Browse our Arts and Humanities Journals

Discover the Latest Journals in the Field of Arts and Humanities

Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

You are looking at 1 - 50 of 8,253 items for

  • All content x
Clear All

Стаття присвячена етимологічному, семантичному і функціональному аналізу когнітивної сфери вітання й побажання на матеріалі лексичних і фразеологічних засобів української та чеської мов з деякими паралелями в інших мовах. З такого погляду чеська та українська лексика і фразеологія ще не були предметом окремої студії. Цей аспект дослідження може бути корисним для вивчення проблем когнітивної семантики і лінгвістичної прагматики.

У компаративному плані вивчаються етимологічні характеристики лексики української та чеської мов. Констатовано, що, незважаючи на спільне праслов’янське походження, іменники укр. поздоровлення та чес. pozdrav мають різні етимологічні версії. Для чеської мови вихідна мотиваційна модель слова pozdrav ‘вітання’ ґрунтувалася на понятті здоров’я, те саме виявляє українська мова стосовно слова поздоровлення на відміну від синоніма вітання, етимологічно пов’язаного з vytaty ‘жити’ й вітати ‘говорити, звертатися до когось’. В обох досліджуваних мовах первинні значення лексем семантичного поля «вітання, поздоровлення» (укр. вітати, поздоровляти, віншувати, здрастувати; чес. pozdravovat, gratulovat, blahopřát, vinšovat) виявляють ознаки суб’єктивної приязні, прихильності, симпатії до когось та детермінують модель мовної поведінки учасників комунікації.

Побажання здоров’я – основний когнітивний складник вітання й поздоровлення. У статті проаналізовано також фразеологічні формули вітання і побажання: укр. Будьте здорові! і чес. Buďte v pohodě! На основі набору даних словника-тезауруса чеської мови, лексичної синонімії слова pohoda можна зробити висновок про те, що сучасна чеська формула побажання Buďte v pohodě! в семантичному відношенні є набагато глибшою, ніж класичне Buďte zdrávi!, оскільки у свідомості носія чеської мови понятійний простір слова pohoda охоплює не лише поняття здоров’я, але й близькі до нього щастя, радість, любов, комфорт, задоволення, добробут, які виражають цінності, значущі для кожного індивіда.

Характерною особливістю чеської вітальної формули Buďte v pohodě! є те, що це фразеологічний неологізм, вперше зафіксований чеськими словниками наприкінці ХХ ст. У зіставленні з чеською мовою ми відзначаємо особливість української формули вітання Многії літа! Ця формула побажання пройшла багатовіковий процес інтеграції від церковного побуту до сфер суспільного життя. У цілому дослідження показало, що основні мотиваційні моделі для реалізації вітань і побажань лексичними і фразеологічними засобами сформовано мовною системою і дискурсивною практикою, в основі яких лежить мовленнєвий етикет або життєво значима подія, щодо якої адресат реалізовує комунікативні інтенції – висловлює увагу, повагу й добросердечне ставлення.

The paper is dedicated to the etymological, semantic, and functional analysis of the cognitive sphere of greetings and wishes on the material of lexical and phraseological elements of the Ukrainian and Czech languages, using the data from other Slavic languages. From this point of view, Czech and Ukrainian vocabulary and phraseology have not yet been the subject of a separate study. This aspect of research can be useful for studying the problems of cognitive semantics and linguistic pragmatics.

The etymological characteristics of Ukrainian and Czech vocabularies are studied in a comparative way. It is stated that despite their common Proto-Slavic origin, the Ukrainian noun поздоровлення and the Czech word pozdrav have different etymological history. For the Czech language, the initial motivational model pozdrav ‘greeting’ was based on the concept of health. The same is revealed by the Ukrainian language in relation to the word поздоровлення, in contrast with the synonym вітання, which is etymologically related to vytaty ‘live’ and вітати ‘speak, address someone’. In both languages, the primary meanings of the lexical items of the semantic field “greetings, congratulations” (pozdravovat ‘greet’, gratulovat ‘congratulate’, blahopřát ‘welcome’, vinšovat ‘salute’) show signs of subjective friendliness, affection, and fellow feeling for someone, and they determine the model of language behaviour of the participants in communication.

Wishing good health is the main cognitive component of greetings and congratulations. The paper also analyzes the phraseological formulas of greetings and wishes: Ukrainian Будьте здорові! and Czech Buďte v pohodě! Based on the data set of the dictionary-thesaurus of the Czech language, we can conclude that in terms of semantics, the modern Czech formula Buďte v pohodě! is much deeper than the classical Buďte zdrávi! because in the mind of a Czech speaker, the conceptual space of the word pohoda implies the concepts of health, happiness, joy, love, comfort, satisfaction, and well-being, which include values that are important to every individual.

A special feature of the Czech formula Buďte v pohodě! is that it is a phraseological neologism first recorded by Czech dictionaries in the late 20th century. In comparison with the Czech language, we can observe the peculiarity of the Ukrainian greeting Многії літа! This formula went through a centuries-long process of integration from church life into everyday social life. In general, the study demonstrates that the main motivational models in the lexical and phraseological implementation of greetings and wishes are formed by the language system and discursive practice, which is based on speech etiquette or a significant event to which the addressee expresses attention, respect, and warm-hearted attitude.

Restricted access

О «ковидно-коронавирусных» процессах в русском языке 2020 года

An Overview of the Processes and Innovations in Russian Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020

Studia Slavica
Authors: Е. С. Громенко, А. С. Павлова, and М. Н. Приёмышева

В статье освещаются процессы в лексико-семантической системе русского языка, происходящие в период начала пандемии коронавирусной инфекции COVID-19 в 2020 году. Цель статьи – дать общую характеристику и первую оценку явлений и процессов, протекающих в период активного пополнения словарного состава новыми узуальными и окказиональными единицами.

В русском языке в марте–июне 2020 г. происходят очень интенсивные изменения: язык попол-нился огромным количеством новых слов и понятий, ряд слов и словосочетаний получили новые значения, некоторые из них расширили сферу функционирования – перешли из специальной ме-дицинской, социальной сферы в общее употребление. Русский язык оказался включен в процесс интенсивной языковой игры и языкового творчества. Ключевыми словами эпохи стали слова ковид, коронавирус и корона, так как они оказались не только словами-символами этого исторического периода, но и продуктивными основами для огромного количества узуальных и окказиональных новообразований.

