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Abstract

Viruses can be found everywhere, they are part of the real life of humanity. Air travel is the youngest form of geographical movement, which has become an attainable reality for everyone at the expense of extraordinarily huge efforts and sacrifices. The two realities collided at the end of 2019 and then on 11 March 2020 via the declaration of COVID-19 to be a world pandemic changing the world as known. This paper introduces these two realities and researches their legal relations.

Primarily, this paper seeks answers to the question whether pursuant to the Montreal Convention (1999) regulating the liability of the air carrier for damages an event or occurrence deriving from the disease or state of health of the passenger taking place during the operations of embarkation or disembarkation or on board the aircraft is deemed to be an accident. What extent of liability does the state of health of the passenger impose on the contracting parties pursuant to the rules of the Convention and according to legal practice?

An answer is provided by unfolding the conceptual elements of accident via legal cases. This introduces the significance of the internal regulations of the air carrier; the situation of passengers in need of special care; examines the existence of medical certificates and deals with the responsibility of the crew for the treatment of acute situations deriving from the state of health of the passenger (heart attack, thrombosis, virus infection etc.)

The answer is logical. Pursuant to the Convention, the event or occurrence deriving from the state of health of the passenger does not qualify as accident, consequently, the air carrier shall not liable. However, if in the facts of the concrete case a cause and effect relationship exists between the occurrence of the accident and the negligent conduct of the air carrier, the liability of the air carrier for damages can be established.

The study introduces the system of conditions of the liability for damages in full detail, and the causal link producing an accident. The author makes recommendations for and outlines solutions in awareness that despite all real efforts, mankind has not learnt the lesson that the virus is in a winning position.

Open access

Abstract

Plague was a frequent visitor to early modern England, ravishing the whole country six times between 1563 and 1666. The plague problem was, however, definitely not just an English peculiarity. Plague, due to its recurrent and devastating outbreaks, was one of the central themes of late sixteenth-century medical scholarship and social policymaking. Plague was regulated mainly at the local levels, but most of the continental regulations and contemporary guidance seems to endorse two common features. They placed considerable emphasis on contagion and drew certain correlations between contacting plague and poverty on the one hand and meagre living conditions on the other hand. In some desperate attempts, the Elizabethan and Jacobean governments, set out to contain the spread of the disease, missing some marked features of these novel continental practices, issued various ill-suited regulations which dominated English plague control from 1578 to 1666. Despite these regulations' remarkably egalitarian overtone and seemingly charitable resolutions, this paper argues that the Elizabethan and Jacobean policies of plague control were destined to failure chiefly because of their elitist and inconsiderate measures, reducing them effectively to a harsh policy of confinement of the infected poor masses, taking almost no account of their health or well-being.

Open access

Abstract

The paper aims to highlight the nature and the relevance of the reference to constitutional traditions in the building of populist constitutionalism, with special regard to the Hungarian case. In Hungary the goals and effects of this reference – especially the references to the achievements of the historical constitution – must be discussed at the level of the constitutional text and with regard to the formation of the new constitutional jurisprudence and, furthermore, to the creation of the constitutional identity. Outstanding political theories have been built about the elements of national populism and all include a political emphasis on a nation's pride in its culture, history and traditions. This paper examines the normative legal consequences of this in a state where the populist political forces have consecutively gained a majority in the Parliament which enables them to adopt and amend a constitution and decide on the personal make up of the constitutional court. It examines the role of the reference to constitutional traditions in the transformation of the constitutional system. The illustrative case studies from Hungary show one element of the alternative to mainstream liberal constitutional democracy: a constitutional perception of the sovereign people with a strong common constitutional heritage, this latter to be respected by all state organs and by domestic, European and international law. The paper offers an understanding of this constitutional concept and assembles disclaimers and serious legal concerns that must be taken into account, at least in Hungary, but probably in many other national populist regimes as well.

Open access

Abstract

On 1 January 2018, a new act entered into force in Hungary. This act is the new code of private international law in Hungary. The basic purpose of this article is to present the jurisdictional rules of the new law. In the description I discuss how the new act differs from the rules of the old code. In addition, I focus on international and European trends in private international law. I also examine the extent to which the new Hungarian code complies with these trends, as well as discussing the peculiarities of the Hungarian regulation. The new Code uses the concept of jurisdiction as a rule for the ‘international distribution’ of cases and in the sense of public international law. Therefore, I also address in this article the definition of jurisdiction and other conceptual issues, the doctrines of immunity and the description of the jurisdictional system of the Code. I present the relationship between international, European and Hungarian rules which are relevant in private international law. In addition, I provide an overview of the novel system of jurisdictional rules in the Code.

Open access

Abstract

The author examines the tension that exists between the various components of the separation of powers (in particular the ideas of independence and separation, and the system of checks and balances). He analyses different ways of solving them. Attention is paid, for example, to attempting to supplement the separation of powers with some other normative thesis. The author rejects previous approaches and argues that the components of the separation of powers can be understood as separate principles. Conflicts between these principles should be resolved through proportionality.

Full access

Abstract

Courts conducting constitutional review do not work as ‘ivory towers’ any longer: they are part of the global dialogue on constitutional ideas and thoughts. This dialogue includes an exchange of experiences with fellow constitutional and apex courts, as well as the close observation of developments in foreign constitutional and legal systems, scholarship, and international trends. The Constitutional Court of Hungary has been an active participant in this dialogue since the Court's establishment in 1989, albeit with varying levels of intensity and goals. Moving beyond the often anecdotal observations in this field, the paper aims to conduct a deep analysis of how the Court uses comparative law in its work (during the preparatory phase and the drafting of final decisions) and examines the factors that may influence the Court's practice in this area. Such a clear overview can assist proponents of the use of comparative reasoning to contravene the increasing amount of criticism of the practice's legitimacy and selectivity.

