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In applied sciences, researchers use particular scientific methods to achieve practical goals. You can think of applied sciences as a broad, integrated area of various scientific fields that involve agronomy, agriculture, food science, medicine, engineering, computer science, and many other natural and social science disciplines. The main goal of applied science is to provide more knowledge and practical applications

Materials and Applied Sciences

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Abstract

The need to decrease energy use represents a challenge particularly in developing countries, including Kosovo, considering the unsustainable, insufficient, and inconsistent energy supply. This contribution presents a simplified yet comprehensive approach to evaluate the energy performance improvement potential of three selected multi-family residential buildings using building energy models generated from calibrated and simplified input parameters. To this end, alternative retrofit measures were tested via a simulation-based parametric study. The energy benefit of each retrofit alternative was estimated and analyzed. Results are expected to provide valuable information towards outlining design guidelines for energy-efficient residential buildings in Kosovo.

Restricted access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Humam Kareem Jalghaf
,
Ali Habeeb Askar
,
Hazim Albedran
,
Endre Kovács
, and
Károly Jármai

Abstract

The paper compares different metaheuristics for using heat exchangers as a benchmark to estimate the best design parameter values using optimization efficient algorithms. Many MATLAB algorithms are used in this study. Also, an engineering equation solver, which is commercial software, is used to solve the issue. The design calculates three variables, which are the length, and inner and outer pipe diameter of the heat exchanger. The results showed that the best algorithms are particle swarm optimization, and when using this algorithm, the optimal design of the double pipe heat exchanger is as follows: the pipe length is 5.6734·10−1 m, the pipe inner diameter is 8.0203·10−3 m, and the pipe outer diameter is 2.2439·10−2 m.

Open access

Abstract

Application of leaf extracts in alkyd extract primer (AEP) to inhibit corrosion of mild steel was compared with performance of alkyd conventional primer (ACP) containing zinc phosphate and zinc chromate as inhibitors. The investigations were carried out through Gasometric technique in 5 °C steps of temperature increase from 25 to 50 °C in 1.0 M HCl as corrodent. The AEP of 34.24 percent actives compared with ACP of 56.57 percent actives gave the same inhibition efficiencies of 76.5%. Extract primer of lower percent active compared with conventional primer were cost effective and more potent than conventional primer.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Peter Kapalo
,
Nadiia Spodyniuk
,
Orest Voznyak
,
Olena Savchenko
,
Oleksandr Donii
,
Olena Shelimanova
, and
Anatoliy Mishchenko

Abstract

The air temperature in school buildings significantly affects the ability of students and teachers to focus on the educational process. Students usually begin to feel an increase the temperature in room. The purpose of this study is to find the limit of the temperature rise in the classroom when people no longer feel the temperature rise in the room. For this reason, several experimental measurements of indoor air parameters were carried out: air temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. Measured temperature differences and individual subjective ratings of audiences determined the dependence using mathematical statistics, from which can be determined the critical level of increase in air temperature at which people no longer perceive the change in air temperature.

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Abstract

The design of pollution-free energy recovery systems has become an important goal by researchers as renewable energy is an alternative to traditional energy that depends on fossil fuels. In this work, a multifunctional electromechanical speed bump was invented to be used on the streets to generate clean, sustainable energy by utilizing and investing the kinetic energy of vehicles passing on the roads. The current model was designed to perform three functions simultaneously.

To measure the performance of the innovative speed bump system, a (simplified) prototype was made that simulates the work of the multifunctional bump. The results showed that the proposed initial speed bump model is a promising technology that can be applied as a clean, renewable energy source that can be easily applied in crowded streets.

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Abstract

Multilevel inverters performance enhancement is a major topic, which has attracted the attention of most of the researchers, to evolve with newer topologies and modulation strategies. In this manuscript, two novel hybrid bidirectional multilevel inverter structures, which are suitable for bidirectional loads, are proposed. An enhancement in the voltage levels and reduction of the component count are achieved for these newly introduced structures. Modular expansion and series cascading are suggested systems for extension of the voltage levels. The prime requirement in most of the industrial drives is a controlled output. VSI fed induction motor drive satisfies this requirement. The Multicarrier PWM technique has been applied to the basic bidirectional seven level models and nine level model and its performance with induction motor as load has been analyzed for various modulation indices. The simulated results of the proposed structures are verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. The characteristics such as stator current, rotor current speed and torque plots achieved as above model affirm that its performance is good. By then, the tracking time of the proposed work during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.185, 1.094 and 1.5 s. The tracking time of the VSI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.5 s, 3.8 and 3.5 s. The tracking time of the MLI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.2 s, 1.8 and 2 s.

Open access

Az „Alsóban az élet” című hazai talajállapotot célzó közösségi tudomány program első tapasztalatai és eredményei

The First experiences and results of the Hungarian citizen science program (’Life in Undies’) aimed at soil properties

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Mátyás Árvai
,
Tünde Takáts
,
Zsófia Adrienn Kovács
,
Katalin Takács
,
Kitti Balog
,
Péter László
,
Tünde Imréné Takács
,
János Mészáros
, and
László Pásztor

A közösségi tudomány – citizen science – már évtizedek óta működő kutatási forma, ahol egy-egy kutatás a lakosság segítségével valósul meg. Az „Alsóban az élet” kampány az érdeklődők bevonásával 2021 tavaszán indult hazánkban. A kutatásban résztvevők kézhez kaptak egy pamut alsóneműt, amelyet kb. 20 cm-es mélységben kellett elásniuk, ezzel „táplálékot” szolgáltatva a talajlakó élőlények számára. Több mint két hónap elteltével az alsónemű kiásása után megfigyelhetők a bomlási jelek, amelyek mint indikátor jelzik a talajélet aktivitását, közvetett módon a talaj egészségi állapotát. A visszamaradt alsóneműk digitális fotójának elemzésével becsülhető a talajlakó élőlények munkája az alsónadrágok bomlásának százalékos aránya alapján.

A közösségi médiában megjelent felhívások és célzott csoporthirdetések segítségével mintegy 1193-an jelentkeztek a programra összesen 1966 helyszínnel, ezzel országos lefedettséget biztosítva a kutatás részére. Az adatok elemzése alapján a gondozott konyhakertekben elásott pamut alsók mutatták a legnagyobb átlagos bomlási értékeket (27,67%). Talajtípust tekintve a réti talajok és a közép- és délkeleteurópai barna erdő-, valamint a csernozjom-, és a váztalajok (köztük nagyrészt a humuszos homoktalajok) esetén tapasztaltuk a legmagasabb, közel azonos, 25,47%; 25,43%; 24,22%; 24,21%-os bomlási értéket. A programban résztvevő helyszínek közül a legnagyobb mértékű bomlás (93%) konyhakert hasznosítású (mulcsozott veteményes és polikultúra ágyás) váztalajon (homoktalajon) volt megfigyelhető. Az országos átlagos bomlási érték 24,57% volt. A bomlási adatok alapján eredménytérképet szerkesztettünk Magyarország teljes területére, melyet nyilvánossá tettünk, s a résztvevőknek a visszaküldött fotó feldolgozása alapján rövid, a saját talajának biológiai aktivitását minősítő válaszlevelet küldtünk.

Open access

Abstract

Owing to their elevated absorption coefficient, superior resistance to radiation and reduced effective electron mass, gallium antimonide (GaSb) semiconductors were documented to be suitable for photovoltaic systems applications. However, they were found to suffer from low efficiency. This work has been dedicated to enhance the design of GaSb based single-junction solar cells having window and back surface field made from AlGaAsSb material. The purpose is to maximize their electrical performance by considering doping and thickness of layers as design variables. A methodology of optimization was proposed. It is based on computer aided design through simulations performed under SILVACO-ATLAS software and a numerical procedure that was developed to achieve optimal design of this particular solar cell. The approach encompasses analysis of variance and derivation of response surface models to get explicit expression of the objective function corresponding to efficiency. The obtained results have shown an efficiency which is higher than all the previous known values established in literature.