Материалами статьи стала новая лексика СМИ и интернета, собранная авторами статьи – сотруд-никами группы академических «Словарей новых слов» – и сверенная с данными крупного медий-ного банка «Интегрум», включающего материалы более 30 000 наименований изданий массмедиа, записи теле- и радиопрограмм.

В процессе исследования был рассмотрен ряд новых слов и сочетаний, вошедших в русский язык в период распространения коронавирусной инфекции, случаи формирования новой полисемии у слов ковид, ковидный, корона и прилагательных, от них образованных, кратко проанализированы сложные слова с основами ковид- и корона-, в том числе новации, образованные путем контамина-ции, рассмотрены очевидные случаи системной связи между новыми словами (синонимия, антони-мия, омонимия).

Помимо широкого обзора нового языкового материала, попыток его анализа и некоторых науч-ных обобщений, одним из важных выводов статьи является системный характер целого ряда лекси-ческих изменений, ставших результатом интенсивного и стихийного процесса в русском словообра-зовании и лексико-семантической системе.

The paper deals with the lexical-semantic processes the Russian language has experienced during the first half of the year 2020 throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the paper is to give a general characterization and evaluation of the phenomena and processes occurring at the period of time during which the language vocabulary gets rapidly enriched with both usual neologisms and occasionalisms.

From March to June 2020, the Russian language has been subject to intense changes: a vast number of new words and notions have entered the language, a certain number of lexical units and collocations have acquired new meanings, and some of them have widened the scope of functioning: e.g. a transition of units that formerly used to belong to medical terminology or to the sphere of social life into the words of common use can be observed. The Russian language has joined the process of continuous language game and linguistic creativity. COVID, coronavirus, and corona have become the keywords of the current era as they have not only turned out to be the symbols of a certain historical period but also have served as productive stems for the formation of an enormous number of regular and occasional lexical innovations.

The data presented in the paper are based on the lexical innovations published in the mass media and the Internet sources. The new lexical units were collected by the authors, who are members of the group of academic “Dictionaries of neologisms”, and collated with the large-scale mass media database “ Integrum ”, which comprises the data bank of over 30,000 mass media editions as well as records of television and radio programs.

In the course of research, the following matters are examined: a number of new words and collocations which entered the language during the COVID-19 spread, the cases of forming new polysemy that the words covid, corona, and the adjectives derived from them have developed, a brief analysis of compounds with the first-component stems covid- and corona- (including the innovations that are formed by means of blending), and the investigation of obvious cases that manifest regular lexical relations (synonymy, antonymy, and homonymy) among the above-mentioned neologisms.

In addition to the broad review of the neological language data, its analysis, and some scientific generalizations, one of the most important conclusions the paper arrives at is the regular character of a variety of lexical changes which have been caused by an intense and spontaneous process observed in the Russian word formation and lexical-semantic system.

Open access

Данная работа рассматривает абсолютивную конструкцию переходных глаголов в русском языке в соотношении с антипассивом. Переходные глаголы определяются как глаголы, имеющие возмож-ность сочетаться с прямым объектом, т. е. обладают пациентной валентностью. Однако по разным причинам они могут не реализовывать пациентную валентность.

Поскольку безобъектное употребление глагола – это результат синтаксической невыразимости пациентного аргумента, логично подходить к нему как к результату сокращения валентностных потенций. С этой точки зрения можно предположить, что безобъектная конструкция переходных глаголов имеет определенные диатетические характеристики. Мы постулируем, что невербализа-ция пациентной валентности сигнализирует о переносе пациентного аргумента на семантическую, коммуникативную периферию, и, следовательно, о его синтаксическом понижении.

Выделяются три типа невербализации пациентного аргумента: контекстный эллипсис, семанти-ческая инкорпорация объекта в значение глагола и генерализованная презентация ситуации. Нас интересует прежде всего третий тип, и именно относительно этого типа традиционно применяется термин «абсолютивная конструкция». В отличие от первого и второго типов, в которых невыражен-ный объект восстанавливается через контекст или семантику глагола, в абсолютивной конструкции объект действия не может быть специфицирован, или это делается с трудом. Поэтому абсолютивная конструкция не является неполной конструкцией.

Aбсолютивное употребление переходных глаголов – это результат сокращения валентности ком-муникативно нерелевантного объекта, что порождает определенные семантические сдвиги; глагол обозначает не акциональное действие, направленное на какой-то объект, а нечто более стативное, постоянное свойство субъекта, что переносит глагол в иные семантические классы и обусловливает его употребление в определенных контекстах.

Абсолютивная конструкция и антипассив имеют общее функциональное сходство, а именно низ-кую дискурсивную выделенность объекта действия и генерализованную репрезентацию ситуации как постоянного свойства субъекта. В русском языке типичным показателем антипассива являет-ся возвратная частица -ся. Поэтому в случаях несущественности, очевидности, неопределенности объекта действия абсолютивная конструкция и антипассивный возвратный глагол могут функцио-нировать синонимично. Ср.: Горчичник сильно жжет Ø / сильно жжется. Следовательно, в данной статье абсолютивная конструкция сравнивается с антипассивными рефлексивными глаголами типа Собака кусается. В русском языке семантический круг антипассивных рефлексивных глаголов от-носительно узок, и это объясняется тем, что их функцию вполне могут заменить невозвратные гла-голы в абсолютивном употреблении.

Кроме того, остальные типы опущения пациентной валентности также имеют соотношение с возвратными глаголами других разрядов, но детальное обсуждение этого вопроса станет темой наших дальнейших исследований.

This work examines the absolute construction of transitive verbs in Russian in relation to the antipassive. Transitive verbs are defined as verbs that can be combined with a direct object, i.e. they exhibit patient valency. However, for various reasons, this patient valency is not always realized.

Since the objectless use of the verb is the result of the syntactic inexpressibility of the patient argument, it is logical to approach it as the result of valency-reducing derivation. From this point of view, it can be assumed that the objectless transitive construction has certain diathetic properties. We postulate that the non-verbalization of patient valency signals the transfer of the patient argument to the semantic, communicative periphery and, consequently, to its syntactic demotion.

Three types of non-verbalization of the patient argument are distinguished: context ellipsis, semantic incorporation of an object into the meaning of a verb, and generalized presentation of the situation. We are primarily interested in the third type, for which the term absolute construction is traditionally used. Unlike the first and second types, in which the unexpressed object is reconstructed through the context or semantics of the verb, in the absolute construction, the object of action cannot be specified, or it is diffi cult to do so. Therefore, an absolute construction is not an incomplete construction.