Open access

Alsó tagozatosok kortárskapcsolatai az offline és online térben+

Offline and Online Relationships among Primary School Children

Educatio
Authors: Borbála Károlyi and Anikó Fehérvári

Összefoglaló. Az okoseszközök, az internet használata egyre fiatalabb életkorban jelenik meg a gyermekek körében. Az online környezet sajátosságairól, a szocializációra, valamint más tényezőkre gyakorolt negatív hatásairól már számos kutatás számolt be, azonban a tanulók kortárskapcsolatainak alakulásáról eddig kevés elemzés született. E pilotkutatás felhívja a figyelmet az offline-online jelenlét, valamint a kortárskapcsolatok összefüggéseire, az azzal járó lehetséges veszélyekre, melyek most különös jelentőséggel bírnak, hiszen a digitális oktatás bevezetése óta még több gyermeket érint az online jelenlét.

Summary. Nowadays, smart devices and the internet among children appear at younger ages than they did a few years ago. The particularities of the online environment, the social, and other negative effects are the topics of several studies, but very few focused on these effects on students’ relationships. Our pilot-research highlights the connections between offline and online relationships and the potential dangers caused by the online presence of children at a young age, which is even relevant since the beginning of the digital online education caused by the pandemic when even more primary-school children joined the online platforms.

Open access

Az online oktatás fejlődése Észak-Amerikában

The Development of Online Education in North America

Educatio
Author: Dorottya Deák
Open access
Educatio
Authors: Áron Szilveszter, Réka Kassai, Zsófia K. Takács, and Judit Futó

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-vírusjárvány miatt 2020 márciusától júniusáig bevezetett iskolai digitális munkarend az oktatási rendszer minden résztvevőjét számos új feladat elé állította. Feltételezzük, hogy különösen nagy kihívást jelenthetett a hátrányos helyzetű családok számára (Jakab 2020). Jelen tanulmányban egy kérdőíves kutatás eredményeit mutatjuk be, amelyben azt vizsgáltuk, hogy a szocioökonómiai státusz, a háztartási rendezettség, a családi rutin, valamint a gyermek tanulásba tett erőfeszítése közül mely tényezők jelzik előre az iskolai digitális munkarendben a tanulási sikerességet. A mintát középosztálybeli és hátrányos helyzetű, romatelepen élő, alsó tagozatos gyermeket nevelő felnőttek alkották. A hierarchikus lineáris regresszió eredményei azt mutatják, hogy a szocioökonómiai státusz önmagában nem szignifikáns prediktora a tanulási sikerességnek, azonban a tanulási erőfeszítés, a háztartási rendezettség és a családi rutin igen. A fenti eredmények – habár pusztán összefüggéseket és nem feltétlen kauzális kapcsolatokat mutatnak – alátámasztják, hogy hátrányos helyzetű gyermekek feltételezhetően sikeresen támogathatók a távoktatásban való eredményes részvételben egy, a fenti változókat célzó, intervencióval.

Summary. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the education system switched to digital distant learning education from March to June 2020. These changes posed a number of new challenges to students, teachers and parents alike. We assume that disadvantaged families were in an even more vulnerable position (Jakab 2020). Thus, we aimed to conduct a study to examine whether and how certain factors, including socioeconomic status, household chaos, family routine, and children’s learning effort affected learning success during this period of homeschooling. The sample consisted of high/middle-class and disadvantaged (living in a Roma settlements) caregivers of 1st–4th grader children. Our results indicate that socioeconomic status alone was not a significant predictor of learning success, however, learning effort, household chaos, and family routine were found to be important predictors. These results – although purely correlational – might suggest that a targeted intervention can be expected to effectively help disadvantaged children adapt to and succeed in a digital distant learning education setting.

Open access

A fizetett munkavállalás hatása a felsőoktatási hallgatók egyetemi pályafutására+

The Impact of Paid Work on University Careers among Higher Education Student

Educatio
Author: Zsófia Kocsis

Összefoglaló. Az utóbbi évtizedek tapasztalatai szerint a nappali tagozatos felsőoktatási hallgatók fizetett munkavállalását növekvő tendencia jellemzi, azonban a kutatók nem jutottak konszenzusra az eredményességre gyakorolt hatásával kapcsolatban. Kutatásunk célja, hogy feltárjuk a hallgatói munkavállalás hatását az eredményességre és a tanulmányok iránti elköteleződésre. A Társadalmi és szervezeti tényezők szerepe a hallgatói lemorzsolódásban című NKFIH által támogatott kutatás (PERSIST 2019) adatai alapján (N = 2199) a rendszeresen dolgozó hallgatók eredményesebbek, mint a nem dolgozó társaik. Az elkötelezettség és az oktatókkal folytatott intenzív kommunikáció, kapcsolattartás terén nincs jelentős különbség a hallgatói csoportok között. Ebben a vonatkozásban azt láthatjuk, hogy a rendszeres munkavégzés nem gátolja az egyetemi pályafutásukat, s nem akadályozza meg az intézményen belüli kapcsolatok kialakítását.

Summary. Research in recent decades has shown an increasing trend in paid employment for higher education students, but researchers have not reached a consensus on its impact on performance. The aim of our research is to explore the impact of student employment on academic performance and engagement to study. Based on data from PERSIST 2019 (N = 2199), students who work regularly are more successful than their non-working counterparts. Furthermore, there is no significant difference between the student groups in terms of engagement and intensive communication and contact with the lecturers. In this respect, we can see that regular work does not hinder their university careers, and nor does prevent the development of relationships within the institution.

Open access

A globális tudás piaca

Marketplace of the Global Mind

Educatio
Author: György Csepeli

Összefoglaló. A koronavírus-járvány megmutatta, hogy mennyire törékenyek az emberiség jólétének alapjai. Steven Pinkernek igaza lehet abban, hogy az emberiség még sosem élt oly jól, mint a 20. és 21. század fordulóján, de abban senki nem lehet bizonyos, hogy a trend folytatódik. A klímaváltozás, a migráció, a civilizációk békésnek nem mondható együttélése, a globális egyenlőtlenségek és a pénzügyi rendszer elszabadulása eredményeképpen planetáris idiotizmus jelent meg. A világ minden korábbi korszakhoz képest változékonyabb, bizonytalanabb, kétértelműbb és komplexebb társadalmi-természeti valósággá lett, melynek megismerése, kikutatása az egyetemeken és a kutatóintézetekben munkálkodó tudósok dolga. A vírusjárvány nyertese a digitális szféra, ahol a tudás globális piacterei nyílnak. Az emberiség jövője azon múlik, hogy visszatalál-e a szolidaritás értékeihez, melyek megtartották a Földön.