Open access

Abstract

The demand for community involvement during the planning process is growing. Kosovo, to be in step with global development trends in the field of planning, has developed various projects in the name of public participation. The pilot project for the Brekoci informal settlement in Gjakova is an example of community-based planning. The purpose of this paper is to show the way of community involvement through unique methods explicitly designed for this community, as the tool “Express”, “Mark” and “Vote” and how the data obtained from these tools through spatial systems as Geographical Information System and DepthMapX, have generated the community's vision, which has resulted in the drafting of the urban regulatory plan. This plan represents a reflection of the local cultural context.

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Abstract

Public space is the most important place for social life, but it is also part of the identity of the local community. This is particularly true in Komló, where the mining past is still a perceptible and integral part of local identity. Petőfi Square is the central square of Komló's Kökönyös district, an urban district center that preserves the memories of its past, but has not evolved with changing needs in the city for some time. The renewal of Petőfi Square and its surroundings was an environmental architecture task that built on local values, responded to the needs of local people and helped the development of community life, and had to cope with a number of parallel demands.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Orest Voznyak
,
Nadiia Spodyniuk
,
Oleksandr Dovbush
,
Olena Savchenko
,
Iryna Sukholova
,
Mariana Kasynets
, and
Iryna Kirakevych

Abstract

The article is devoted to research of properties of the round convective air jet. The aim of this work is to establish universal graphical dependencies and empirical formulas for describing velocity and temperature fields over the entire range of development of round convective exhaust ventilation jet; development of an algorithm for solving the transcendent problem of determining the surface temperature of a heat source; introduction of velocity and temperature attenuation coefficients for round convective jet; visualization of its characteristics in the form of a 3D image; achieving reduction of metal consumption of the local exhaust ventilation system due to the overall optimization of the velocity and temperature fields of the round convective air jet.

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Abstract

Development of control of a five degrees of freedom robot is discussed in this paper. Only two robots were made, and one of these is in the University of Miskolc. The robot was made in the 80s for educational purposes, the electronic components were obsolete and control software was missing, therefore it became necessary to perform hardware improvements, and develop a new control program. Inverse kinematics problem of the robot is solved by geometric approach to formulate the joint angles, which will form the basis of the control. A braking system containing electromagnets for the robot is constructed to balance it. A printed circuit board is designed to establish the control of the system, the central element is a Cypress PSoC 5LP platform. The development of the control program is performed in software PSoC Creator 4.4. The developed control system of the robot can receive instructions from a computer via a designed special purpose user program, which is written in Python programming language. Thanks to the improvements, the robot has become operational. Thus, the robot can serve educational purposes performing different manipulation tasks. By completing the developments, students can get to know the structure and programming of the robot, its inverse kinematics problem. This will require the development of practice-oriented tasks in the future.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Orest Voznyak
,
Mariana Kasynets
,
Nadiia Spodyniuk
,
Olena Savchenko
,
Iryna Sukholova
, and
Oleksandr Dovbush

Abstract

The article is devoted to solving of urgent problem: creation of staff work safety in the boiler room due to ensure of required conditions by natural ventilation. The aim of the work is to eliminate the main damage of the natural ventilation system of the boiler premise by using of compact air jet due to correction coefficients and updated results. Static and dynamic air pressure, difference of static pressure due to wind, aerodynamic coefficients and air balance for necessary nature ventilation of the boiler premise as well temperature correction coefficient are established. The update calculation dependencies for determining of the air static pressure and its volume flow rate in the boiler room have been obtained. Updated graph, monogram, and analytical equations for natural ventilation calculation of boiler room are presented.

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Abstract

All the available information and uncertainties should be taken into account in a model to give correct answer to a stated problem and evaluate the performance of a structure. This study deals with the impact of parameter estimation uncertainty in extreme wind speeds on the assessed reliability index using frequentist approach. The peak-over-threshold approach with an automated threshold selection method is applied and bootstrapping is used to determine the 95% confidence interval of the estimated reliability index. Based on the results practical recommendations, i.e., a framework of this procedure are derived on how to handle peak-over-threshold in extreme wind speed models for the application of the proposed performance-based wind engineering design.

Open access

Abstract

In mechatronic-related applications, estimating orientation from a magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensor array is a significant topic. Representing attitude orientation is a well-known topic in the aerospace industry, where it plays a critical role in airplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), but it has also gained relevance in other sectors. However, most of the sensors utilized are quite expensive, heavy, and large, making them unsuitable for modest applications. This paper examines the performance of several sensors in low-cost hardware and high-acceleration environments. A theorical method was adopted to estimate Euler angles by using accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, and a robust and easy to implement method calibration was proposed to calibrate the MARG sensor without any external equipment. An experimental verification of the proposed calibration method was completed. The experimental results are then interpreted to provide an insight to advantages and disadvantages for using each sensor separately.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Jamal Eldin F. M. Ibrahim
,
Mohammed Tihtih
,
Emese Kurovics
,
Ethem İlhan Şahin
,
László A. Gömze
, and
István Kocserha

Abstract

This study evaluated the possibility of producing innovative glass-ceramic foams from zeolite-poor rock (Tokaj, Hungary) using alkali-activation and reactive sintering techniques. The composition and morphology of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, and computed tomography techniques. The influence of various sintering temperatures on glass-ceramic foams was examined. It has been observed that zeolite-poor rock has a self-foaming capability. The heat treatment temperature affects the pore size and distribution as well as the technical characteristics of the obtained samples. The resulting glass-ceramic foams possess moderate thermal conductivity ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 W mK−1 and good compressive strength (1.5–4.4 MPa). The produced samples might be utilized for thermal insulation, which would have both economic and environmental advantages.

Open access

Beporzók mint fontos ökológiai és gazdasági biztonsági tényezők

Pollinators as important ecological and economical safety factors

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki

Összefoglalás.

A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.

Summary.

Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper, advanced DC-Link (DCL) based reversing voltage type Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies by compensating the difficulties in the conventional MLIs are reviewed. These topologies consist of less switching components and driver circuits when compared with conventional MLIs predominantly in higher levels. Consequently, installation area, total cost and hardware difficulties are reduced by increasing the voltage levels. The unipolar based Pulse Width Modulation Schemes (PWMS) will improve DCL inverters performance. This paper presents unipolar Multi-Reference (MR) based sine and space vector PWMS with single triangular carrier wave for generating required levels in output voltage. Comparison between UMR sine and space vector PWMS for DCL inverter topologies is presented in terms of Fundamental Output Voltage (FOV) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The research tries to establish the survey analysis for single-phase 7-level DCL based reversing voltage type MLI topologies with UMR based sine and space vector PWMs. Finally, to confirm the feasibility of proposed DCL-MLIs in terms of FOV and THD the simulation results are incorporated. Further, the prototype model is developed for single-phase 7-level DCL inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based UMR sine and space vector PWMS to authenticate simulation results. The efficiency of the proposed cascaded MLI achieves the value of 99.003%.

Open access

Innovatív genomikai és élettani kutatások az angol telivér állomány versenyteljesítményének fokozása érdekében

Innovative genomic and physiological studies to improve the competitive performance of Thoroughbreds

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Judit Kis
,
Dávid Mezőszentgyörgyi
,
Attila Zsolnai
,
László Rózsa
,
Ferenc Husvéth
, and
István Anton

Összefoglalás.

Célkitűzés: Miosztatin (MSTN) genotípusok összefüggés-vizsgálata izomfejlődéssel és cardiovascularis paraméterekkel angol telivérekben.

Módszer: Három, MSTN-genotipizált csoportban echokardiográfiát és izomultrahangot végeztünk. Adatainkat SPSS 15.0 szoftverrel elemeztük.