The absolute use of transitive verbs is the result of reducing the valency of a communicatively irrelevant object, which generates certain semantic shift s; a verb does not denote an action directed at a concrete object but instead denotes something more stative, a constant property of the subject, which transfers the verb to other semantic classes and determines its use in certain contexts.

The absolute construction and the antipassive function similarly in that both rely on the low discursive saliency of the object of action and the generalized representation of the situation as a constant property of the subject. In Russian, a typical indicator of an antipassive is the reflexive -ся. Therefore, when the object of action is insignificant, obvious or ambiguous, the absolute construction and the antipassive reflexive verb can function synonymously (e.g. Горчичник сильно жжет Ø / сильно жжется). Therefore, in this paper, the absolute construction is compared with antipassive reflexive verbs such as Собака кусается. In Russian, the semantic circle of antipassive reflexive verbs is relatively narrow, and this is due to the fact that their function may be replaced by irreflexive verbs in absolute use.

In addition, the remaining types of omission of patient valency also have a correlation with reflexive verbs of other categories but a detailed discussion of this issue will be reserved for future research.

Restricted access

The study discusses Ivan Slamnig’s novel entitled Bolja polovica hrabrosti with focusing on the narrative features of the beginning of the novel. Using the results of the Croatian literary studies, the paper places the novel in the context of Croatian prose as the first postmodern Croatian novel and an outstanding example of Beat literature in Croatia and Yugoslavia, which Aleksandar Flaker called jeans prose.

The paper compares the narrative features and metapoetic meanings of the beginning of the novel with the narration of the whole novel and its closure. It establishes that the beginning of the novel gives a dominant role to eventuality, coincidence, and meaninglessness instead of causally motivated storytelling. The beginning of the novel does not make sense at the level of the story told in the whole novel, however, it is important at the metalevel of narration and in its possible readings.

The main character of the novel called Flaks lands without a known aim aft er escaping from somewhere. At the end of the novel, he escapes again from the story prescribed for him. The “story within a story” structure has an important role in the novel. The novel thus has two narrators and two narrated stories. According to Genette’s classification, the narrator of the whole novel (Flaks) is an extradiegetic-homodiegetic narrator of his own story. The other narrator (Aunt Matilda) is a character in Flaks’s story and fictive author of the embedded story with its own heterodiegetic narrator. Flaks is an implied reader of Matilda’s short story. The two narratives are in a metadialogue wiTheach other. Flaks has no organized life and no organized story. Matilda’s life is well organized, and her written short story is well organized, too. Matilda tries to make sense to the random happenings of Flaks’s life in her own story. With the story she tells, she tries to bring both her own and Flaks’s life story to a meaningful end.

The beginning of the novel is associated with the characteristics of the Yugoslavian version of Beat literature, the jeans prose: generational confrontation and the denial of conformism to the post-war Yugoslavian establishment. The protagonist’s drift ing without any plan, which is typical for the genre, is taken by Slamnig as a basis so that he can direct our attention to the activity of the implied author and to the fact that the events portrayed in the novel and also the implied author are constructed. This is reinforced by the “story within a story” structure. The novel shows that the beginning and the ending of the events in the narration is arbitrary, and the meaning of the story depends on the selection of the starting point and the end point.

Open access

В статье использован когнитивный подход к терминологии, в рамках которого термин рассматри-вается как компонент динамической модели языка для специальных целей, диалектически сочетаю-щий в себе стабильную знаковую форму и постоянное переосмысление содержание. Содержатель-ное варьирование термина обусловлено сложностью семантики термина, а также диалектическим характером познания.

Цель статьи – выявить и лингвистически обосновать различия в понятийном наполнении тер-мина космизм в разных областях знания. Для решения этой научной задачи произведен анализ контекстуальных определений и выявлены элементы сходства и различия в функционировании и содержании термина в разных типах дискурсов: религиозно-философском, философском, есте-ственнонаучном и литературно-художественном. Сопоставление содержательного наполнения тер-м\xD0\xB8на космизм в языках для специальных целей показало, что в философии термин космизм может включать исторический и субъективный компоненты значения, отражающие развитие философ-ской мысли в рамках направления или индивидуального мировоззрения (космизм в древнегреческой философии, космизм Спинозы, поздний космизм, космизм Н. А. Бердяева).

Изменение содержательной структуры термина в философском дискурсе не затрагивает понятий-ного ядра, включающего базовые слоты, сохраняющиеся во всех без исключения терминосистемах. Однако организация этих слотов и содержательная связь между ними может быть разной: в боль-шинстве концепций это преобладание вселенского (космического) начала над индивидуальным, од-нако в авторской терминосистеме Н. А. Бердяева происходит выбор и замена слота ‘подчинение’ на ‘равенство’. Это свидетельствует о том, что космизм – полиинтерпретируемый философский термин, дефинитивная вариантность которого определяется конкретной философской терминосистемой, в том числе авторской. Термин может использоваться в широком (философское понимание кос-мизма) и узком (естественнонаучное понимание космизма в трудах К. Э. Циолковского, В. И. Вер-надского и др.) значениях. За пределами философского дискурса термин активно используется как литературоведческое понятие, обозначающее различные виды поэтического мировоззрения (кос-мизм Ф. И. Тютчева, космизм С. А. Есенина). Кроме того, термин космизм как название направления пролетарской поэзии, является частью закрытой терминосистемы, существовавшей в 1918–1925 гг. (творчество поэтов Пролеткульта).

Все эти интерпретационные варианты объединены общим сигнификативным компонентом зна-чения, включающим базовые компоненты: Человек, Вселенная, способ взаимосвязи между ними. Экстралингвистически содержательная вариантность термина обусловлена движением научной мысли и вектором духовного развития, лингвистически – перегруппировкой и добавлением слотов в фреймовую структуру термина.

Материалом исследования являются тексты, содержащие термин космизм. Терминофиксирующие источники (словари, энциклопедии) в ходе анализа не использовались, так как ни один источни\xD0\xBA такого типа не отражает явления содержательной вариантности термина в полной мере.

The paper deals with the cognitive approach to terminology, according to which the term is considered as part of a dynamic language model for special purposes, which dialectically combines a stable sign form with constant rethinking of the meaning. The semantic variation of the term is caused by both the complexity of the term’s semantics and the dialectical character of cognition.