Summary. The coronavirus pandemic has shown how fragile are the grounds of human wellbeing on earth. Steven Pinker can be right stating that humankind has never lived so well than at the turn of the century but no-one can be sure that this trend will not end abruptly. Climate change, migration, increase of global inequalities the belligerent coexistence of civilisations and the unleash of the financial system have resulted the emergence of planetary idiotism. The world has never been more volatile, uncertain, ambiguous and complex than before. Studying and knowing this world is the task to be done by scholars working in research institutes and universities. The winner of the coronavirus pandemic has become the digital sphere where the global marketplaces of the knowledge production and distribution operate. The future of mankind depends on the willingness to return to the primordial values of solidarity that helped the human survival.

Open access

Iskolák a járvány alatt és után – nemzetközi tapasztalatok

Schools during and after the Pandemic – International Experiences

Educatio
Author: Péter Harsányi
Open access

Koronavírus és oktatáspolitika

Coronavirus and Educational Policy

Educatio
Author: István Nahalka

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-járvány számos nehezen megoldható feladatot jelentett a magyar oktatásirányítás számára is. Ma még nem áll rendelkezésre kellő mennyiségű konkrét ismeret annak eldöntésére, hogy a szigorúbb intézkedések jelentősen hozzájárulnak-e a járvány hatásainak enyhítéséhez. Az oktatás folyamatossága biztosításának legfontosabb feltétele, hogy az oktatási rendszerben domináns szerepet játsszon a korszerű pedagógiai kultúra. Magyarországon ez a feltétel nem áll rendelkezésre, ennek okait az oktatáspolitikában kell keresni. Az esélyegyenlőtlenségek növekedése az egész világon jelentős volt, így hazánkban is. Az iskolabezárások a hátrányos helyzetű tanulók esetében okoztak jelentősebb tanulási elmaradásokat. Az oktatáspolitikának és az oktatásirányításnak nem volt válasza erre a súlyos problémára.

Summary. In the course of COVID-19 epidemic the Hungarian educational government also had numerous challenges. Today we have not enough concrete knowledge to say that hard measures are conductive to mitigate the effects of the epidemic or not. The most important condition of the continuation of education is the dominant role of the modern pedagogical culture in the educational system. In Hungary this condition is not ready. The causes of this situation we have to seek in the educational policy. The rising of inequality of opportunity was appreciable on the whole World, in our country too. The closures of schools caused more significant lagging in learning processes and outcomes in the case of handicapped students. Educational policy and administration had no any answer to this serious problem.

Open access

A koronavírus-válság hatása a felsőoktatásra

Európai és globális körkép

Effect of the Coronavirus on Higher Education

European and Global Overview
Educatio
Author: Ildikó Hrubos

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány azokat a fontosabb kutatási eredményeket foglalja össze, amelyek a koronajárvány kezdeti szakaszában születtek, és nyilván jórészt mozaikszerű empirikus vizsgálódásokon alapulnak. A fő hangsúlya azonban a várható következményekre kerül. Vajon mennyiben, milyen mértékben és formákban szükséges és kívánatos a rendkívüli állapot körülményei között bevezetett tanulási és tanítási formák fenntartása, azok továbbfejlesztése és a jövőbeni gyakorlatba való – hosszabb távban gondolkodó – beépítése. Ez a kutatási megközelítés kapcsolódik az utóbbi években kiemelten kezelt témához, a tanulás és tanítás korszerűsítésének kérdéséhez, de túl is mutat azon. Ismét élesen merül fel a felsőoktatás (és főleg az egyetem) létének kérdése európai és globális színtéren egyaránt.

Summary. The study summarizes significant research results that were born in the initial phase of the coronavirus and are clearly based mostly on mosaic-type empirical surveys. However, they mainly emphasize the expected consequences. In what ways, to what extent and in what forms is it necessary and favourable to maintain the education methods introduced under the state of emergency conditions, and to further develop them – considering the long term – for integration into future practices. This research approach is connected to the subject that has been highlighted in recent years, the matter of modernizing learning and teaching, but points even beyond that. The question of the existence of higher education (and mostly universities) in the European and global arena sharply rises again.

Open access

Közösségi tanulás járvány idején

Social Learning in Pandemic

Educatio
Authors: Katalin Forray R. and Tamás Kozma

Összefoglaló. A társadalmi innovációt és közösségi tanulást kutatók általában társadalmi méretű természeti katasztrófákból indulnak ki (Moulaert et al. 2013: 113–130). Mi a járványt próbáljuk úgy tekinteni, mint az egész közösséget érő kihívást, amely új tanulásokat és innovációkat eredményez (Márkus–Kozma 2019: 5–17). Paradigmatikus kutatási módszerünk a résztvevő megfigyelés (Moulaert–MacCallum 2019: 115–120). Ezt kiegészítjük a szociális média elemzésével, valamint célzott interjúkkal és folyamatos monitorozással. Az események lefutására példaként az oktatást (tanárokat, tanulókat, szülőket és fönntartókat) használtuk. Négy lakossági csoportot és jellegzetes magatartásaikat sikerült körvonalaznunk a kormányzat mint aktor mellett: a „lojálisakat”, a „vádaskodókat”, az „aktívakat” és az „innovatívakat”. Az oktatásügy története a járványveszély idején változó dinamikát mutat. A járványveszély kihirdetésekor a civilek innovativitása fellángolt; ezt azonban a kormányzati adminisztráció később fokozatosan visszaszorította. A kívánatos ezzel szemben a felek partnersége lett volna.

Summary. Researchers of social innovation and community (social) learning usually start their analyses from natural disasters (Moulaert et al. 2013: 113–130). In this paper, we defined the first six weeks of pandemic threat (COVID-19) in Hungary as a community-wide challenge that resulted in new learning and innovation (Márkus–Kozma 2019: 5–17). We choose participatory observation as the main research method (Moulaert–MacCallum 2019: 115–120) which was complemented by social media analysis as well as targeted interviews and ongoing monitoring. We used education (teachers, students, parents and owners of institutions) as an example. We outlined four population groups and their typical attitudes towards the government’s anti-virus education policy: the “loyal”, the “accuser”, the “active” and the “innovative”. The education policy showed changing dynamics at the time of the epidemic threat. When the threat was announced, the innovativeness of civilians flared up; however, this was later gradually suppressed by government decisions. The desired, on the other hand, would have been a partnership between the parties.