Eredmények: A C/C csoport mért izomvastagságai 22,08 (p = 0,004) és 12,24 (p < 0,001) %-kal; a cardiovascularis rendszeré 6,33 (p = 0,015), 6,03 (p = 0,011) és 6,72 (p = 0,014) %-kal magasabb volt, mint a T/T genotípusnál. Pearson-féle R: anconeus pólyahossz r = 0,460; triceps r = 0,590; aorta Valsalva-öböl diasztolé r = 0,423, szisztolé r = 0,450, billentyűk síkjában szisztolé r = 0,462.

Következtetések: Az eredmények hozzájárulnak a galopplovak hatékony tréningmódszereinek kidolgozásához, így jelentősen befolyásolható eredményességük.

Summary.

Background: The myostatin gene (MSTN; g.66493737) C/T polymorphism has great influence on the development of the muscles and the rates between the types of muscle fibers as well as cardiovascular performance in thoroughbred horses. Consequently MSTN gene decisively determines the optimal race distance and racing ability in thoroughbreds through the muscle development regulation. A more detailed understanding of these genetic attributions and their associations leads us to be able to maximise the athletic potential of thoroughbreds.

Objective: In this paper the relationships were investigated between the MSTN genotypes and muscle development or the main cardiovascular parameters which affect or define the cardiac performance of thoroughbreds.

Methods: Ultrasonography and echocardiography was performed on each individual selected for our study. Sixty-six thoroughbreds were applied in each measurement (22 of each genotype, C/C, C/T and T/T). All of them participated at different races or were trained at the same time in Hungary. A portable MyLab™ ultrasound system (Alfa-Vet, Animal Healthcare Ltd.) was used for the measurements. To investigate the development of the candidate muscles the size of the anconaeous and triceps brachii muscles were used as indicators. The length of the mentioned muscles was given by the size of the total length of the muscle fascia (m. fasciae anconeus and m. fasciae triceps brachii). Thickness was measured at the largest anatomical diameter of the muscles. To characterize the cardiovascular system, the diameter of the Valsalva sinus of the aorta was measured at the end of diastole and systole, respectively, as well as the diameter of the aorta in the plane of the semilunar valves. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. Homogeneity of variance between groups was checked with Levene’s test and multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the correlations between the measured variables and the myostatin genotypes.

Results According to our measurements relationship was detected between individual myostatin genotypes, muscular development and cardiovascular parameters of the thoroughbreds. The muscle thickness and fascicle length of group C/C of MSTN showed significant differences compared to group T/T. Aortic diameter at the sinus of Valsalva (end-diastole and end-systole) and aortic diameter at the valve (end-systole) also indicated significant differences between C/C and T/T genotypes too. The thickness of the two muscles (anconaeous and triceps brachii) in the group C/C was 2.08 (p=0.004) and 12.24 (p<0.001) % higher; and of the parameters of cardiovascular system were 6.33 (p=0.015), 6.03 (p=0.011) and 6.72 (p=0.014) % greater, respectively, than in the T/T genotypes.

Conclusions: The results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of MSTN genetic variations on phenotypes, which help to develop new, effective training methods for racehorses in order to prepare them for their best race distance according to their genotypes. Thus, the competitive performance and racing ability of thoroughbreds can be improved significantly.

Open access

Supercritical CO2 injection in moderate-tight hydrocarbon reservoirs, a preliminary case study

Szuperkritikus szén-dioxid besajtolása kis áteresztőképességű szénhidrogén tárolók esetén – előzetes esettanulmány.

Rezervoár szimuláció CO2 besajtolására és tárolására
Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Gábor Pál Veres

Summary.

The research deals with the investigation of one alternative of carbon-dioxide utilization – underground storage – from a petroleum geoscience point of view. The basic assumptions and the results of the laboratory studies to be carried out later are based on a specific hydrocarbon field in Hungary. The previously measured and studied geological and petrophysical parameters of the reservoir (porosity, permeability, saturation, capacity, etc.) will be restudied and specified, based on the results of the new concept of laboratory experiments.

By defining these parameters, a 3D geological model, a “Dynamic model” will be created to understand the effect of carbon-dioxide injection on the dynamic behavior of a moderate-tight sandstone reservoir. Based on the results of the dynamic model, the storage capacity will be defined. The carbon-dioxide injection laboratory experiments will contribute to understanding these underground geo-chemical reactions (e.g. carbonation ability, compositional variation) and flow characteristics.

Összefoglalás.

Korunk egyik legmeghatározóbb problémája az üvegházhatású gázok, különösen a szén-dioxid kibocsátásának csökkentése. Alapvetően két fő ágra oszlanak ezen törekvések: egyrészt a kibocsátásért felelős technológiák optimalizálására/„zöldítésére”, másrészt a már kibocsátott szén-dioxid hasznosítására (CCU), illetve befogására és letárolására (CCS). A kutatás a szén-dioxid hasznosítás egyik alternatívájával, a föld alatti letárolás lehetőségének vizsgálatával foglalkozik földtudományi aspektusból.

A kézirat alap felvetései és a későbbiekben magmintákon elvégzendő laborkísérletek eredményei egy konkrét, Magyarországon található szénhidrogén mezőre vonatkoznak. Emiatt más szén-dioxid tárolására alkalmas földtani képződmény (sókaverna, széntelep, illetve sósvizes aquifer) vizsgálatára a tanulmány nem tér ki. A laborkísérletek eredményeinek segítségével az előzetesen a mérnöki gyakorlatban használt és ismert tárolói paraméterek (porozitás, permeabilitás, kapacitás, telítettség stb.) kerülnek pontosításra. Az elvégzendő labormérések: higany besajtolásos porozitás vizsgálat, centrifugális kapilláris nyomásgörbe és relatív permeabilitási görbék meghatározása, röntgendiffrakciós anyagvizsgálat. Ezen paraméterek ismeretében egy pontosított földtani modell kerül megalkotásra.

A kutatás első fázisában a már meglévő, ipari gyakorlatban alkalmazott kőzetvizsgálati módszerek kerültek felülvizsgálatra, és egy új szemléletű, az eddigi módszereket pontosító eljárás került kidolgozásra a hazai geológiai formációkra vonatkoztatva. A későbbiekben a kőzetmintákon végzett tárolói paramétereket szimuláló szén-dioxid besajtolási kísérletek a föld alatti reakciók (pl. karbonátosodási képesség) és az áramlástani sajátosságok megértéséhez és modellezéséhez is hozzájárulhatnak. Feltételezhetően a föld alatti reakcióknak köszönhetően egy, a korábbi becslésektől eltérő tárolótérfogatot lehet meghatározni.

Megállapításra került, hogy a szén-dioxid szuperkritikus állapotban besajtolva, rétegvízzel rendelkező zárt rétegekben egybefüggő „csóvaként” vándorol a porózus kőzeteken keresztül, amely a gravitációs szegregáció következtében vertikálisan kitágul a fedőkőzet alatt. Az oldalirányú szén-dioxid expanzió folyamatát a folyadékok csapdázódása korlátozza. Ezért a többfázisú áramlás és csapdázódás alapos vizsgálata elengedhetetlen a tárolókapacitás pontos meghatározásának érdekében.

A szén-dioxid besajtolhatóságát és a tárolási kapacitást nagymértékben befolyásolja a szén-dioxiddal telített sóoldat relatív permeabilitása, amely erősen függ a kőzet heterogenitásától. Miljkovic (2006) sóoldattal telített homokkő minták szimulációs méréseit hasonlította össze, amelyek csak a heterogenitás tekintetében tértek el egymástól. Megmutatta, hogy a kis strukturálatlan heterogenitás, úgy tűnik, nem befolyásolja jelentősen a CO2 telítettségét és ennek következtében a tárolási kapacitást. Ezzel ellentétben Kuo és társai (2011) kimutatták, hogy a telítési profilt erősen befolyásolja a mag heterogenitása, és nagy injektálási sebességre van szükség ahhoz, hogy a heterogén közeg relatív állandó telítettségét elérje a homogénhez képest. Hozzájuk hasonlóan Shi és társai (2009) heterogén homokkő magokon szimulálták a szén-dioxiddal telített sóoldat elvezetését és beszívódását. Kimutatták, hogy a porozitás változása szignifikáns hatással volt a CO2 migrációs mintázatára alacsony kiszorítási sebesség mellett és ez fokozatosan eltűnik az injektálási sebesség növelésével.