The research is aimed at the revelation and linguistic substantiation of the differences in the conceptual contents the term cosmism demonstrates in different branches of knowledge. In order to solve the above-mentioned scientific task, the contextual definitions of the term are analyzed and the similarities and differences in the functioning and meaning of the term are revealed depending on different discourse types such as the religious-philosophical, philosophical, natural-science as well as literary and art discourse. The comparison of the conceptual meanings of the term cosmism in languages for special purposes has shown that cosmism as a philosophical term can comprise historical and subjective semantic components which reflect the development of philosophical thought within the framework of a certain movement or of an individual world view (cosmism in Ancient Greek philosophy, Spinozas cosmism, the late cosmism, Berdyaevs cosmism).

The transformation of the term’s semantic structure in philosophical discourse does not affect the conceptual meaning including the basic slots which remain preserved in all systems of terminology without exception. However, the slot structure and the semantic connection between them may be different: in most conceptions, the universal, or cosmic, principle prevails over the individual one, while in Berdyaev’s individual terminology, a term selection can be observed and the slot ‘subordination’ is replaced through the slot ‘equality’. This statement is the evidence of the fact that cosmism is a variously interpreted philosophical term whose definitive variation is determined by a certain philosop hical term system, including the one of an individual author.

The term can be interpreted in a broad sense (the philosophical understanding of cosmism) and a narrow sense (the natural-science understanding of cosmism in Tsiolkovsky’s and Vernadsky’s works). Beyond the philosophical discourse, the term is frequently used as a concept in the study of literature, where it denotes different types of poetic worldview (Tyutchev’s cosmism, Esenin’s cosmism). Besides, the term cosmism belongs to the closed term system as a denomination for the Proletarian poetry movement in the years 1918–1925 (the works of Proletkult poets).

The above-mentioned interpretational variants are united by a common significant semantic component which includes the basic semes: the Human, the Universe, and the way of intercommunication between them. From an extralinguistic point of view, the semantic variation of the term is determined by a current of scientific thought and a trend for spiritual development, while linguistically it is caused by the rearrangement and addition of slots into the term’s frame structure.

The research is based on texts which contain the term cosmism. Sources containing the lexicographic representation of the term (like dictionaries or encyclopedias) have not been used for the purpose of analysis since there is no source of such kind that would be able to fully reflect the semantic variation of the term.

Restricted access

Abstract

Suppletive allomorphs may be conditioned based on their phonological environment. When the allomorphy distribution is phonologically natural, this has motivated theoretical models supporting phonologically-optimizing suppletive allomorphy (POSA), whereby the phonological grammar selects the suppletive allomorph whose output is least marked. This paper re-examines four cases argued to support POSA in Irish, Tiene, Katu, and Konni, and for each provides counter-arguments against this position. In contrast to POSA, I assert that the most straightforward analysis is to formalize the conditioning phonological environment via subcategorization frames, and that the burden of proof falls on proponents of POSA to show otherwise. Subcategorization correctly predicts that subcategorized phonological material is the only phonological material which suppletion can be sensitive to. [An appendix is provided which argues against POSA in another language, Udihe, and instead posits a single underlying form with gradient representations.]

Free access

Abstract

In this paper, it is argued that synthetic compounds based on the passive participle in English fall into two classes, depending on whether they possess the capacity to license modifiers pointing to the presence of the external argument. Compounds such as computer-generated, pencil-drawn or home-made are typically used as eventive and resultative participles, both of which are syntactically agentive. Compounds belonging to this group are contrasted with adjectives such as action-packed, family-oriented, work-related or adult-themed, which are shown to behave syntactically like underived adjectives, with no traces of the external argument. As such, they correspond to the class of stative participles.

Free access

Abstract

This article accounts for the traditionally-labelled Level 1/Level 2 affix distinction in English by combining the predictions of floating segmental structure (e.g. ) and cyclic spell-out by phase (; ). It offers insight not only into the different phonological patterns these affixes trigger, but importantly, explains when the same affix will trigger distinct phonological patterns (when an affix behaves sometimes as Level 1 and sometimes as Level 2). It is argued that Level 1 affixes are distinguished by an initial floating vowel in their underlying representations, and that if we combine this with the proposal that affixes that merge directly to roots are interpreted in the same phonological cycle as these roots then we can remove the reference to diacritic notions such as Level 1 and Level 2 from the grammar. This then allows for a fully modular account of English affix classes, where the phonological derivation refers solely to phonological representations.

Free access

Abstract

In the paper we argue against the traditional assumption about the relationship between morphology and harmony in Hungarian according to which monomorphemic and polymorphemic (suffixed) forms behave in the same way harmonically within the domain of harmony. We show that the harmonic properties of the root are inherited by morphologically complex forms based on the root and this can override the phonological restrictions on harmony. We propose an Optimality Theory analysis of the interaction between the phonological constraints on harmony and the paradigm uniformity constraint Harmonic Uniformity.

Open access

Abstract

This paper investigates place of articulation shifts involving heterosyllabic C[non-coronal]C[coronal] clusters. Such phenomena are found, among other languages, in the diachrony of Italiot Greek, where three typologically different historical stages are observed: (a) no shifts; (b) dorsal > labial shift; (c) dorsal, labial > coronal shift. Drawing on model of the Place node and the markedness hierarchy dorsallabialcoronal (with “≺” denoting ‘more marked than’) (), I maintain that these shifts reduce the markedness of codas. The gradual typological changes are accounted for in terms of Property Theory ().

Free access

Abstract

This paper deals with the underlying representation of [w]-final words in Brazilian Portuguese, usually spelled with <l> and pronounced as [w] and occasionally as [ɫ] (e.g., papel / [paˈpɛw] ~ [paˈpɛɫ] ‘paper’). It focuses on non-verbs derived by a vowel-initial suffix preceded by [l] (e.g., papel+eiro ‘paper+suffix’ / [papeˈlejɾʊ] ‘papermaker’; cliente+ismo ‘client+suffix’ / [kliẽnteˈlizmʊ] ‘patronage’). The results from a pseudoword task answered by 219 participants contrasted to lexicon data from Corpus Brasileiro show that native speakers associate such derived forms with bases already containing [l] in the last syllable, either in the onset or the coda position. This observation is interpreted in a constraint-based approach, with the assumption that a demand for alignment between vowel-initial suffixes and roots closed by /l/, along with the requirement for phonological correspondence between base and derivative, is highly ranked in a grammar that accounts for learning morphophonological representations in the language.

Free access

This paper is a continuation of a previous study that presented the names of mammal, insect, and reptile species appearing in the Book of Leviticus of the so-called Gözleve Bible. The present study aims to survey the rest of the animal names in the corpus, representing bird species. The translation shows a mixed vocabulary and therefore the distribution of the Kipchak, Oghuzic, and non-Turkic elements will be compared with their equivalents in some of the other books of the Gözleve Bible, a recently published critical edition of another Crimean Karaim Bible, and some Ottoman Turkish Bible translations.