Open access

Learning Alone – a kapcsolati beágyazódás vizsgálata a távolléti oktatás alatt

Learning Alone – The Study of Student Relationships during the Emergency Remote Teaching

Educatio
Authors: Gabriella Pusztai and Krisztina Győri

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-pandémia oktatásra gyakorolt hatását 2020-ban a kutatók rendkívüli gyorsasággal kezdték el vizsgálni. Jelen kutatás összehasonlította a hallgatói kapcsolatoknak a vészhelyzeti távolléti oktatás (emergency remote teaching, ERT) előtti és alatti állapotát és ezek összefüggését a hallgatói eredményesség alakulásával. Kérdőívünket 677 válaszadó hallgató töltötte ki (172 férfi és 505 nő) összesen 29 magyarországi felsőoktatási intézményből. Eredményeink rámutattak az oktatók tanítással nem szorosan összefüggő szerepköreinek nélkülözhetetlenségére, valamint arra, hogy a hallgatói kapcsolatok gyengülése összefüggésben áll a tanulmányok melletti kitartással, a tanulmányi aktivitással, a bizalommal és az elégedettséggel. Mindezt a virtuális egyetem koncepciók kidolgozásánál is szükséges figyelembe venni.

Summary. Researchers have begun studying with utmost haste the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on teaching already in 2020. In the present study, we compared the states of the student relationships before and after the emergency remote teaching (henceforth ERT). Our questionnaire was filled by 677 students (172 males, 505 females) from altogether 29 Hungarian higher education institutes. Our results raise attention to the important dimension of the role of faculty members which are not in close relation to knowledge transfer, furthermore, the results point that the strength of the institutional relationships is in correlation with the persistence related to student persistence, student engagement, the trust, and the satisfaction. All of this should be taken into consideration when working out a concept for a virtual university.

Open access

Mesterséges intelligencia és az e-learning: Az online oktatás jövője

Artificial Intelligence and E-learning: The Future of Online Education

Educatio
Author: Zsolt Ábrahám
Open access

Nem lineáris életutak a felsőoktatásban, avagy hogyan kerüljük el a lemorzsolódást?

Non-Linear Life Paths in Higher Education, or How Do We Avoid Dropping Out?

Educatio
Authors: Melinda Krankovits and Gábor Kallós

Összefoglaló. Napjainkban a felsőoktatás-kutatás egyik kiemelt területe a lemorzsolódás vizsgálata. Tanulmányunk első részében foglalkozunk a tömeges felsőoktatás problémájával, az expanzió elméleti hátterét ismertetve nemzetközi szakirodalmon keresztül adunk példákat a fogalom mai megjelenésére. A tanulmány a hallgatói életutakat vizsgálja, saját automatikus megoldást kínálva az adatelemzésre. Ebből kitekintve, foglalkozunk a műszaki képzési területen is megjelenő újra beiratkozás (re-gólya) jelenségével. Az eredményekből láthatjuk, hogy az újra beiratkozás alternatívát kínál a lemorzsolódásra.

Summary. Nowadays some of the most important areas of higher education research are dropping out and related case studies. The first part of our study deals with the development of mass higher education, describing the theoretical background of the expansion. This part provided examples of the current appearance of basic concepts through international literature. The study is about students’ life paths, also covers the topic of dropout researched by many, offering our own automated solution for data analysis. Looking out of the topic of dropout, we are dealing with the re-freshman phenomenon in the field of technical discipline. It can be seen, that other choices, such as re-enrollment, offer an alternative to dropout.

Open access

Oktatás a változásban, a változás oktatása

Education in Times of Change, Teaching Change

Educatio
Author: Aliz Mária Tóth
Open access

Pandémiás oktatás

Pandemic Education

Educatio
Author: István Polónyi

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány célja, hogy bemutassa a hazai közoktatás és felsőoktatási rendszer elmúlt tízéves átalakulását s annak kedvezőtlen következményét a pandémiás oktatás eredményességére.

Az írás először áttekinti a közoktatásban bekövetkezett változásokat, amelyek közül az intézmények államosítása, az intézmények nem mérséklődő polarizáltsága és a forráskivonás súlyos problémákat eredményezett a pandémiás oktatás időszakában. A forráskivonás nyomán elavultak az iskolai IKT-eszközök, a polarizáltság nyomán a tanulók legalább egyötödéhez nem jut el a távolléti oktatás, és a központosítás következtében mind az iskolák, mind a pedagógusok magukra maradtak.

A felsőoktatás-politikai változások legfontosabb elemei az intézményi autonómiát beszűkítő központosítás, az elitizálás és a forráskivonás. A pandémiás oktatás eredményességét ezek az intézkedések jelentősen befolyásolták. Az elitizálás nyomán a távoktatás a magyar felsőoktatási rendszerben rendkívül szűk, így sem az intézmények eszközállománya, sem az oktatók nem voltak felkészülve a tömeges távolléti oktatásra. A forráshiány akadályozta a gyors reagálást, és az autonómia hiánya is az önálló kezdeményezések helyett a központtól való függést eredményezte.

A tanulmány azzal a megállapítással zárul, hogy a pandémiás oktatás hatása a magyar társadalomra alighanem két súlyos hosszú távú következménnyel jár: részint csökkenti a társadalmi kohéziót, részint nyomában tovább növekszik – az egyébként is egyre szembetűnőbb hátrányban lévő – magyar emberi erőforrások lemaradása a fejlett világtól.

Summary. The aim of the study is to present the transformation of the Hungarian public education and higher education system over the past ten years, and its unfavorable consequences for the effectiveness of pandemic education. The paper first presents the changes that have taken place in public education, of which the nationalization of institutions, the polarization of non-declining institutions, and the withdrawal of resources have resulted in serious problems during the period of pandemic education. Withdrawals have led to the obsolescence of school ICT tools, polarization means that at least one-fifth of pupils do not have access to distance education, and centralization has left both schools and teachers to themselves.