Fontos célkitűzésként jelenik meg a kutatásokban ezen tézisek vizsgálata, valamint a többfázisú áramlási kísérletek elvégzése a magyarországi CCS potenciális jelöltjeként számon tartott tároló magmintáin. A víz-gáz elvezetési relatív permeabilitási vizsgálatok szimulált tározókörülmények között szintén fontos új információkat fognak szolgáltatni, melyek lehetőséget teremtenek a CO2 front végső eloszlásának meghatározására, valamint javaslattételre a tárolási kapacitás pontosítására és a geokémiai változásokra az adott tárolórétegekre jellemző heterogenitás függvényében.

Open access

Abstract

Seedless barberry is a medicinal shrub and has been cultivated in Iran for more than two centuries. It is perishable with short shelf-life. Irradiation has shown to improve microbial safety and expands durability of raw fruits. Undoubtedly, current food processes undesirably affect bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Fresh barberry fruit was harvested in Birjand city by methods including “cutting branches” and “collecting fallen fruit under shrubs”, which locally are known as “puffy barberry” and “jewel barberry”, respectively. Some of the fresh barberries were treated by osmotic solution and then they have been dried. Untreated dried fruit was processed by freezing. Osmotic and frozen treatments were packed in polyamide film. Some of the dried jewel/puffy barberries packed in polyamide film were irradiated at doses of 0, 3, 5, and 10 kGy. All samples were stored at 4 and 25 °C for 6 months. Effects of barberry types (puffy/jewel), processes, storage time and temperature on chemical, microbial, and pest characteristics of dried barberry fruit were evaluated. Puffy barberry gamma irradiated with 5 kGy after 6 months of storage at 4 °C showed acceptable properties. Irradiation and storage at 4 °C were reported as optimal processing and storage conditions for barberry fruit.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
P.G.d.S. Pires
,
C. Bavaresco
,
G.d.S. Oliveira
,
C. McManus
,
V. Machado dos Santos
, and
I. Andretta

Abstract

This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of different protein coatings on maintaining the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. 308 brown table eggs from ISA Brown hens were used for four treatments: uncoated eggs, coated with rice protein concentrate – RPC, soy protein concentrate – SPC, and whey protein concentrate – WPC. Eggs started with Haugh Units (HU) of 82.01 and reduced in proportions of 28.75% (control), 12.82% (RPC), 12.90% (SPC), and 10.54% (WPC) on the last day of storage. Coated eggs showed smaller reductions (P < 0.0001) in this response. Protein coatings can effectively maintain the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. However, the WPC coating maintained the highest egg rate and the best yolk index for eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C.

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Hígtrágya komplex baktérium-kezelésének hatása egyes beltartalmi és ökotoxikológiai tulajdonságokra

The effect of complex bacterial treatment of slurry on content and ecotoxicological properties

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Dóra Pordán-Háber
,
Pál Szakál
,
Eduárd Gubó
,
Orsolya Réka Rácz
,
Krisztina Mónika Terdik
, and
Judit Plutzer

Kutatásunk témája az NCH Magyarország Kft. által forgalmazott baktériumos hígtrágyakezelési rendszer összehasonlító ökotoxikológiai vizsgálata. A kísérletet egy szarvasmarha borjúnevelő telepen végeztük 0–6 hónapos korcsoportú szekcióban. A tabletta formában rendelkezésünkre álló baktérium törzseket egy tartályban felszaporítottuk és hetente adagoltuk az aknában összegyűlő hígtrágyához. A kezelés célja volt, hogy a baktériumok elősegítsék a trágya homogenizációját, a szagcsökkentést és a szerves szennyeződések lebontását. Az ökotoxikológiai vizsgálatokat a trágyakezelés előtt, alatt és után, három mintavételi időben végeztük el.

A kutatásunk eredményeként elmondhatjuk, hogy a hígtrágyakezelés során a beltartalmi értékek jelentősen növekedtek, főként a nitrogénformák, a biológiai oxigénigény és a szárazanyagtartalom. Az ösztrogén hatás megléte számottevő maradt a kezelés végére is. A fitotoxicitási vizsgálat alapján mindegyik növény, szár- és gyökérnövekedésére pozitív hatással volt a trágyakezelés. A talajtoxicitási teszt eredménye bizonyította, hogy magasabb hígítás mellett veszti el a kezeletlen hígtrágya az érzékeny baktériumok élettevékenységére is kiterjedő gátló hatását. A békalencse vizsgálat során összességében elmondható, hogy 150× hígítás fölött megszűnik a hígtrágya gátló hatása mindhárom alkalommal vett minta esetében. Az alga növekedésgátlására a hígtrágya stagnáló-gátló tendenciát mutatott a kezelés alatt.

Eredményeink alapján arra a következtetésre jutottunk, hogy a vizsgált hígtrágyakezelési módszer a homogenitás, szagtalanítás és a szerves anyagok bontása során eredményes volt. Azonban javasolt magasabb hígítási arányban vagy magas talajvíztartalom mellett kijuttatni a földekre. A hormonhatású anyagok eltávolítására vonatkozólag további vizsgálatok szükségesek, melyek alapján majd javaslatokat lehet kidolgozni a gazdák számára.

Open access

Abstract

In this work, production of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) herbal tea was studied. Purple basil is a medicinal and aromatic herb with many health benefits; it is commonly used for seasoning foods. Semi-shade and tray drying methods were used for drying purple basil for tea production. Physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of samples were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents of samples increased with drying processes and were between 9.55 and 14.18 mg GAE/g. Colour values decreased with drying. Volatile composition of samples was determined using the SPME/GC-MS system. 2-Propenoic acid, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), and eugenol were the predominant volatile compounds in all samples. In sensory evaluation, samples produced by tray drying with added citric acid had the highest general acceptance. In conclusion, purple basil was evaluated as a suitable plant for herbal tea production due to its easy preparation, pleasant flavour and colour.

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Abstract

Enterococcus spp. were isolated from sausage and yogurt line production. The genomic assay was performed by PCR, and distinct enterococci (n = 28) were identified. Testing revealed that 10.7% of the isolates had a resistant phenotype, 7.1% were resistant to erythromycin (Enterococcus faecium) and 3.5% were resistant to tetracycline (Enterococcus gallinarum). Enterococci cells and biofilm formation in 24 well polystyrene plates and the effect of sanitisation procedures in these biofilms were determined. The sanitisers were chlorinated alkaline H (CAH), chlorinated alkaline A (CAA), quaternary ammonium D (QAD), quaternary ammonium M (QAM), chlorine dioxide (CD), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peracetic acid (PA). A total of 7 isolates (25%) moderately and the others poorly formed biofilms. The best reduction results were 61 and 55% of the cells with the CAH sanitiser in BHI and water, respectively. The PAA, SH, and CD sanitisers showed low efficiency on Enterococcus planctonics, and the other had an effect on cell growth. The sanitisers CAH, QAD, QAM, PAA, and SH showed efficiency in reducing the cell viability of Enterococcus in biofilms, and values obtained from CAA and CD suggested low biofilm removal capacity. Enterococcus spp. form biofilms and have become a problem in the food industry.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Gabriella Szabóné Kele
and
Péter Szabó
Restricted access

Abstract

Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.