Open access

The excavation in Tuyuq Grottoes initiated in 2010 has brought about numerous archaeological finds. In particular, those discovered in Cave 26 on the high platform in the middle of the Western Section are noteworthy. Many wall inscriptions in Old Uighur, as well as Brahmi and Chinese are preserved in the side rooms, releasing important information on the dating and the nature of this cave. They also contribute new data to the fields of history and linguistics. This paper presents an edition and study of all the 29 inscriptions preserved in Room B, most of which are written in Old Uighur, while others in Chinese.

Restricted access

Karaim is often treated as an exceptional Kipchak Turkic tongue in which certain, otherwise widespread Turkic verbal constructions are not present. Philological discoveries of recent years show, however, that some of these categories did exist in Karaim. As a response to this issue, the present article documents the Western Karaim equivalent of the Tkc. -a jaz- approximative construction. It is based on 18th- and 19th-century Biblical texts which are then juxtaposed with both phonetically and morphologically atypical 20th-century data. This contribution is part of a series of works describing Karaim grammatical categories hitherto undocumented in the scholarly literature.

Open access

Abstract:

Interdisciplinary research, carried out by the Masaryk University Brno and the University of Vienna, at the site of Lány (CZ) at the border between Austria and Moravia has revealed a large settlement (∼12ha) from the 6th century until the 8th/9th century in a contact zone between Slavonic and Avarian influences. Aside from pottery that ranges from early slavic finds of the Prague type to specimens of the middle-danubian tradition („mitteldanubische Kulturtradition“) and other finds such as spindle whorls etc. several dozen typical Avar belt accessories have been found. Most of them date to the late Avar III period, are brand new and do not show any traces of usage. Together with semi-finished products, miscast objects and remains of the bronze casting process, we interpret Lány as a production site/workshop for Avar belts.

Lány is at the very Northwestern periphery of the Avar Khaganate. However, material culture, aside from the belt accessories, is much more associated with what we know from regions where Slavonic populations of the 7th/8th century had settled.

We furthermore discuss the usage of Avar belts amongst the Slavic elites of the 8th century and possible explanations for the dense distribution of Avar finds outside of the Khaganate.

Restricted access

The Mongolic term khaan (‘king’), for which there is full correspondence, semantic and phonological, in sixteenth century Portuguese cão, is used as a starting-point to identify the graphemes that correspond to several Mongolic consonants in place names transcribed in the chapters related to the Tartars in Fernão Mendes Pinto’s Peregrinação (1614). With the deduced rules of pronunciation at hand, it is possible to establish new pairs of lexical correspondences and solve a brief lexicon extracted from the list of Tartar toponyms.

Open access

The Old Uyghur fragment U 3901 (T.M. 96) kept in the Berlin Turfan collection recently published by Professor Peter Zieme is not from the translation of the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra in eighty volumes, as he argues, but represents part of an invocation of bodhisattvas found in the Da fangguang fo huayan jing haiyin daochang shi zhong xingyuan chang bianli chanyi 大方廣佛華嚴經海印道場十重行願常徧禮懺儀, an important monument of late Tangut Buddhism. It is a new text which is not known yet in the Old Uyghur Buddhist literature. This paper presents an analysis of the text and its new edition.

Restricted access

Not having a unanimous transcription model for Armeno-Kipchak texts has left the exactness of certain Armenian graphemes obscure, one of which is ³ (ayb). This letter is consistently utilised for back low vowel in Armenian. Given this, in early studies ayb occurring aft er palatal syllables was considered non-harmonic, and thus left as is. Some scholars have doubted whether it might have indicated a palatal vowel, yet have kept rendering it as a back vowel. In this paper, I will try to shed light on the issue, by making an orthographic comparison between Armeno-Kipchak texts and those modern Turkic languages whose orthographies distinguish e vowels.

Restricted access

This is a revision of J.R. Krueger’s reading and translation of the Ordos Prince Sagang Sechen’s moralistic poem written in 1662 in seventy-nine alliterative quatrains attached to his Erdeni-yin tobči, the Jewel Summary, the ‘classical’ chronicle of pre-modern Mongol historiography. A new reading and interpretation is offered with ample commentary.

Restricted access

This article discusses the date of the Scripture of Filial Piety [Revealed] by Wenchang (Wenchang xiaojing 文 昌孝經). The central claim of this contribution is that the Scripture appeared during the Ming-Qing transition, being a product of the ritualisation of the Classic of Filial Piety (Xiaojing 孝經). By examining more than twenty different editions, this article identifies at least three different lines of textual transmission, each connected to distinctive commentaries and reprints. Confucian literati were the main social actors responsible for the creation, reproduction, redaction, and annotation of the extant editions.

Open access

З історії лінгвоукраїністики в Угорщині (мовознавча діяльність Ласлова Чопея)

From the History of Ukrainian Linguistics in Hungary (László Csopey’s Works on Linguistics)

Studia Slavica
Author: Єлизавета Барань

Вивчення українського мовознавства в Угорщині має давню історію. Увага дослідників зосереджу-валася насамперед на питаннях синхронної та діахронної діалектології, зокрема закарпатської, про-блемах українсько-угорських міжмовних контактів. Ім’я Ласлова Чопея в українській лексикографії відоме насамперед як укладача «Русько-мадярського словаря» (Будапешт, 1883).

У статті проаналізовано статтю «Magyar szók a rutén nyelvben» (Угорські слова в руській мові) та реєстр «Русько-мадярського словаря», подано етимологію слів, які з погляду їх первинного похо-дження були спірними, зіставлено різні оцінки словника мовознавцями з часу його появи до сього-дення.

Ласлов (Василь) Чопей (уг. Csopey / Csopei László) – угорський педагог, перекладач, мовознавець. В енциклопедії «Українська мова» написано: «Ласлов (Василь) Чопей – український мовознавець; писав мовою дуже близькою до закарпатського народного мовлення центральної частини краю». Ю. Шевельов доповнює: «Чопей Василь – педагог, упорядник підручників для народних шкіл Закар-паття (1881–1890)».

Угорський славіст Аттіла Голлош зі вступною статтею Іштвана Удварі підготував до видання уза-гальнювальну працю «Csopey László élete és művei» (Життя і праці Ласло Чопея). А. Голлош уклав бі-бліографію праць Л. Чопея, класифікувавши їх за такими галузями: літературознавство, етнографія, мовознавство, переклади, фахова література, підручники для русинських шкіл, природознавство, експедиції, виставки, поштова скринька, статистика, рецензії, лекції в Малій Академії, редакторська робота, листування. На прохання міністерства Л. Чопей уклав та переклав вісім підручників для народних шкіл.