The most important elements of higher education policy changes are centralization, which reduces institutional autonomy, the elitization s the withdrawal of funds. The effectiveness of pandemic education has been significantly affected by these measures. Following the elitization, distance education in the Hungarian higher education system is extremely narrow, so neither the equipment of the institutions nor the lecturers were prepared for mass distance education. Lack of resources prevented a rapid response, and a lack of autonomy resulted in dependence on the center instead of independent initiatives.

The study concludes that the impact of pandemic education on Hungarian society is likely to have two serious long-term consequences: partly reducing social cohesion, and partly increasing the backwardness of Hungarian human resources, which are already becoming more and more disadvantaged.

Open access

Szülői segítségnyújtás a jelenléti és távolléti oktatás idején

Parental Assistance during Traditional and Distance Education

Educatio
Authors: Ágnes Engler, Valéria Markos, and Ágnes Réka Dusa

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunk fókuszában a koronavírus során bevezetett járványügyi intézkedések gyermekeket érintő kérdései állnak, a járványnak a családok időgazdálkodásra való hatása és az otthoni tanulás, digitális átállás nehézségei. Kutatásunkban egy telefonos kérdőíves lekérdezésen (CATI) alapuló adatbázist használunk, melyet a járvány első hulláma idején készítettek, 2020 áprilisában a Kopp Mária Intézet megbízásából (N = 1000). Vizsgáljuk, hogy mi befolyásolja az otthoni tanulást akkor, ha a szülőknek esetleg a tananyag elsajátításában is segítséget kell nyújtaniuk. Eredményeink szerint a családok többségének lehetősége és szándéka volt a közös tanulásra, ennek mértékére és mikéntjére nem a megszokott társadalmi háttérváltozók mentén találtunk különbségeket, hanem a családi kapcsolatok és az otthoni munkavégzés kapcsán.

Summary. The focus of our study is on the issues of epidemiological measures introduced during the coronavirus that affect children, the impact of the pandemic on time management of families and the difficulties of home learning and digital transition. In our research, we use a database based on a telephone questionnaire (CATI), which was created during the first wave of the pandemic, in April 2020 on behalf of the Mária Kopp Institute (N = 1000). We examine what influences home learning when parents may need to help with curriculum acquisition. According to our results, the majority of families had the opportunity and intention to learn together, and we did not find differences in the extent and manner of this along the usual social background variables, but in relation to family relationships and working from home.

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A társadalmi felelősségvállalás jelenléte a magyar állami egyetemek szervezeti dokumentumaiban

Presence of Social Responsibility in the Organizational Documents of Hungarian State Universities

Educatio
Author: Zsolt Dános

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány a magyarországi állami felsőoktatási intézmények honlapjain elérhető szervezeti dokumentumokban tartalomelemzés segítségével keresi az alig két évtizedes múltra visszatekintő egyetemi társadalmi felelősségvállalás jelenlétét. A fogalom, amely az egyetem modern szerepeinek értelmezését tágítja, a vállalati társadalmi felelősségvállalás nyomán tűnt fel, összekapcsolódva a harmadik misszió jelenségével. Emellett az írás kategóriákat kíván felállítani arra vonatkozólag, hogy az egyetemi társadalmi felelősségvállalás hogyan jelenik meg és milyen tudatosságot képvisel az intézmények felelősségvállalásában. A tanulmány mindehhez bemutatja azokat a kereteket, amelyekben az egyetemi társadalmi felelősségvállalás fogalma kialakult.

Summary. The study uses the method of content analysis in the organizational documents available on the institutional websites of Hungarian higher education to look for the presence of university social responsibility, which dates back only two decades. The concept emerged in the wake of corporate social responsibility in connection with the phenomenon of the third mission and seeks to broaden the interpretation of the modern roles of the university, but it has hardly been researched in the Hungarian research. Besides, the writing seeks to establish categories of how university social responsibility manifests itself and what awareness the institution represents in responsibility. For all this, the study presents the framework in which the concept of university social responsibility has been developed.

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Vírus és oktatás – Absztraktok

COVID-19 pandemic on education – Abstracts in English

Educatio
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Abstract

This paper summarizes the trends in research about student experiences in out-of-school time (OST) in countries of Europe. The analysis is based on a review of the content of research papers published between 1999 and 2019 in about 36 European countries. OST is recognized as an important aspect of students’ educational experiences that deserves increased research attention. A significant portion of students in all countries participate in OST activities either to improve their school performance or to engage in social activities. Under conditions where parents and students believe that the formal school system is weak, the OST educational experiences may be considered to be necessary to make a significant or necessary contribution to a student’s success compared with formal school itself. Because OST activities are undertaken in a free market their form and structure vary because of differences in the countries’ historical development, condition of public education, and the social, economic, cultural, and political factors that influence the educational systems. The analysis presents examples of how in some European countries conceptual models of OST have been expanded, adapted OST practices for regular school systems, and evaluated the outcomes. This review of the definitions of OST, of evaluations of its impact, and of the evidence for its effect on equality of educational opportunity throughout 36 European countries concludes that the studies provide contradictory messages. Greater consistency in conceptual development could be increased over time as researchers across countries review each other’s strategies and share methods and results.

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Abstract

The present mixed-methods study explored first-year undergraduate students of a highly selective university in Kazakhstan's perceptions of having private tutoring (PT) and how far it had helped them gain a place at this university. The quantitative data were collected through a close-ended questionnaire from 144 participants to understand their socioeconomic backgrounds and PT experiences over the previous two years, in terms of the scope, types, costs and the subjects studied in the PT they had received. The subsequent qualitative data were collected through interviewing 8 participants to capture in detail the perceived impact of PT on their overall achievement. The study found that 86 out of 144 participants (60%) had received PT. Most of them (72%) had sought PT as an enrichment strategy to obtain higher scores in high-stakes examinations and thus secure a place at that university. Some participants explained the disadvantages of PT, including the financial burden on their families and it being a potentially unfair advantage in a competitive context. The findings of the study are instructive for educators and policy makers in Kazakhstan in revealing the limitations of schooling in the public sector. The pedagogical implications and areas for ongoing research are suggested.

