайшим жанром второго типа отношения является амбивалентная по натуре пародия, касающаяся и критики идейного и мировоззренческого плана.

Исходя из этих тезисов, статья, впервые в набоковедении, предлагает определить «Отчаяние» В. Набокова по жанру как роман философский.

Роман опровергает прежде всего символистскую теорию жизнетворчества, отвечая не только А. Белому, но, в более широком плане, и идейной и поэтической традиции Серебряного века.

Сравнение Дарьяльского с Германом, включением фигуры Раскольникова поставлено в статье в расширенный контекст «идейных убийств», касающихся вопроса свободы воли человеческой управлять своей судьбой, строить ее по планам. Особенно наглядно это в тройном сопоставлении, указывающем такое же амбивалентное отношение Набокова к наследию Достоевского, на которо-го явно опирается сюжет романа Набокова. Он становится объектом прямой пародии Набокова, открыто опровергающего и высмеивающего Достоевского, но тем самым (невольно) и ставит его в роль центральной фигуры внимания. Тройное сравнение раскрывает и то, что наследие Достоев-ского воспринято и интерпретировано Набоковым через наследие символизма. Это наследие, хоть и через кривые отражения, все же и именно тем самым и увеличено, ибо воспроизведение непосред-ственными предшественниками придает ему дополнительную глубину косвенной интерпретации.

Статья затрагивает своеобразие приема двойников у В. Набокова, который отрицал и высмеивал прием «Doppelgänger», и предлагается термин «псевдодвойники».

Приведенные тезисы основаны на тщательном анализе полигенетических коннотаций палки, ох-ватывающих культурные коды мифических аллюзий, античной и сакрально-библейской традиции, и косвенных, интертекстуальных литературных перекличек. В рассмотрении образа палки просле-живается сравнительная статистика синонимов в двух романах, и даже их языково-графические свойства; образы, построенные на форме букв ассоциациями автора-синестета.

The paper focuses on the endings of two novels by two authors, The Silver Dove by A. Bely (1909) and Despair by V. Nabokov (1934) to reveal how the latter responds to the tradition of Symbolism and its emblematic author-theorist.

The influence of A. Bely on V. Nabokov is considered in the paper as a multidimensional phenomenon, not only as following in the footsteps of the accepted heritage or its denial. Rather, it is the student’s attention to the master of the poetic form, giving rise to stylistic parallels, on the one hand, and on the other hand, it is the attitude to the literary predecessor being overcome, expressed in complex transformations. The finest genre of the second type of attitude is parody (ambivalent in its nature), parody, concerning here both ideological and philosophical criticism.

Based on these theses, the paper, for the first time in Nabokov studies, proposes to define Nabokov’s Despair as a philosophical novel by genre. The novel disproves, above all, the Symbolist theory of “zhiznetvorchestvo” (‘the creation of life’), responding not only to A. Bely but also to the ideological and poetic tradition of the Silver Age.

The comparison of Daryalsky to Herman, by also involving the figure of Raskolnikov, is placed in the paper in the extended context of “ideological murders” concerning the question of the freedom of the human will to control his fate, to build it according to human plans. This is particularly evident in the triple juxtaposition, which indicates the same ambivalent attitude of Nabokov toward the legacy of Dostoevsky, on which the plot of Nabokov’s novel is clearly based. He becomes the object of Nabokov’s direct parody, openly refuting and ridiculing Dostoevsky, but in doing so, (unwittingly) also places him as the central figure of attention. The triple comparison also reveals that Dostoevsky’s legacy is perceived and interpreted by Nabokov through the legacy of Symbolism. This legacy, even if through a distorted reflection, is nevertheless and precisely thereby magnified, for the reproduction by his immediate predecessors gives it an additional depth of indirect interpretation.

The paper touches upon the peculiarity of the reception of doubles in V. Nabokov and proposes the term pseudo-doubles (as the author denied and mocked the technique of Doppelgänger).

The thesis is based on a thorough analysis of polygenetic connotations of the stick, covering cultural codes of mythical allusions, ancient and sacral-biblical tradition, and indirect, intertextual literary interferences. In examining the image of the stick, the comparative statistics of synonyms of the word in the two novels are traced as well as their linguistic and graphic properties, images built on the form of letters by the synaesthete author’s associations.