З появою статті «Magyar szók a rutén nyelvben» (Угорські слова в руській мові), опублікованій у 1881 році, Ласло Чопей розпочав дослідження угорсько-слов’янських мовних зв’язків. Працю Чо-пея можна вважати першою у дослідженні угорських лексичних запозичень в українських говорах сучасної території Закарпаття. У своїй статті, написаній на науковому рівні свого часу, автор пе-рерахував відомі йому угорські лексичні елементи березької говірки, вказав на фонетичні зміни, які відбулися на українському мовному ґрунті, подав тематичну класифікацію, указавши, по суті, напрямки подальших досліджень.

Традиційно вважається, що українсько-угорська словникова справа бере свій початок від другої половини ХІХ ст. із появою «Русько-мадярського словаря» Ласлова Чопея. Словник високо оцінила Угорська королівська академія наук – автор отримав премію Фекешгазія. Словниковий реєстр нараховує 20 тисяч вокабул і відображає лексичний склад добре відомих укладачеві закарпатських східнослов’янських говорів.

Проживаючи далеко від україномовної території, у кінці ХІХ ст. наголошував на самостійності української мови, відстоював право на її розвиток і функціювання.

Вважаємо, що словник є цінною лексикографічною працею, а його автора можемо вважати осно-воположником українсько-угорської лексикографії. Доробок Л. Чопея і сьогодні може стати в при-годі лексикологам, діалектологам, історикам мови, а також дослідникам міжмовних та діалектних контактів, а його результати формують основу для нових наукових розробок.

The investigation of Ukrainian linguistics in Hungary has a long history. The researchers in this field have focused mainly on issues of synchronic and diachronic dialectology, in particular Transcarpathian, as well as the problems of Ukrainian–Hungarian interlingual contacts. László Csopey’s name is first known in Ukrainian lexicography as the compiler of the Ruthenian–Hungarian Dictionary (Budapest, 1883). We have analyzed the paper Hungarian words in the Ruthenian language and the register of the RuthenianHungarian dictionary in order to present the etymology of words that are controversial in terms of their origin and aimed to compare various assessments of the dictionary by linguists from the time of its appearance to the present.

László Csopey was a Hungarian teacher, translator, and linguist. In the encyclopaedia of the Ukrainian language, he is described as follows: “László (Vasyl) Csopey – a Ukrainian linguist; he wrote in the language which is very close to the Transcarpathian folk language of the central part of the region”. Yurii Shevelyov adds: “Vasyl Csopey is a teacher, compiler of textbooks for public schools of Transcarpathia (1881–1890)”.

In 2004, the Hungarian Slavist Attila Hollós prepared for publication the generalized work László Csopeys life and works with an introductory paper by István Udvari. At the request of the Ministry of Education, László Csopey compiled and translated eight textbooks for public schools. He began to investigate Hungarian–Slavic language contacts and published the paper Hungarian words in the Ruthenian language in 1881. The paper can be considered the first in the field of investigation of Hungarian lexical borrowings in the Ukrainian dialects on the territory of present-day Transcarpathia. In his paper, the author has listed all the Hungarian lexical elements of the Bereg dialect known to him, pointed out the phonetic changes that took place in the Ukrainian language, and gave a thematic classification indicating, in fact, areas for further research.

It is traditionally believed that the Ukrainian–Hungarian dictionary publication dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century with the appearance of RuthenianHungarian Dictionary by László Csopey. The dictionary was highly praised by the Hungarian Royal Academy of Sciences and the author received the Fekésházi Prize. The dictionary register has 20,000 entries and reflects the lexical composition of the Transcarpathian East Slavic dialects well-known to the compiler. Living far from the Ukrainian-speaking area in the late nineteenth century, László Csopey emphasized the independence of the Ukrainian language, defended the right to its development and functioning.

We believe that the analyzed dictionary is a valuable lexicographical work, and its author is considered the founder of Ukrainian–Hungarian lexicography. László Csopey’s work is still relevant up to now and it can be used by lexicologists, dialectologists, language historians as well as specialists in interlingual and interdialectical contacts, and its results form the basis for further research in these fields of linguistics.

Restricted access

Abstract

We survey templatic diminutive formation in Hungarian. We conclude that there is an intricate system of endings that are added to bases which are truncated if they contain more than one vowel. Bases are also subject to vowel length changes in both directions, as well as the palatalization of the last consonant. The templatic diminutive forms are not subject to vowel harmony occurring in suffixes which prevails in the regular additive morphology of the language. Nevertheless, these forms conform to the vowel patterns found in disyllabic monomorphemic or disyllabic suffixed word forms.

Open access

Abstract

The paper deals with the internal syntactic structure of deverbal -nje nominals in Serbian. The tests from the licensing of event-related modifiers (by-phrases and instrumental DPs) support the hypothesis that -nje nominals are derived from passive participles by adding the suffix -je (; ). Building on , I further observe that the licensing of referential and non-referential event modifiers exhibits a complex set of correlations with the aspectual properties of the base, phonological faithfulness to the base, and semantic compositionality. Semantic opacity and phonological unfaithfulness do not always go hand in hand, and I treat them as two separate components of a process of lexicalization, which is syntactically constrained (). I argue that the presence of full VoiceP structure including a v 0 referring to an event diagnosed by the licensing of referential event modifiers () constitutes a phase, which blocks lexicalization. This structure is present in -nje nominals derived from secondary imperfectives, which always license referential event modifiers and exhibit semantic compositionality and phonological unfaithfulness. Smaller structures derived from perfectives or primary imperfectives do not license referential event modifiers (hence, they do not constitute a full phase), which is what makes them susceptible to lexicalization.

Free access

Summary

This article is concerned with shedding light on two examples of influence between Horace and the Greek poets, both ancient and modern. The aim of this paper is to shed light on several parallel aspects between two of the Alcaic odes of Horace and two modern Greek lyric poems by Constantine Cavafy and Angelos Sikelianos, respectively. Subsequently, I show, within the wider framework of inter-textuality, a subtle example of the utilization and re-utilization of lyric elements that are originally ancient Greek in nature by the Latin and modern Greek poets. In my argumentation, I will rely on textual similarities, as well as on the views expressed by scholars in non-comparative contexts The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I compare Horace’s carm. 2. 3 with Cavafy’s Ithaka. The most important points of comparison in this section are three common features: instructive tone, the epicurean tendency and the melancholic end. In the second, I compare Horace’s carm. 1. 37 with Sikelianos’ Dithyramb. The most important points of comparison in this section are three common features, namely, the connection of the Bacchic ecstasy to political issues, the connection of the Dionysiac spirit to the struggle against the national enemy and the association of Bacchic frenzy with hunting and chase.