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Abstract

Innovations created by teachers, teacher communities and schools in their daily practice play a key role in improving the quality and effectiveness of education. As protocols, central regulations, ready-made teaching materials do not provide solutions to all problems emerging in daily practice the invention of new, original solutions are necessary to respond the challenges teachers and schools encounter in their everyday work. Similarly to other knowledge intensive professions creativity and innovativeness are necessary skills for teachers and teacher communities to work effectively. In many countries schools are encouraged to support innovative work behaviour and they are expected to manage effectively change and innovation processes. The increasing importance of innovations and innovation processes in education raises the question of how to measure innovation in this sector and how decision makers can use innovation data. This article presents some of the outcomes of an education sector innovation survey conducted in Hungary in 2018. It demonstrates the possibility to design data collection instruments that allow capturing school/department level innovation processes. The article focuses on one specific problem area: the relationship between organisational characteristics and innovation activity/behaviour.

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Abstract

According to our initial assumption, there would be two characteristic strategies for Romani catching up. One strategy is to lift the Romanies out of poverty and bring their living conditions closer to the average living conditions of the majority society. According to the other strategy, Romanies create a national minority in the majority society. It should be supported so that the members of the community could preserve their national characteristics and exercise their minority rights. By reviewing the literature (e.g., Armillei 2014; Boscoboinik & Giordano 2008; Ladányi & Szelényi 2016) we searched in which country which strategies are being followed by current governments. The result is that these strategies coexist within a country and are increasingly intermingled according to existing governments. The reason for this phenomenon is the recent changes in Romani societies and the emergence of new middle classes. There are both economic and cultural conditions for emerging these middle classes. A successful Romani strategy has to contain therefore, both economic and cultural actions. The governments of the region must contribute not only to the catching-up of the Romanies but also to the formation of their Romani middle classes.

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pre-enrollment attributes of first-year students at Computer Science BSc programs of the University of Miskolc, Hungary in order to find those that mostly contribute to failure on the Programming Basics first-semester course and, consequently to dropout. Our aim is to detect at-risk students early, so that we can offer appropriate mentorship program to them. The study is based on secondary school performance and first-semester Programming Basics course results from the last decade of over 500 students. Secondary school performance is characterized by the rank of the school, admission point score, and foreign language knowledge. The correlation of these data with the Programming Basics course result is measured. We have tested three hypotheses, and found that admission point score and school rank together have significant impact on the first-semester Programming Basics course results. The findings also support our assumption that students having weaknesses in all examined pre-enrollment attributes are subject to dropout. This paper presents our analysis on students' data and the method we used to determine the attributes that mostly affect dropout.

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Abstract

What happens, if a university moves to a town that never had a higher education institution previously? What is the impact of this development both on the community and the institution? The aim of this paper is to answer this question. The authors use the concept of ‘social innovation’ for understanding the developments. An institute may initiate, organise and coordinate all kinds of learning that takes place in a given community (Bradford, 2003). To do so, the institute may have to change its missions (not only its third, but also its first, second and third ones. These developments could be interpreted as a ‘social innovation’ during which the local economy and society was challenged and they looked for new responses. As suggested in the ‘social innovation’ literature the main research method was participatory research, combined with structured and semi-structured interviews, story-telling and narrative analyses. As a result, three interest groups could be described with various requirements different demands toward the university; while the university had to modify its structure, curriculum and communications. The main lesson to learn is that ’social innovation’ as a frame of interpretation can be used to understand the developmental processes that occurred between the locals and a new university.

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Abstract

Most Education systems propose policies in pro of the benefit of society. However, successful application of these is unknown in consequence considering teachers voices is needed to understand the situations in the classroom. This study analyzes some English language teachers’ stories that served the purpose to construct themselves as professionals of language education facing the dichotomy of inclusion and exclusion placed by the mandates of the Colombian education system. The theme of Language Teacher Subjectivities, in this article, is conceptualized and discussed as the alternative s teachers have within their reach to use their own theories regarding language teaching and learning. Reflecting retrospectively and prospectively on meaningful school experiences related to the language teaching activity to tackle the dichotomy, the research question that guided this study was: What do language teachers’ narratives portray about their professional subjectivities in relation to inclusion? From a narrative perspective, narrative interviews and a professional life history timeline was analyzed using short story analysis focusing on when, when and who as meaningful in the data and finding that the participants comply with the multidimensional view of the subject. The narratives depicted that the corporal dimension, social-affective dimension, cognitive dimension, and ethic-moral dimension are part of the teachers’ professional subjectivities in the frame of Colombian inclusion policy.

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Abstract

Vividly, it is not an overstatement to say that football game is the most prominent sport in the recent world. The present study is about the impact of athletic scholarship on football achievement motivation of university students. Athletic type of scholarship helps students to discover, improve and exhibit their football talent and skills. It makes effective contributions to the development of sport within the campus and prepares ambitious and hardworking college or university athletes for the challenges of actualizing their long-term ambitions to become professional footballers. Considering both empirical cum theoretical contributions of this study, the finding practically provides the following suggestions. 1- the finding pinpoints the insights and importance of athletic scholarship and encourage the stakeholders of the university to cultivate the idea of athletic scholarships by extending their scholarship schemes beyond merit and needy bases. 2- It gives an insight that athletic scholarship enables the students to study any academic program and have tendency of becoming professional footballers. 3- importantly, it adds to the literature by investigating the impact of athletic scholarship on football achievement motivation of the students and how the stardoms of being a footballer in the campus affect the students' football interest.

Open access

Abstract

Objective

A lack of movement in adolescence is a pressing issue for modern society. Physical education at school can have a major influence on the movement habits of adolescents, since it can offer curriculum that gives students ideas for leisure time while entertaining them and also respecting physical fitness goals. The aim of this work is to analyze student satisfaction with physical education classes at secondary vocational schools.

Methods

Categories were created based on week-long monitoring of walking. Based on the number of steps, students were divided into four categories: active girls/boys and hypoactive girls/boys. In another part of the study, the students filled out the questionnaire created by Antala et al. (2012). Responses to questions regarding questions about unpopular activities, dread of specific activities, and more frequent inclusion of specific activities in PE classes. A χ2 independence test was used to compare data between individual student categories in the combination table.