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Роль прототипов нет и без в формировании и экспликации понятия «отсутствие» в русской поэзии

The Role of the Prototypes неm and без in the Formation and Explication of the Notion “Absence” in Poetic Texts

Studia Slavica
Authors: Е. А. Скоробогатова and О. В. Радчук

Объектом исследования является понятие «отсутствие», относящееся к таким базовым абстрак-тным понятиям, которые играют значительную роль в концептуальной системе языка и имеют важное социальное и культурное значение. Предметом исследования стали поэтические контексты, в которых данное понятие репрезентировано. Поэтические тексты выбраны для анализа не случай-но, поскольку именно в них отражение восприятия отсутствия вскрывает когнитивный потенциал личностей, подходящих индивидуально к отбору и использованию вербальных средств, передаю-щих это понятие. Проведенное исследование механизмов формирования и репрезентации понятия «отсутствие» в поэтическом тексте выполнено с учетом принципа антропоцентризма как осново-полагающего в когнитивной лингвистике. Лингвокогнитивный анализ, в основе которого лежит теория прототипического описания лексико-грамматических явлений, позволяет выявить широ-кий диапазон репрезентации понятия «отсутствие» в поэтическом дискурсе.

Предложенный методологический подход к изучению способов экспликации абстрактного поня-тия «отсутствие» в русском языке апробирован в исследовании поэтического языкового материала. Изучение поэтического представления понятия реализовано на основе концепции бинарного про-тивопоставления онтологически значимых понятий «наличие» – «отсутствие». С помощью прие-ма интерпретации выяснена роль прототипов нет и без в формировании и экспликации понятия «отсутствие» при создании поэтических мотивов, непосредственно передающих анализируемое понятие. Применение метода прототипического описания позволило раскрыть семантические нюансы, показать позитивные и негативные коннотации, репрезентирующие понятие «отсутствие» в поэзии.

Были выделены корреляции между способами использования частиц не и ни, предлогов и при-ставок не, ни, без как репрезентантов понятия «отсутствие» и представлением мотивов космической гармонии, бессмертия, искушения, увядания, гибели, отсутствия любви. Показано, что позитивная авторская оценка описываемого в стихотворном тексте создается при противопоставлении моти-вов гармонии и бессмертия с помощью диалектического объединения понятий «отсутствие» – «на-личие» путем их одновременного оязыковления в контекстах комплементарного типа.

Доминирование языковых репрезентантов понятия «отсутствие» приводит к формированию не-гативного оценочного контекста, который связан с мотивами искушения, увядания, гибели, любов-ного одиночества. Описание с когнитивных позиций значений лексических единиц, репрезентиро-ванных в поэтическом дискурсе, углубляет научное представление о семантике естественного языка как феномене психики человека.

The object of the study is the notion “absence” referring to the basic abstract notions that play a significant role in the conceptual system of any language and are of social and cultural significance. The subject of the research includes poetic contexts in which this notion is represented. Poetic texts have not been chosen by random since it is in them that the reflection of the perception of “absence” reveals the cognitive potential of personalities who individually select and use verbal means that convey this notion. The study of the mechanisms of the formation and representation of the notion “absence” in a poetic text is carried out taking into account the principle of anthropocentrism as a fundamental one in cognitive linguistics. Linguocognitive analysis based on the theory of prototypical description of lexico-grammatical phenomena makes it possible to identify a wide range of representation of the notion “absence” in poetic discourse.

The suggested methodological approach to the study of the ways of explication of the abstract notion “absence” in the Russian language has been tested in the study of poetic language material. The study of the poetic representation of the notion is realized on the basis of the binary opposition of ontologically significant notions “presence” / “absence”. With the help of the method of interpretation, the paper clarifies the role of prototypes нет and без in the formation and explication of the notion “absence” in creating poetic motifs that directly convey the notion under analysis. The use of the prototype description method made it possible to reveal semantic nuances, to show positive and negative connotations that represent the notion “absence” in poetry.

Correlations between the ways of using particles and prefixes не, ни, без as representatives of the notion “absence” and the presentation of the motives of cosmic harmony, immortality, temptation, fading, death, and lack of love are highlighted. It is shown that the author’s positive assessment of what is described in a poetic text is created when opposing the motives of harmony and immortality with the help of the dialectical unification of the notions “presence” / “absence” by means of their simultaneous verbalization in complementary contexts.

The dominance of the linguistic representatives of the notion “absence” leads to the formation of a negative evaluative context, which is associated with the motives of temptation, fading, death, and amorous loneliness. The description of the meanings of lexical units from the cognitive point of view represented in poetic discourse deepens the understanding of the semantics of a natural language as a phenomenon of human mentality.

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