Restricted access

Summary

Analysing Greek literary sources together with a selection of preserved ostraka, this article discusses the interrelationships between the prevention of hybris, the perceptions of tyranny, and the purposes of practising ostracism in fifth-century Athens. It will be proposed that the political decisions to organize ostrakophoriai were reactions to the threat posed by hybristic disposition of an individual – hence, ostracism played a role in detecting and punishing one’s motives and intentions. It will also be proposed that luxurious life-style was perceived by the Athenians both as a sign of Medism and of a hybristic disposition characteristic of a would-be-tyrant. Thus, profligate life-styles of political figures might have urged the Athenians to organise ostrakophoriai.

Restricted access

Summary

Christianity spread out in Pannonia, too, and in the 3rd century there are proofs of its existence in the southern part of both Pannonias. Christianity became stronger in consequence of placing the officium praesidis of Valeria to Sopianae at the end of the 3rd century. The flourishing of ancient Christianity in Sopianae and in the surrounding villas was in the second half of the 4th century. The bronze casket mounts recently found in Bakonya support this historical reconstruction and offer new evidence for the presence of rich Christians in that era.

Open access

Summary

The article investigates the extent to which Greek necromancy fits into the wider eschatological, cultic and historical context of an epoch demarcated on the one hand by Homer and on the other by the Classical period. The oldest purported necromantic ritual, with the help of which Odysseus descended into the underworld, is a literary construct inspired especially by the heroic tomb-cults. Scenes depicting funereal necromancy, written by dramatists of the Classical period, were also drawn from this source. Ability, behavior and appearance of heroes were additionally ascribed to the so-called restless spirits and revenants and later came to include all the dead. The main cause of this was a change in eschatological ideas and especially heroization, which in the Roman period spread nominally to all the dead. Reports about necromancy include a high percentage of mythical and literarily-dramatized elements that simply do not correspond with contemporary ideas about the soul, the dead, the underworld and chthonic deities. It therefore appears almost certain that, at least to the end of the period described, necromancy was not carried out in reality but remained only the literary surmise of the possibility indicated by Homer.

Restricted access

Summary

The poet Virgil in his Aeneid employs Gorgon imagery and its attendant connection to the goddess Minerva as part of his explication of one of the key themes of his Augustan epic, namely the progress from a Trojan past to a Roman future. Close analysis of the references to the Perseus myth and related Gorgon legends in the Aeneid reveals a carefully constructed web of intratextual allusions that serve in part to underscore the end of the Trojan order and the advent of the Roman.

Restricted access

Summary

The paper deals with the presence of North-eastern Italic families in Northern Pannonia. Through a selection of the epigraphic texts based on the information provided by the texts and the chronology, it is possible to investigate the spreading of Italic traders’ families from Italy, Noricum and Emona to the cities on the north tract of the “Amber Route” and the Balaton Lake area.

Restricted access

Summary

By 128 BCE the Parthians had emerged temporarily as the de facto leading power throughout the Hellenistic Middle East. Their defeat of Demetrius II’s invasion of Mesopotamia in 138 BCE had furthered their heated rivalry with the Seleucids; however, their destruction of Antiochus VII’s invasion of Mesopotamia and Media in 129 BCE finally ended the threat of the Seleucids to their eastern lands. For the first time in their history, the Parthians considered expanding their hegemony over Armenia, Syria, and the regions along the Eastern Mediterranean coast, thus firmly establishing their unrivaled hegemony. Yet any hopes of immediately occupying these regions quickly vanished because of calamities and miscalculations in the early 120s BCE. Although nomadic incursions ravaged the Iranian plateau in the east throughout the 120s BCE, in the west Phraates II’s sudden release of Demetrius to contest the Seleucid throne in Syria before the death of Antiochus became a political debacle that hindered Parthian influence in the region. Despite the arguments of recent scholarship, Phraates’ decision to release Demetrius was shortsighted and haphazard, and Demetrius never served in Syria as a Parthian vassal. This article is a reevaluation of the western policy of the Parthians in the early 120s BCE and the actions of Demetrius during his second reign concerning the Parthians.

Restricted access

Summary

From Ennius onwards, Latin poets have repeatedly described in their verses dances or processions of the seasons. When commenting on the regularity of their cycle or succession, they have given specific overtones to their pictures of this natural phenomenon, inspired by their own perception of life or by proper philosophical systems, such as pythagorism and epicureanism. A close examination and comparison of texts by Ennius, Lucretius, Horace, Ovid, and the anonymous authors of the Laus Pisonis and the Aetna, shows that these poets engaged into a mutual dialogue over the centuries. Not only did they establish a true Latin topos, but they also used it so as to give free rein to their originality, in full compliance with the ancient concept of creative mimesis.

Restricted access

Summary

The paper aims at specifying Nepos’ principles of composition in the Liber de excellentibus ducibus exterarum gentium. After reviewing the hypotheses on the structure of the work it will be argued mainly on the basis of the editorial notes and cross-references written in the book that the generals are lined up according to their provenance and arranged in a kind of frame structure to express the translatio imperii. The author focuses attention on the Athenian commanders to demonstrate the organic nature of history: in the background of their vitae the biography of Athens itself is also depicted. With the help of these observations most of the uncertainties, including the striking chronological discrepancies, can be clarified.

Restricted access

Summary

Literary self is an essential component of Pliny’s self-representation. Pliny’s literary self-portrait is shaped the way he wants it to be by a diverse set of literary techniques utilized in the letters. My paper explores the questions formulated in the letters that thematize the selection and composition of text, and the answers given to them (not necessarily in the form of assertive sentences). This interpretation is not independent from the self-representative character of the letters, yet, it exceeds it on the premise that another dimension may be opened to the understanding of the letters, which points towards the development of the literary and artistic taste of the first century, and its directions.