Open access

Abstract

Effect of microwave drying on milling, cooking, and microstructure characteristic of paddy rice in comparison to hot air drying was assessed in the present study. Results revealed that modified microwave drying significantly (P < 0.05) affected the milling quality of paddy. Raw paddy had head rice recovery of 49.63%, while after microwave drying, the head rice recovery increased by 6.73% in comparison to hot air drying. Microwave drying brought significant changes in the colour characteristic of rice as it had total colour change of 13.50 in comparison to 10.93 by hot air drying. Cooking time and water uptake ratio after microwave drying increased to 31.46 min and 3.16%, in comparison to 27.05 min and 2.65% for hot air dried samples, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope images revealed that both hot air and microwave dried rice had a coarse surface and large starch particles, while starch structure was more damaged in hot air drying, however, agglomeration of protein-starch matrix was more uniform in microwave dried samples due to modification of the microwave applicator that prevented thermal decomposition. It was recommended that paddy may be dried using a modified microwave applicator with a shorter duration and a better quality.

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Abstract

This study aimed to develop and characterise emulgels based on aqueous γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) solutions with sunflower oil in the presence of Tween 20, 40, and 60 emulsifiers. The main physical, structural, and rheological properties of γ-CD-MOF emulgels were investigated. The emulgels prepared with 5% and 10% γ-CD-MOF were durable. The X-ray diffraction patterns proved the existence of β polymorph type lipid crystals. The rheological analyses showed that the gel strength increased with increased γ-CD-MOF concentration, and thixotropic behaviour was observed depending on the gel strength at 10 °C. In addition, the samples were heat resistant proved by rheological temperature ramp tests. Finally, addition of the emulsifiers did not cause any change in the centrifuge stability and colour properties of the emulgels. These samples could be used to prepare different emulsion type food products.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
C.Y. Zhou
,
Q.W. Cheng
,
T. Chen
,
L.L. Meng
,
T.G. Sun
,
B. Hu
,
J. Yang
, and
D.Y. Zhang

Abstract

To study the feasibility of evaluating the quality characteristics of banana based on the browning area. The texture characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, relative conductivity, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in banana peels were detected during storage. A linear model was made by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression between the banana browning area and characteristic indices. The results showed that the changes in the physiological characteristics of bananas were significantly different during different storage periods. The main factors that affected the banana browning area were relative conductivity, PAL, TSS, and MDA, indicating that lipid peroxidation, respiration, and metabolism of phenylpropanoids had significant influence on the banana browning area during storage. Thus, it is feasible to predict banana quality based on changes in browning area, which could be a rapid and non-destructive detection of banana quality during storage.

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Resolution and Discovery
Authors:
Tibor Novák
,
Dániel Varga
,
Péter Bíró
,
Bálint Barna H. Kovács
,
Hajnalka Majoros
,
Tibor Pankotai
,
Szilárd Szikora
,
József Mihály
, and
Miklós Erdélyi

Abstract

Localization based superresolution technique provides the highest spatial resolution in optical microscopy. The final image is formed by the precise localization of individual fluorescent dyes, therefore the quantification of the collected data requires special protocols, algorithms and validation processes. The effects of labelling density and structured background on the final image quality were studied theoretically using the TestSTORM simulator. It was shown that system parameters affect the morphology of the final reconstructed image in different ways and the accuracy of the imaging can be determined. Although theoretical studies help in the optimization procedure, the quantification of experimental data raises additional issues, since the ground truth data is unknown. Localization precision, linker length, sample drift and labelling density are the major factors that make quantitative data analysis difficult. Two examples (geometrical evaluation of sarcomere structures and counting the γH2AX molecules in DNA damage induced repair foci) have been presented to demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative evaluation experimentally.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Sugár
,
K. Fusz
,
D. Pusztai
,
N. Rozmann
,
J.M. Macharia
,
M. Pintér
, and
B. Raposa

Abstract

A plethora of research and empiric observation supported the claim that–among other symptoms–diseases often affect the ability to smell and the sense of taste, possibly affecting the taste- and food preferences as well.

The aim of the present study was to shed light on the impact of COVID-related smell- (dysosmia/anosmia) and taste function-disorder/loss (dysgeusia/ageusia) on the food and taste preferences COVID-19 patients of different symptomatic and pre-existing conditions and demographic backgrounds.

The research based on a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. In total, 514 participants filled our self-administered online questionnaire. Thirteen participants were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test for correlation coefficient, were performed.

The most common long COVID symptom was fatigue/weakness (53.1%) followed by anosmia (50.9%) and tachycardia (33.5%). Many participants reported dysgeusia/ageusia during the acute phase of the disease, which sometimes prevailed as a long COVID symptom. A high percentage of participants reported that they rejected all kinds of meat of animal origin except cold cuts for their duration of recuperation, which proved to be the most common dietary change during the post-COVID period so far.

Open access

Abstract

Public green spaces are very important in the urban structure, both on environmental and social level. Renovation may be necessary, but the process must involve complexity.

The objective of this research is to define the main criteria of a successful renovation process, using two case studies - the Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz in Kassel, Germany, and the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in the city of Peja, Kosovo, where the recent intervention had rather negative effects. The paper considered aspects as community activity, key functions, visual elements, accessibility, safety, well-being and maintenance.

The transformation of these spontaneously developed, liveable spaces into renewed but abandoned parks was explained by the lack of correlation between the analysis of function, public needs, and the dominance of aesthetics.

Open access

Összefoglalás. A jelen írás alapja a témában tartott előadásom. Először általános kérdésekkel foglalkozom, majd a tervezett „EU AI Act”-ről lesz szó, utána egy VW projektet ismertetek röviden, majd a „megmagyarázható MI”-ről fogok beszélni, aztán egy saját, hazai kezdeményezésről, az Alfi projektről teszek említést. Végezetül egy kitekintés zárja le az írást.

Summary. This writing is based on a lecture on the topic. In my other (German) affiliation I am manager of a large-scale EU project called “HumanE AI Net” (funded with 12m Euro) comprising 53 leading EU institutions, including large universities (UCL London, LMU Munich, Sorbonne, Sussex or ELTE), networks of research institutes (Fraunhofer, Max Planck Gesellschaft, INRIA, CNR Italy), large international companies (ING Bank, SAP, Philips, Airbus), etc. In the writing I discuss general issues related to Humane AI, the planned EU AI Act, social credit systems, explainable AI, and the Alphie project, respectively.

In April 2021, the European Commission proposed a regulation on artificial intelligence, known as the AI Act. The regulation aims at human-faced AI in a European dimension. Although it is still only a draft, the stakes are high. The planned law has, however, faults (I maintain here), to be corrected before the text passes as law.

Another subject to discuss is the study – and prohibition (at least in Europe) – of social credit systems. The original “Social Credit System” is a national credit rating and blacklist developed by the Government of the People’s Republic of China. Proponents of the system claim that it helps regulate social behaviour, improves citizens’ ‘trustworthiness’ (which includes paying taxes and bills on time) and promotes the spread of traditional moral values. Critics of the system, however, argue that it goes far beyond the rule of law and violates the legitimate rights of people – in particular, the right to reputation, privacy and personal dignity – and that it can be a tool for extensive government surveillance and suppression of dissent.

“Explainable AI” (XAI) has become a hot topic in recent years. AI applications are mostly “opaque”: this is especially true for learning systems and by definition for neural networks (NN). The current fashion, “deep learning”, usually means the application of a particularly opaque NN anyway. It is natural not to know what the system is doing and why. So, let’s change that! With this tenet, XAI was born. I review some solutions to the problem.

In the writing I also mention an application, Alphie, the first version of which was done in the OTKA project “Good Mobile” and is now supported by the MI National Laboratory. Alphie is a science-based playful application for children that helps them to use digital tools more consciously and within limits, while developing a variety of skills. It performs the functions of a ‘grandmother’ who shows emotions towards the child: can be e.g. angry, loving, etc. The application makes the corresponding sounds (!) and facilitates real social interactions (e.g. sends the child to play football (!).