Results

The health recommendations for minimum daily number of steps are met by 65.4% of boys and 75.8% of girls aged 15–16 years. Chi-squared test showed the greatest difference in satisfaction with physical education (P-value <0.001) between the hypoactive groups of students. Hypoactive boys are significantly more satisfied with the activities in PE class than hypoactive girls. Dread is more often present among girls than boys and is particularly associated with gymnastics. Activities that students wanted to do more often included ball games (football for boys, volleyball for girls), strength training (listed by 32% of hypoactive boys) and exercise to music (listed by 49% of hypoactive girls).

Conclusions

We believe that the proper choice of PE activities can increase the popularity of the class, and thus influence the exercise habits of adolescents, including those who are found to have insufficient physical activity.

Open access

Abstract

In Hungary, the teacher qualification and promotion system was extended with the missing Master teacher grade in 2016. The analysis of the five-year plans of the Master teacher candidates provides an opportunity to get an overview of the vision of experienced and highly qualified teachers about the current situation and the potentials of the educational sector. The research explores the Master programmes of 95 Master teacher candidates from the early years sector to understand what issues they identify in their everyday work, which motivates them for professional learning and for setting innovative goals. The qualitative research uses document analysis to explore the programmes that is followed by semi-structured interviews. The Master kindergarten teachers consider teacher fluctuation and the changes in the legislation the main issues that induce extra tasks to deal with. They also plan to enrich their practice with innovative methods. Collaborative methods for professional learning and planning are frequently mentioned in the programmes, but the terrain of knowledge sharing is mainly their community of practice. Even though opposition is visible in the teachers' attitude against the qualification network, the majority of the Master teachers claim to consider their master programme as an enhancement of their professional work.

Open access

Abstract

Data-driven decision-making (DDDM) has been playing an increasing role in contemporary teaching, since it includes systematic collection, analysis, and application of data to improve students’ educational performance. However, little is known about the affective factors that influence this data-based practice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to systematically examine previous research on the affective factors that influence DDDM based on the following criteria: (1) the level of DDDM usage; (2) the emphasis of affective factors; and (3) the nature of the interventions and their effects on teachers. According to the findings, this literature review showed how little DDDM-related affective factors have been researched, even though the knowledge of DDDM can help expand its application in the educational field. For example, although the most widely used tool is the Data-Driven Decision-Making Efficacy and Anxiety Inventory (3D-MEA), which has shown promising results in terms of measuring the efficacy and development of data literacy, other affective components have yet to be tested, due to their novelty in the field. The implication of the findings is that obtaining more information about DDDM and its affective elements can help reduce teachers’ anxiety toward this approach and ultimately enhance the overall educational process.

Open access

Abstract.

Aims of the study

Compared to other developing countries, the reading achievement of Azerbaijani students remains low. Using the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016 data, this study examines potential predictors of Grade 4 student reading achievement in Azerbaijan.

Background of the research

The study is guided by an exploratory model and considers various student and family factors which could be influenced by the policies to improve student reading achievement in Azerbaijan. The study differs from previous research in that it simultaneously examines multiple predictors of student reading achievement in a previously under-researched country.

Method

This study conducts a secondary analysis of the PIRLS 2016 data. Regression model is utilized to examine the effects of student and family factors on reading achievement.

Results

The study finds that student characteristics (gender, liking reading, and confidence in reading) and family factors (home resources for learning, preschool attendance) are significantly associated with reading achievement of Grade 4 students in Azerbaijan. The model explains 17% of the variance in student reading achievement.

Conclusion

This study discusses recommendations related to the effects of various factors on reading literacy scores.

Open access

Abstract

This case study contributes with a new coteaching design, in which experienced teachers from two different aesthetic subjects are planning, teaching and evaluating together in higher education, more specifically in general preschool teacher education. The aim of the study is to analyse how two drama teachers and a music teacher reflect on their coteaching. Coteaching, when teachers teach together with shared responsibility to meet their students’ learning needs, is a pedagogical approach to enable an active learning process. Research and practice in coteaching have emerged, mostly designed with coteachers within the same subject. However, more research is needed about teachers from different subjects coteaching together. The theoretical framework is sociocultural, with special emphasis on aspects of learning from ‘the other’ in praxis by working in a zone of proximal development (ZPD). Analysed data consist of field notes and audio-recorded teacher group conversations. Main findings show synergies in subject parallels, based on the analysis of coteachers’ reflections as learning processes within their ZPD. In conclusion, a major contribution in terms of synergy in coteaching appears in subject parallels related to specific subject matter concepts, where music and drama are intertwined in the classroom as “music-drama”, as a new dimension.

Open access

This research focuses on the question whether novelties of criminal law are mirrored in legal consciousness. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a representative national sample of the adult Hungarian population and in this paper, the responses related to the age-limit of criminal responsibility for property offences are analysed. The hypothesis that the average person has a fragmented knowledge, even about this sector of criminal law, has been verified. It was not substantiated that this knowledge of law is substantially affected by socio-economic factors, including media consumption and encountering criminality. The cognitive answers were, however, strongly influenced by the attitudes of the respondents.

Open access

The issues of continuity and discontinuity are rather complex in case of the minorities’ legal status. The main focus of the paper is the transition from the monarchy to the republic in 1918. During the first Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938) the legal status of minorities was substantially influenced by the traditions from the period of monarchy as these were used by the new state. The most extensive legal regulation of minorities’ status in Czech history existed in interwar Czechoslovakia.

Free access

Sustainability, as comp ared to the rule of law, human rights, sovereignty or democracy, is a relatively new constitutional key concept. It is mentioned explicitly more and more in constitutional discourses, and – even more importantly – it helps to reconstruct a number of current constitutional debates under one conceptual umbrella. Sustainability comprises different responses to long term social challenges which cannot efficiently be responded to via democratic mechanisms. Democratic mechanisms are based on election terms and which are, consequently, structurally short-sighted. By ‘European constitutional law’, I mean in this paper both the primary law of the EU and domestic constitutional documents. In the present paper is am first going to sketch the nature and the types of the sustainability challenges that contemporary societies face, with a special focus on Europe (environmental, demographic and financial). In the main part of the paper, I am going to show possible constitutional responses to these challenges. Finally, I will summarise the main argument of the paper which is a suggestion to set up an economic constitutional court consisting of economists with the power to annul laws if these contradict the principles of sustainability.