Open access

Abstract

La cour royale de Mathias Corvin (1443–1490 ; 1458–1490) et celle des rois Jagellons jouent jusqu’au XVe siècle, dans la vie intellectuelle du royaume de Hongrie, un rôle comparable à celui des cours royales en Europe occidentale. Mais l’occupation de la capitale (Buda) par les Turcs (1541) et l’absence de souverain « national » transforment profondément le rôle des familles aristocratiques pour ce qui concerne tant l’organisation de la vie culturelle que la vie de l’Église. Parallèlement, la Réforme protestante progresse au XVIe siècle en Hongrie et en Transylvanie, cette dernière devenue une principauté pratiquement indépendante. Les nouveaux acteurs autour desquels se développe dès lors la vie culturelle dans le pays sont les grands aristocrates et les cours qu’ils réunissent à leur entour : les Bánffy, Batthyány, Nádasdy, Perényi, Rákóczi, Esterházy et quelques autres. En Transylvanie, le rôle de la cour princière reste dominant, grâce à sa richesse relative par rapport aux cours seigneuriales. Si l’aristocratie de Hongrie et de Transylvanie se convertit très majoritairement à la Réforme au XVIe siècle, la politique des Habsbourg et les progrès de la Contre-Réforme entraînent un vaste mouvement de reconversion, mais en Hongrie seulement, au XVIIe siècle. À la fin du siècle, ces territoires sont pleinement réintégrés dans les territoires des Habsbourg : dès lors, la question de la modernité se déploie de plus en plus nettement, à laquelle se joint la nouvelle problématique de l’identité collective, puis nationale.

Open access

Abstract

This thesis examines the process by which the Republic of Korea (hereafter, ROK or South Korea) and Hungary established diplomatic relations. Given the complexity of the process, the subject was be divided into two papers, the first of which concerns the period 1948 to 1982 and the second that of 1982–1988, the last year being that in which the diplomatic relationship was officially declared. Moreover, it employs the two countries' confidential diplomatic documents as primary sources. This article focused on the first part of the above period.

Restricted access

Egy epigramma (poem. 86 Westerink), egy szentéletrajz (Vita Auxentii) és a kortörténet (Chronographia) néhány szemelvényének elemzésével a tanulmány azt mutatja be, hogy a szónoki képzés során oktatott beszédgyakorlatok (összehasonlítás, jellemábrázolás, leírás) hogyan jelennek meg a bizánci szónok, Michaél Psellos irodalmi műveiben, akinek történetírását különösen a korban fokozatosan átalakuló műfajban, a kortörténetben alkalmazott jellemrajzok teszik egyedivé.

Analysing an epigram (poem. 86 Westerink) and passages from the Life of St Auxentius and Chronographia the paper focuses on how the rhetorical exercises (comparison, personification, description) used in the course of oratorical studies appear in the literary works of the Byzantine writer, Michael Psellus. It is the device of characterization applied in the gradually developing genre of historia what makes Psellus’ opus magnum, an account of contemporary Byzantine history, truly unique.

Open access
Restricted access

A tanulmány annak a Moreai Krónikában ránk maradt egyedülálló irodalmi alkotásnak, középgörög „hőskölteménynek” eredetét és jellegzetességeit vizsgálja, amelynek főhőse a pelagóniai ütközetben vitézkedő Geoffroy de Bruyères. Bár a szakirodalomban egyetértés van abban, hogy az epizódnak valószínűleg népköltészeti háttere lehet, egyes kérdések – így többek között a fellelhető irodalmi áthallások, az intertextuális összefüggések és nem utolsósorban a (krónika)írói szándékok – nincsenek érdemben feltárva. A tanulmány elsőként a Moreai Krónika keletkezésének történeti hátterét mutatja be röviden, a történelmi ismertetést elsősorban a műben tárgyalt eseményekre szűkítve, majd Geoffroy de Bruyères személyét és a róla írt hősköltemény lehetséges irodalmi párhuzamait tekinti át, végül pedig a pelagóniai ütközet magyar vonatkozásaira tér ki. A függelékben továbbá megtalálható a közel másfél száz verssor irodalmi fordítása.

The study examines the origins and characteristics of a unique Byzantine ‘epic’ in the Chronicle of Morea : the description of the Battle of Pelagonia and the exploits of Sir Geoffroy de Bruyères. Although the professional literature agrees on that the episode is likely based on folk poetry and oral tradition, many questions (such as literary crosstalk, intertextual connections, the author’s intentions etc.) remain unanswered. The study presents the historical context of the Chronicle, examines the person of Sir Geoffroy de Bruyères and the potential intertextual relations of his epic, and analyses the Hungarian relations of the Battle of Pelagonia. The literary translation of the nearly 150 lines of the battle is attached in the appendix.

Open access

A tanulmányban Nikétas Eugenianos, XII. századi bizánci író Drosilla és Chariklés című regényének motívumkincsével foglalkozom. Az elemzés első részében a klasszikus, hellénisztikus regényekből örökölt motívumokat mutatom be, és megvizsgálom, hogy azok hol és hogyan tűnnek fel Eugenianos művében. A második részben a Drosilla és Chariklés költői motívumrendszerét elemzem, középpontban a fényesség-sötétség, kő (kőszívűség) és harmat (δρόσος) motívumokkal. A vizsgálat során arra a következtetésre juthatunk, hogy a szerző a motívumok formálásánál rendkívül tudatosan járt el, és hogy a regényműfaj tekintetében újnak tekinthető motívumok jól ismertek az ókori görög költészetből – azaz Eugenianos az újításaihoz is az irodalmi hagyományból merített.

The subject of the study is with the motifs of the twelfth-century Byzantine novel Drosilla and Charicles by Nicetas Eugenianos. In the first part of this paper, I present traditional literary motifs inherited from Hellenistic novels and analyze where and how they appear in Drosilla and Charicles. In the second part, I examine the poetic motifs of Eugenianos’s romance with a focus on the motifs of brightness-darkness, stone (stone-heart) and dew (δρόσος). In the course of the study, it became clear, that the writer is extremely conscious of working with classical motifs, and we can conclude too, that the new motifs of this romance are well known from ancient Greek poetry.

Open access

Abstract

This article addresses some shortcomings in the standard theory of the phonology-morphology interface within Government Phonology, which is built on the dichotomy of analytic/non-analytic morphology. I argue that many cases which had previously been thought to be analytic and therefore to require a cyclic application of phonology should be reinterpreted without: Many constructions that seemed to consist of domains inside domains are better understood without that internal structure. This alternative avoids some contradictory results of the standard model, which incorrectly precludes certain kinds of interactions between the nested domains. The reinterpretation also makes better sense of the phonological shape of (allegedly analytic) affixes by taking into account phonotactic possibilities of clusters with more than three consonants, which had so no far not received a satisfactory analysis in the Government Phonology literature.

Free access