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Biology is a study of living objects and their life processes. It examines all aspects of living organisms such as their occurrence, classification, internal and external structure, nutrition, reproduction, inheritance, etc. The term “biology” is commonly replaced by the terms “life sciences” and “biological sciences.” There are dozens of branches of biology. Some of the major ones include:

Biology and Life Sciences

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Abstract

In the case of fruit syrups, consumers prefer thicker, deep-coloured ones because they remind them of good old homemade ones. Physical properties – as viscosity, colour, refractive index, soluble solid content (SSC), and electrical impedance - of fruit syrups flavoured with raspberry or orange juice were determined. The change of the measured physical properties was determined in three different experiments: 1. evaluating the effect of sugar and sweetener content 2. evaluating the effect of fruit juice composition and 3. evaluating the effect of sugar content on syrups containing raspberry or orange juice only. Variations in fruit and sugar content had a definite effect on the physical properties of squashes. Viscosity, SSC value, refractive index, and impedance magnitude increased with increasing sugar content and decreased with replacement of sugar with sweeteners although colour characteristics were defined mostly by the colorant added to the squash. Changes in the fruit composition of syrups could influence viscosity, refractive index, and SSC values but the magnitude of impedance showed little changes for all samples. The characteristics of squashes containing only raspberry or orange juice and different sugar content did not follow any trends, which emphasized that additives had a significant effect on the physical properties.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Červinka, P. Burg, I. Soural, V. Mašán, A. Čížková, J. Souček, V. Višacki, O. Ponjičan, and A. Sedlar

Abstract

Sauvignon Blanc represents an important grape variety. The wine made from this variety is known to have a wide range of aroma profiles from nettles to tropical fruits. Beside the raw material quality (grapes), the quality of wines can be fundamentally influenced by the technological conditions applied in the wine making process. Yeast and other microorganisms play a key role in the formation of metabolites during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, the effects of autochthonous or selected wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermentation temperatures (15 °C and 19 °C) were tested on major monoterpenes contents of wines during the period 2016–2017. The obtained values show that the highest contents of linalool (24.36 μg L−1) and hotrienol (11.84 μg L−1) were determined in wine samples produced with active (selected) wine yeast at lower temperature. Sensory evaluation results indicated that monoterpenes can have a positive effect on the overall sensory quality of Sauvignon Blanc wines, despite the fact that their determined concentrations in the evaluated samples were not higher than their threshold values.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background

Little is known on the abundance of the pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Burkholderia pseudomallei in environmental samples in Cameroon. Therefore, 100 respective samples were assessed in a proof-of-principle assessment.

Methods

DNA residuals from nucleic acid extractions of 100 environmental samples, which were collected between 2011 and 2013 in the Mapé Basin of Cameroon, were screened for B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei by real-time PCR. The samples comprised soil samples with water contact (n = 88), soil samples without water contact (n = 6), plant material with water contact (n = 3), water (n = 2), and soil from a hospital dressing room (n = 1).

Results

B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei were detected in none of the samples assessed.

Conclusion

The results indicate that at least a quantitatively overwhelming, ubiquitous occurrence of B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei in the environment in Cameroon is highly unlikely. However, the number and choice of the assessed samples limit the interpretability of the results.

Open access

Abstract

Napping is one of the rapid sensory profiling methods, which was established recently to meet the needs of sensory and consumer researchers. This approach provides a holistic evaluation of the tested sample through their positioning in a 2-dimensional space. The protocol of the analysis is somewhat different from the traditionally applied descriptive methods, like Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. In our review, we focus on the applicability of Napping in the field of fermented goods. The accompanying procedures are also investigated (typically Flash Profiling, CATA, and further methods), in order to understand how the combined datasets facilitate the understanding of the sensory characteristics of the products.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Anna Visy, Karina Ilona Hidas, Annamária Barkó, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, László Friedrich, and Gábor Jónás

Abstract

Consuming enough protein is a very important part of a balanced and healthy diet. Complete proteins are those in which all essential amino acids are present. In meat products, like hams, many different reactions occur during ageing and storage. For example, the production of free amino acids or the production of biogenic amines is formed by decarboxylation. In this study, the presence of these amino acids and biogenic amines, as well as the quality properties of cured hams during curing and ageing, were investigated.