Open access

Scientific discussions concerning local governments are pervaded by paradigms at all times, which are questioned from time to time (paradigm crisis). As a result, participants of these discussions either defend their points, or a new paradigm appears (change in paradigm). I examine the system of local governments from this aspect. What kind of and how many paradigms characterise the system of local governments? Are these explainable by the paradigm? If not, is there another explanation? In this study, I gather all the current and emerging (perhaps former) characteristics of the local government system. In that regard, I determined the principles that, in my opinion, either apply at the level of the local government system, or they are in crisis.

Open access

The universality of human language above the diversity of vernaculars as theorized by Noam Chomsky creates the temptation to adapt the same idea to law. There are parallels between language and law, e.g., Latin language and Roman law, the universality, formality, and generativity of the two and the embeddedness of law in language. Chomsky’s universal generative grammar is applicable to law in a direct way but the theory is still extendable to semantics and pragmatics of law. The claim is that generating constructions of elemental constituents is an approved technique of law and jurisprudence as much as of linguistics. The pragmatic dimension of semiotics of law shows the significant contribution of law to consolidating social role of speech acts.

Open access

Összefoglaló. Vizsgálatunk során 11 első generációs oktató életútját és pályaképét tekintjük át, elemezzük az őket ért hátrányokat, a helyzetükből fakadó előnyöket, valamint igyekszünk feltárni az oktatási karrierjük főbb állomásait, továbbtanulásuk motivációit és pályaválasztásuk történetét. Az eredmények szerint az interjúalanyok tapasztalatai diverz mintákat mutatnak, tehát a hátrányok megélése nem általános jelenség, bár a megkérdezettek nagyobb részénél az erre utaló elemek megragadhatók. A hátrányok azokon a tudományterületeken jelentkeznek élesebben, ahol a kulturális tőke felhalmozása a szakmai identitás markánsabb részét képezi, vagy pedig az adott intézmény társadalmi háttere (mind oktatói, mind hallgatói) kedvező.

Summary. The aim of this study is to recover the career and life path of 11 first-generation academics. We try to map their disadvantages or advantages – which are embedded in their social circumstances – motives of their further studies and the history of their career choices. The results have shown that their experiences are diverse. The experiencing of handicaps does not work in every case nevertheless these kinds of traces can be found in some forms by most of them. These handicaps seem to be more significant in the field of those disciplines in which cultural capital is rather the parts of the professional identities and professional socialisation or the prestige of the institution is high.

Open access

Összefoglaló. A felsőoktatás egyik legfontosabb feladata, hogy a munkaerőpiac által megkövetelt kompetenciákra felkészítse a hallgatókat, tehát a felsőoktatás, a munkaerőpiac, különösen a rendvédelmi szervek által képviselt speciális munkaerőpiac kongruenciájának kialakítása kiemelt figyelmet érdemel. A kompetenciák közül a 21. században megjelenő pozíciók ellátásához a digitális olvasás- és írástudás, valamint a kommunikáció fejlesztése elengedhetetlen. A kutatási téma célja a hallgatók digitális és verbális kommunikációs szintjének fejlesztése a szaknyelvi órák keretében különböző nyelvtanulási módszerek és nyelvtanulási stratégiák alkalmazásával. Tervezett kutatásunkban empirikus vizsgálatot végzünk a Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem Rendészettudományi Karán szaknyelvet tanuló nappali tagozatos hallgatókkal.

Summary. The main task of higher education is to prepare students for the competencies declared by the labour market, thus the development of congruence between higher education and labour market especially the special labour market represented by law enforcement deserves special attention. Among the competencies, digital skills are placed at the forefront, as digital literacy and communication are essential for 21st-century positions. The aim of the research topic is to improve students’ digital and verbal communication levels with the use of different language teaching methods and language learning strategies in ESP (English for specific purposes) classes. Empirical research will be carried out with full-time students at the Faculty of Law Enforcement at the University of Public Service.

Open access
Educatio
Authors: Zsolt Tibor Kosztyán, Vivien Valéria Csányi, Zsuzsanna Banász, and András Telcs

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány a magyarországi felsőoktatási intézményeket vizsgálja, kontrollként kiegészítve németországi és belgiumi intézményekkel. E három ország (főként hazánk) intézményei közül számos nem szerepel a nemzetközi rangsorokban, ezért további elérhető szekunder forrásokból számítottunk tipikus rangsorképző indikátorokat a rangsorokban általában vizsgált tényezőkre, mint az oktatás, a kutatás, a nemzetköziesség, valamint a finanszírozás. Ez alapján elsősorban arra a kutatási kérdésre kerestük a választ, hogy a magyar felsőoktatási intézmények miként (mely indikátoraik javításával) kapaszkodhatnának fel a rangsorok szerint világszinten legjobbnak tartott 100, illetve 200 intézmény közé. Elemzéseink alapján a magyar felsőoktatási intézményeknek a következő indikátorokban szükséges leginkább fejlődniük: egy oktatóra vetítve három mutatóban (PhD-fokozatot szerzők száma, nemzetközi publikációk száma, kutatási bevétel), az alapszakos hallgatókra jutó oktatók számában, valamint a külföldi oktatók arányában.

Summary. This study examines higher education institutions in Hungary, using German and Belgian institutions as a control group. Since many of these institutions are not represented in international rankings (mainly Hungarian institutions), we use further available ranking indicators from different secondary sources – these indicators are related to education, research, internationalization, and funding. We aim to answer the following research question: how Hungarian higher education institutions can reach and be among the top 100 and top 200 best institutions in the world? Based on our analyses, Hungarian higher education institutions need to develop the most in the following indicators: per lecturer in three indicators (number of Ph.D. graduates, number of international publications, research revenue), number of lecturers per undergraduate student, the proportion of foreign lecturers.

Open access