Open access

Abstract

Wafer cream is an important product used in many foods, especially confectionery products, and consumed with delight. Therefore, nutritional enrichment of this product is of great importance. In this study, a new functional product was developed by adding carob molasses pulp (CMP) flour obtained from carob fruit, which has unique nutritional and bioactive properties, to wafer cream, increasing its nutritional value and antioxidant activity. When 15% CMP flour was added to the wafer cream formulation, there was an increase of approximately 58.43 and 78.77%, respectively, in total polyphenol and antioxidant levels compared to the control group (without CMP flour). In addition, since the product developed is in cocoa colour, consumer preference has increased. It has been determined that phytochemical and nutritive components of the wafer cream increased as a result of the use of carob flour.

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Globális és regionális változások, szélsőséges jelenségek a Föld-rendszer vízkörforgalmában

Global and regional changes, extremes in the Earth System’s water cycle

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
László Bozó

Összefoglalás. Jelen dolgozatban áttekintjük a víz körforgásának legfontosabb összetevőit, áramlási irányait. Bemutatjuk a párolgás és kondenzáció jelentőségét a légkör dinamikai folyamataiban. A jelenkori éghajlatváltozás hatásai meghatározó módon befolyásolják a globális vízkörforgalom valamennyi elemét: emelkedik a tengerek szintje, a légkörben tárolható vízgőz mennyisége, szélsőségesebbé válik a csapadék és az aszály területi és időbeli eloszlása. A csapadékintenzitásra vonatkozóan a hazai megfigyelések és számítások eredményeit is bemutatjuk. Felhívjuk a figyelmet a globális hidrometeorológiai monitoring rendszerek fontosságára, valamint a vízrajzi és meteorológiai közszolgáltatások összehangolt szemléletű kezelésének szükségességére. Ez vonatkozik az egyes fizikai változók megfigyelésére, ezek várható tér- és időbeli változásainak előrejelzésére, a klímapolitikák kialakítására – beleértve a kármérséklés és az alkalmazkodás problémaköreit.

Summary. In this paper, we review the most important components and flow directions of the water cycle. Water is one of the special compounds of the Earth system: it can exist in solid, liquid and gaseous states under the prevailing temperature and pressure conditions on Earth, so it can be found in all terrestrial spheres. It plays a fundamental role in maintaining life, thermodynamic processes on a global scale, and regulating the climate. In the Earth’s atmosphere, on average, only every ten-thousandth molecule is water, yet it plays a decisive role in shaping atmospheric energetic and dynamic processes and, in regulating the climate. Through evaporation, condensation, cloud and precipitation formation, and air movements, the atmosphere plays the most important role in the continuous cycle of water between natural water reservoirs. It is typical of the dynamics of atmospheric processes that the average residence time of water molecules in the atmosphere is approx. 10 days, compared to the durations estimated for the ice sheet (12 thousand years) and the oceans and seas (3 thousand years). Water vapor is the most important greenhouse compound in the atmosphere, responsible for approximately 60% of the total atmospheric greenhouse effect. The movement of water vapor is mainly determined by atmospheric circulation processes. The effects of present climate change have a decisive influence on all elements of the global water cycle: the sea level rises, the amount of water vapor that can be stored in the atmosphere increases, the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation becomes more extreme. The global environmental changes attributable to natural and anthropogenic causes are largely linked to water and the variability of the global water cycle. Natural phenomena on a regional and local scale, which can also be associated with global changes, pose a serious risk to life and property protection in certain situations, can adversely affect the conditions of agricultural management and damage natural ecosystems. Results of relevant Hungarian measurements are also presented. Floods, droughts and atmospheric storms, which are often accompanied by intense rainfall events, are collectively responsible for a very significant part of natural damage events. We draw attention to the importance of global hydrometeorological monitoring systems, as well as the need for coordinated management of hydrographic and meteorological public services. This applies to the observation of individual physical variables, the prediction of their expected changes in space and time, the development of climate policies - including the issues of mitigation and adaptation.

Open access

A létfontosságú rendszerek védelmére vonatkozó szabályozás fejlesztése

Development of the regulations of the critical infrastructure protection

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Mária Judit Mógor
and
István Angyal

Összefoglalás. Jelen cikk célja a létfontosságú rendszerek védelmére vonatkozó szabályozás fejlesztési folyamatának és az elért eredmények vizsgálata. A szerzők feldolgozták a kritikus infrastruktúrák nemzetközi és hazai szabályozására jellemző, az elmúlt mintegy tízéves időszak változásait. Az elemzés a hazai eredmények áttekintését követően a reziliencia, az ellenálló képesség fejlesztésére irányuló nemzetközi és hazai intézkedéseket, a közeljövőben várható fordulatokat, jogalkotási lépéseket ismerteti.

Summary. This article’s goal is to overview the development and the results of the critical infrastructure protection regulation. The authors have analyzed the legal circumstances of the past 10 years both on an international and a national level.

After looking back at the initial regulations of the national critical infrastructure and its enforcement the authors present the challenges of Covid-19, the possible responses and the basic elements of the revised legal framework.

The authors touch upon the changes that are important for the operators, such as risk analysis and the operator security plan, emphasizing the exercises of the latter.

The final part of this publication details the last decade’s change of approach via the NATO’s seven baseline requirements for civil preparedness and the preparation of the new EU directive. It will also exhibit the measures, that were taken to improve resilience, and checks that were made to upgrade the level of critical infrastructure protection.

Open access

A mesterséges intelligencia emberi arca

Artificial intelligence’s human face

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
György Csepeli

Összefoglalás. A cikk az emberi intelligencia és az ember által létrehozott mesterséges intelligencia párhuzamaival, összefonódásaival foglalkozik, áttekintve a mesterséges intelligencia kialakulását a Turing és Neumann által fémjelzett kezdetektől a megismerésben és a cselekvésben az ember versenytársaként fellépő autonóm „Robot sapiens” megjelenéséig. A digitalizáció és a datafikáció által teremtett techno-ökölógiai környezetben az erős mesterségesintelligencia-programok behatolása a társadalomba a rendszerszintű és életvilágszintű működések átalakulását eredményezik. A veszély a machináció létrejöttével a társadalom totális ellenőrzésére alkalmas adatalapú megfigyelő rendszer megjelenésében van, mely a hagyományos diktatúrákkal ellentétben a megfigyeltek aktív közreműködésére épít. A machináció ellenszere a „merj élni!” nietzschei parancsa, mely a létfelejtés által értékek és értelmek keresésére int.

Summary. The paper discusses the parallels and confluences between human intelligence and artificial intelligence created by human intelligence. The paper reviews the development of artificial intelligence from the beginnings by the works of Turing and Neumann till the emergence of the autonomous robot sapiens that will likely be in cognition and action challenger of the human being. Artificial intelligence programmes initially were able to solve simple tasks defined by men. Well known examples of the early successes of the artificial intelligence programmes had demonstrated in chess, go and Jeopardy the dominance of these programmes over human intelligence. Programmed by natural language strong artificial intelligence programs able to learn and deal with uncertainty had emerged later. These programmes were successfully connected to the internet based network of people and things. Without strong artificial intelligence programmes no autonomous operation of robots can be expected in cognition and action. In the new techno-ecological environment created by the digitalisation and datafication the intrusion of weak and strong artificial intelligence programmes into the society has resulted profound transformations in the system and in the life-world. Artificial intelligence will likely transform the areas of economy, commerce, transport, politics, culture an education, internal and external security, media and finances. The intelligent autonomous communication bots and action robots change the social life of people including the social and sexual life, enhance the level of services such as health care, and entertainment. All programmes set for the system and life world pass easily the Turing test that raises the problem of the boundaries between human and artificial intelligence. Machines seem as humans and humans seem as machines. The real danger of the digital transformation of society is the emergence of a total surveillance system that in contrast with the dictatorial regimes installs control and repression with the consent of the people using the services of the the digitalised system and life world operations. The threats of the total surveillance system or “machination”, however, can be fended off by fulfilling the command of “Dare to live!” suggested by Friedrich Nietzsche.