The meat samples were immersed into 100 g L−1 NaCl brine. The curing took 20 days, followed by smoking and ageing for 35 days (12 °C, 75% RH). The wet-cured ham samples were analysed for changes in NaCl concentration (at 3 parts: surface, core, bottom layer). Moreover, color, water activity, denaturation temperature and enthalpy (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), free amino acids (FAAs) and biogenic amines (BAs) were also evaluated.

Open access

Abstract

One of the most important components in spreads is the fat phase. The characteristics of the used fat determine most of the quality factors of the products such as viscosity, texture, colour, shelf life, etc. In these kinds of products, the commonly used fat is palm fat, however, in recent years it has had a bad press due to its negative environmental impact and health concerns. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a palm oil free hazelnut spread. We investigated the effect of replacing the fat in the fat phase with milk fat or coconut fat to the apparent viscosity, colour and texture properties of the product. According to our results the palm fat had the highest and coconut fat had the lowest viscosity. In texture analyses palm fat and milk fat showed no significant difference in hardness and in work of penetration. Coconut fat was significantly different in every texture attributes from the other samples. In the case of colour measurement all samples were significantly different. Despite the observed differences in some parameters the suitability of milk fat for hazelnut spread production should be further investigated (sensory analyses, shelf-life).

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate microencapsulation of palm oil fractions (palm olein (POL) and 90% palm olein+10% palm stearin (POS)) using skim milk powder (SMP) and maltodextrin (MD) by spray drying. Twenty-seven emulsions with POL were prepared to determine appropriate solid content (SC) and oil/coating material ratio (O/CM) of the emulsions to be fed into the spray dryer. Emulsion properties, such as viscosity and stability, were affected by SC and coating materials. The effects of coating materials used in microencapsulation of POL and POS were also tested by using different ratios of SMP and MD. The microencapsulation efficiency (69.28–84.97%), the microencapsulation yield (14.50–31.79%), and the peroxide value (4.12–7.07 meq O2/kg oil) of the powders were affected by the coating materials (P < 0.05).

Restricted access

Abstract

In the current study, cakes were prepared with the addition of different levels of chia gel obtained by soaking 1 part of chia seeds in 9 parts of water by weight. Mix was allowed to stand for 30 min for gel formation and seeds were left in the gel and later incorporated into the batter. The addition of chia gel to cake batter to partially substitute the fat from the basic recipe (control) resulted both in improved quality characteristics at all levels of substitution and reduction of caloric value, at the expense of energy from fat, especially at higher reduction levels (40 and 60%). The fat replacement at 40 and 60% had a caloric value decrease by 48 kcal per 100 g compared to the control and respectively the energy at the expense of the fat was 37.9 and 25.7% (reduction by 71.3 and 48.3%). Sensory evaluation demonstrated good acceptability for all the products with slight prevail for the samples with 40% followed closer by those with 20% fat replacement. Hence, chia gel proved to be a good alternative for fat substitution in baking goods recipes while preserving the quality and sensory parameters aiming to produce healthier foods.

Open access

Abstract

Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is an obvious possibility because many properties of blood plasma are similar to egg white. Techno-functional and sensory attributes (water activity, moisture content, colour and texture related properties) were measured by instrumental methods. The allergenic egg powder can be substituted by non-allergenic blood plasma powder in sponge cakes, but the change in the ingredient has an effect on hardness and tolerating compressive stress until the breaking. In the case of water activity and moisture content, sponge cakes with blood plasma were as desirable as sponge cakes with egg.

Open access

Abstract

Presented work evaluated how quality of catfish fillets is affected by treatments using lactic acid or lysozyme in combination with chlorine. Fish fillets without skin were consecutively immersed and washed in 100 ppm chlorine solution and sprayed with 2.5% lactic acid or 0.5% lysozyme solution. Control samples were only washed with water at the same time. Samples were stored at 2 °C for 10 days in vacuum packaging. Parameters of pH, firmness, surface color and microbial cell counts (cfu/g) were measured on the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th days. Especially the latter had high importance from the point of view of food safety. Catfish fillets shown decreased survival of microorganisms as a result of treatment. Lysozyme and lactic acid achieved 1.8 and 2.4 log cfu/g reduction, respectively. Lower cell counts were observed for all treated samples compared to control during 10 days. Chlorine in combination with lactic acid achieved the best efficiency. The results are promising and suggest that combined treatment is able to improve safety by controlling microorganisms on fish fillets during cold storage.

Open access