Open access

Nemzetbiztonsági felsőoktatási modellek - válogatott nemzetközi példák

Models of national security university education – Selected international examples

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Imre Dobák

Összefoglalás. Az egyes országok államigazgatásában sajátos funkcióval rendelkező nemzetbiztonsági szolgálatok fontos szerepet töltenek be a biztonság fenntartásában, a politikai színtéren megszülető döntések információkkal történő támogatásában. Mindez képzett, a biztonságpolitikai és technológiai környezet dinamikus változásait értelmezni és értékelni tudó, a nemzetbiztonsági területen is korszerű ismeretekkel és megfelelő kompetenciákkal rendelkező állományt igényel, amely képzési folyamatában egyre fontosabb szerep hárul a felsőoktatási környezetre. Jelen tanulmány, nemzetközi példák alapján, modelleket felállítva, az egyre inkább felértékelődő nemzetbiztonsági képzési kapcsolatok felsőoktatásban való sajátosságait vizsgálja. Módszerként a témakörben elérhető egyes nemzetközi intézményi és képzési rangsorok, valamint az intézményekről elérhető szakirodalmi források vizsgálata jelent meg.

Summary. National security services, which have a specific role in the administration of the countries, play important role in providing security and supporting decisions in the political arena by information. This requires trained personnel with up-to-date knowledge and competencies in the field of national security, capable of understanding and assessing the dynamic changes in the security and technological environment. In this process, the higher education environment has increasingly important role. Concerning the security-oriented higher education courses, it is difficult to determine whether these can be considered as a form of “national security” higher education or merely as an educational field of defense sphere. Apart from the sectoral specificities, the main difficulty in making a comparison are the extreme diversity in the interpretation of security and its interdisciplinary links. In addition to trainings in the fields of intelligence studies and national security studies, international security, security policy, the military elements of security, and even the technical and cyberspace-related elements of intelligence training, all provide valuable knowledge for the sector. However, the international institutional examples of higher education in the field of national security may be worth examining, as they essentially create a link between the innovative knowledge of the academic world, which is the center of knowledge, and the closed security sector, which is open to relevant knowledge. In line with these ideas, the present paper explores the specificities of the increasingly valorized national security training links in higher education by setting up models based on selected international examples. The used methodology is the examination of the international rankings of training programs available on the subject, as well as of the literature available on institutions.

Open access

A települési zöldinfrastruktúra biztonsági kérdései

Security issues of urban green infrastructure

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Tamás Dömötör

Összefoglalás. Az ezredforduló időszakának egyik jelentős felismerése, hogy nemcsak az ember-ember kölcsönhatást befolyásoló környezetet és a környezet emberre gyakorolt hatását szükséges vizsgálni, de az ember környezetre gyakorolt hatását is, amely végül visszahat ránk. Írásomban a biztonság kérdését ezért egy tágabb kontextusban világítom meg: túl a közbiztonság témáján, az ember és környezet kölcsönhatásának tükrében elemzem a kérdést. A különböző környezetbiztonsági szempontokat témakörökbe rendszerezve írom le. A hangsúlyt a környezeti kérdések, szempontok áttekintésére helyezem, tudva, hogy az egyes tényezők összefüggenek, és a kölcsönhatások ismerete javítja a beavatkozások hatékonyságát. A zöldinfrastruktúra fogalma ma még kevéssé ismert, ezért szükséges a bevezetésben a fogalom ismertetése is.

Summary. One of the significant recognitions of the turn of the millennium is that today it is not enough to analyse only the environment’s influences on human: also the impact of humans on the environment has to be examined. In my present paper, I shed light on the issue of security (and safety) in a broader context. My analysis covers not only public security issues, but also the interaction of man and his environment, focusing on the toolkit of urban green infrastructure (UGI). The concept of green infrastructure is still not well known today, so I considered it is necessary to define and state this concept as an introduction.

I briefly describe the individual subject areas, which relate to SGI, and I put them in a system. I sought only to review this system, knowing that the individual factors are related to each other and interact when applied together.

The first safety factor of the UGI is to ensure public safety. It plays an important role in crime prevention, in terms of physical protection (safeguarding), transparency of spaces and controllability. I classified the issues of accident safety and comfort safety also as public safety. In the former case, the biggest challenge is the contradictions of the spatial relationship between the grey infrastructures and the UGI. In the latter case, attachment to the place, clear spatial orientation, and perception of the owner of the space/area can provide adequate security.

A second factor is helping climate security, in which UGI must play a decisive role. The basis is a balanced settlement structure, the equipartition and functional placement of green systems. The appropriate ratio of plant and water surfaces balances the climatic extremes. The diverse application of land uses and species ensures long-term stability. A strong UGI can be created by giving rise to sufficient biological diversity, varied vegetation, and habitats. The security of the system is further strengthened by the variety of space use and the continuity of the green-blue network, the healthy growth and development of the individuals is thus better ensured.

The third factor is the issue of health security. The role of UGI in maintaining physical and mental well-being has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to individual access to clean air with adequate humidity, outdoor exercise, and a stimulating, harmonious environment, community activities in the green can also be an important healing tool. In addition, health risks (allergy, disease-spreading animals etc.) in green spaces, must be also controlled.

Open access

A világmodellezés 50 éve

50 Years of World Modelling

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Éva Hideg

Összefoglalás. A tanulmány a világmodellezés 50 évéről ad áttekintést a legismertebb és módszertanilag újítást hozó világmodellek rövid ismertetésén keresztül. A világmodellezés fogalmának meghatározása után sorra veszi a Római Klub és az ENSZ szervezeteiben folyó világmodellezést és a jelentős modelleket, majd pedig az online világmodellezés néhány műhelyében folyó munkákat. A bemutatott világmodellek összehasonlító elemzésével rámutat azokra az új modellezési módszertanokra és fordulópontokra, amelyek új utakat nyitottak a világmodellek készítésében és hasznosításában. A folyamatos megújulás jellemzőit a világmodellezők felfogásában és képzettségében, a világmodellezés eljárásaiban, valamint a világmodelleket ismerők és használók körében bekövetkezett változások vonatkozásában fogalmazza meg.

Summary. The aim of paper is to introduce the last 50 years of world modelling through short presentation of world models that have got reputation of wide range in the world and have represented methodological innovation in the history of world modelling. For this purpose after giving definition of world modelling the paper takes one by one the world modelling activities carried out in the frame of the Club of Rome and of different organizations of UN and their most important products and the works running by some organizations of online and interactive world model building as well. Forrester-Meadows’s system dynamics model recognizing the natural resources and Ervin Laszlo’s verbal world model considering the inner human limits, and GEO models and IPCC reports that were initiated by the UN organizations and that define the sustainability and place it in the centre of world model building and the organizations of online world model building as Millennium project, JAVA Climate Model, Pardee Center for International Futures and Futures Platform are payed special attention. These world models have defined the characteristics of complex world problems rooting in both natural and human/social limits. They show how the world is running into the catastrophe in the future if the humanity does not reflect to these limits at both the individual and community levels and finally they have got to give definition of requirements concerning sustainability and tasks needed to materialize them, and to the necessity of shift in world views and social values.

The study draws attention to the methodological issues of world modelling came to the front of research topics at the beginning of 21st century especially to the fact why and in what ways the idea concerning the paradigm shift in the world modelling have become the main methodological problem. In what ways the online and interactive world modelling can stimulate that every person and community to be able to explore and/or construct their own world model and recognize that everybody has to do something and to change its behaviour for survival of the human civilization.

The paper emphasizes methodological solutions and turning points that has opened new ways in the process of world modelling and the application of their outcomes by the way of comparative analysis of world models and changing ideas focusing on paradigm shift. In the end the main characteristics of continuous renewal are shaped by the emphasis of the changes happened in the ideas of world views and qualification of world modellers, in the methodology of word model building and in the circle of users and participants and people who becomes acquainted with world models or world model building.

Open access

Abstract

In this work, functional liquorice powder beverage (FLPB) with standardised glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), carbenoxolone (CBX), and liquiritin (LQ) contents, was produced by encapsulating Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with maltodextrin (MD) by spray drying. Encapsulation parameters of the FLPB were optimised as MD:GL 3.4:1, inlet temperature: 149 °C, and air flow: 8.9 L min−1. GL, GA, LQ, CBX, and yield in powdered beverage produced using these optimised parameters were 6.8 g L−1, 81.1 mg L−1, 24.7 mg L−1, 0.79 g L−1, and 30.95%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the encapsulation on the bioaccessibility of GL, GA, CBX, and LQ bioactives in G. glabra was evaluated. According to the obtained results, FLPB exhibited a higher bioaccessibility index for GL, GA, CBX, and LQ compared to the aqueous extract.

Restricted access

Abstract

Carbon-dioxide-based trans-critical power cycle is a novel technology for waste heat recovery. This technology can handle the high-temperature exhaust gas and can be built in a compact size, which is an important feature for the auxiliary equipment for an internal combustion engine. To obtain the best output, four configurations were constructed: the basic system; one with preheater, another with regenerator and a fourth with preheater and regenerator. Special features of supercritical CO2 make these cycles able to recover more energy than the traditional organic Rankine cycle. According to this study, heat regeneration increases thermal efficiency while preheating influences the net power output. Thus, it is beneficial to add both regenerator and preheater to the basic cycle.

Open access

Abstract

This work aims to highlight gravity segmental retaining walls with their varied advantages. The paper investigates the dynamic behavior analysis of segmental retaining walls. The stability analysis is conducted on the basis of a pseudo-static Mononobe-Okabe theory that provides safety factors against sliding and overturning failure. The results demonstrate that the crucial safety factor of internal stability is the safety factor against overturning. Moreover, the positive wall inclination angle contributes to an improvement in the stability of the segmental retaining walls and the effect of the vertical seismic coefficient on the stability can be disregarding. Finally, a new equation is proposed for the elementary design of the segmental retaining walls.

Open access

Húsz éves avarmanipulációs kísérlet hatásai barna erdőtalaj szén tartalmára és vízkapacitására: Síkfőkút DIRT Project

The effects of a twenty-year litter manipulation experiment on the carbon content and water retention capacity of the examined Luvisols: Síkfőkút DIRT Project

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
István Fekete
,
Áron Béni
,
Katalin Juhos
, and
Zsolt Kotroczó

A talajok a szárazföldi széntároló rendszerek egyik legjelentősebb tagját jelentik, melyek szénelnyelése, illetve szénkibocsátása jelentős mértékben hat a klímára, ugyanakkor a klímaváltozás is befolyásolja a talajok szénraktározó képességét. Az avar produkció mennyiségi és minőségi változásai jelentősen befolyásolják ezeket a folyamatokat, azonban ezek mértéke, sőt időnként iránya sem ismert pontosan.

A klímaváltozás mellett a területhasználat változások is befolyásolják a talajba kerülő szerves anyagok mennyiségét és ezen keresztül számos egyéb talajfizikai, kémiai és biológiai paramétert. Ezeknek a hatásoknak a rendszerszintű vizsgálatát segítik a nemzetközi avarmanipulációs projektek, melyek azonos kezeléseket alkalmazva, de eltérő klímaviszonyok mellett vizsgálják a mesterségesen átalakított avar inputok hatását a talajrendszerekre. A Síkfőkút project területén, mely 2000-ben csatlakozott a nemzetközi DIRT projecthez, vizsgáltuk az avar input növekedésének és csökkenésének hatásait egy cseres tölgyes erdőben a talajok szén körforgalmára, illetve a vízháztartására. Ezeken a kutatásokon belül vizsgáltuk a kezelések talajaiban a talajnedvesség tartalmat, vízkapacitást és térfogatsűrűséget, valamint CNS analizátorral a talajok szerves szén tartalmát.

Eredményeink azt mutatták, hogy az avar produkció mennyiségi változása, éghajlati viszonyoktól függően, eltérően hat a talajok SOC tartalmának változásaira. A kezelésekkel modellezett avar produkció változások nemcsak közvetlen úton hatnak a talajok szerves anyag tartalmára, de közvetett módon a megváltozott mikroklimatikus viszonyok révén is befolyásolják a talajok szén és vízforgalmi viszonyait. A nagyobb avar produkció a szárazabb síkfőkúti erdőben növelte a talajok szén tartalmát (szemben a nedvesebb amerikai területeken tapasztalt visszaeséssel, vagy stagnálással) és magasabb szerves anyag tartalom társulva a vastagabb avartakaróval magasabb átlagos talajnedvességet és vízmegtartó képességet eredményezett az avar elvonásos kezelésekkel szemben. Ezek a hatások összefüggésben lehetnek azzal is, hogy az avarelvonásos kezeléseknél szignifikánsan magasabb térfogattömeg értékeket mértünk, ami a pórustérfogat csökkenését jelentheti ebben az esetben, csökkentve ezzel a talajban tárolható víz mennyiségét.

Az általunk végzett avarmanipulációs kísérletek nemzetközi kontextusában közelebb juthattunk a biogeokémiai ciklusok, ezáltal a mineralizáció és a humifikáció közötti összefüggések megértéséhez különböző erdőtípusokban és különböző klimatikus feltételek között.

Open access

Abstract

This study focuses on exploring the impact of urban forms and vegetation combination patterns on the microclimate in a complex urban environment. Results shown that the closed urban form has higher air temperature resulting in pedestrians are easier to feel heat stress; instead, the open urban form usually has higher wind speed. Vegetation can effectively reduce wind speed while reducing the change rate of the mean radiant temperature. However, the effect on air temperature and humidity are most distinct in the morning. Trees and shrubs could improve the surrounding thermal comfort conditions by reducing heat stress, but this effect depends on the density of the leaf area. More importantly, study has not found that the ground cover plants contribute to the improvement of thermal comfort.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Miklós Neményi
,
Attila J. Kovács
,
Judit Oláh
,
József Popp
,
Edina Erdei
,
Endre Harsányi
,
Bálint Ambrus
,
Gergely Teschner
, and
Anikó Nyéki

Abstract

If we want to increase the efficiency of precision technologies to create sustainable agriculture, we need to put developments and their application on a new footing; moreover, a general paradigm shift is needed. There is a need to rethink close-at-hand and far-off innovation concepts to further develop precision agriculture, from both an agricultural, landscape, and natural ecosystem sustainability perspective. With this, unnecessary or misdirected developments and innovation chains can be largely avoided. The efficiency of the agrotechnology and the accuracy of yield prediction can be ensured by continuously re-planning during the growing season according to changing conditions (e.g., meteorological) and growing dataset. The aim of the paper is to develop a comprehensive, thought-provoking picture of the potential application of new technologies that can be used in agriculture, primarily in precision technology-based arable field crop production, which emphasizes the importance of continuous analysis and optimisation between the production unit and its environment. It should also be noted that the new system contributes to reconciling agricultural productivity and environmental integrity. The study also presents research results that in many respects bring fundamental changes in technical and technological development in field production. The authors believe that treating the subsystems of agriculture, landscape, and natural ecosystem (ALNE) as an integrated unit will create a new academic interdisciplinarity. ICT, emphasizing WSN (Wireless Sensor Network), remote sensing, cloud computing, AI (Artificial Intelligence), economics, sociology, ethics, and the cooperation with young students in education can play a significant role in research. This study treats these disciplines according to sustainability criteria. The goal is to help management fulfil the most important expectation of reducing the vulnerability of the natural ecosystem. The authors believe that this article may be one of the starting points for a new interdisciplinarity, ALNE.

Open access