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In applied sciences, researchers use particular scientific methods to achieve practical goals. You can think of applied sciences as a broad, integrated area of various scientific fields that involve agronomy, agriculture, food science, medicine, engineering, computer science, and many other natural and social science disciplines. The main goal of applied science is to provide more knowledge and practical applications

Materials and Applied Sciences

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Az erdőállományok talajvíz utánpótlódásra gyakorolt hatásának vizsgálata kecskemét-ménteleki mintaterületen

Investigation of the impact of forest stands on groundwater recharge in the Kecskemét-Méntelek study area

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
András Szabó
,
Zoltán Gribovszki
,
Péter Kalicz
,
Ján Szolgay
,
Zsolt Gácsi
, and
Bence Bolla

Az Alföldet, azon belül is különösen a Homokhátságot érintő talajvízszint süllyedés, súlyos ökológiai és gazdasági következményekkel is járó problémakör. A jelenség hátterében álló lehetséges okokkal kapcsolatban több évtizede zajlik kutatómunka, ugyanakkor ezek relatív súlyának meghatározása a mai napig tudományos vita tárgyát képezi.

Több szerző is kiemeli az erdőtelepítések talajvízszint csökkentő hatásának fontosságát. Ez a hatás két módon, a vegetáció vízfelvétele, illetve a csapadékból történő utánpótlódás csökkentése (intercepció, talajnedvesség felvétel) által jelentkezhet. Ezen mechanizmusok működését vizsgáltuk meg egy akác (Robinia pseudoacacia) és egy fekete fenyő (Pinus nigra) állomány esetében a Homokhátságon, Kecskemét-Ménteleken kialakított mintaterületünkön, 90, 150 és 200 cm-es mélységben, nagy időbeli felbontással mért talajnedvesség, illetve talajvíz adatokra alapozva.

Az adatok alapján feltételezhető, hogy a talajvízből nem történik közvetlen, vagy közvetett vízfelvétel, aminek oka vélhetően a gyökérzóna és a talajvíz közti igen jelentős horizontális távolság. A talajnedvesség esetében a sekélyebb rétegekben egyértelműen jelentkezik az erdőállományok szezonális szárító hatása. Ugyanakkor a mélyebb rétegek talajnedvesség adatai alapján kijelenthető, hogy a csapadékból történő talajvíz visszatöltődésre leginkább az akác állomány alatt van elméleti lehetőség. A látszólagos ellentmondás feltételezhetően a gyökérzet által kialakított makropórusok hatásával magyarázható. Ezt támasztja alá az akác és fekete fenyő állományok közti igen jelentős eltérés is.

Következtetésünk, hogy az erdőállományok lokálisan jelentősen eltérő hatást gyakorolhatnak a talajvízszintre. Ezért a lezajló folyamatok hátterét, általános jellegű megállapítások helyett, az adott hidrológiai rendszer több elemét vizsgáló monitoring adataira alapozva lehetséges csak felderíteni.

Open access

Abstract

The inorganic scaling in wells is a common problem faced by mining companies. At present, the use of protective coatings for tubing as a measure to prevent or reduce the formation of inorganic scale deposits on pipe walls has not been fully studied. To use protective coatings as a measure to counteract the deposition of inorganic salts, it is necessary to develop a method that allows assessing the ability of coatings, as well as polymer and metal materials, to prevent the formation of inorganic scale deposits on the inner surface of pipes.

The article proposes a method for assessing the ability of protective coatings to resist the inorganic scaling on the inner surface of tubing. The proposed assessment method allows to make an informed decision on the advisability of using internal protective coatings of tubing to prevent (or reduce) the formation of inorganic scale deposits. The authors consider design features of a test bench for assessing the resistance of coatings to inorganic scale deposits, which allows to simulate the conditions for the formation of scale deposits that are as close as possible to the real conditions of oil production facilities. The article presents the results of bench tests of nine coating samples, two polymer samples and one sample made of St 40G2 steel. To assess the effectiveness of using tubing with an internal anti-corrosion coating as a measure to combat scale deposits, additional research is required to assess the possibility of complex use of coatings in conjunction with other methods of preventing processes of inorganic scaling. Thus, the authors developed the Bench for assessing the resistance of protective coatings of tubing to inorganic scale deposits. A dynamic testing technique is proposed to evaluate the resistance of protective coatings to inorganic scale deposits. Based on the presented results, conclusions were drawn about the possibility of using protective coatings on tubing as a measure to prevent the formation of inorganic scale deposits on the inner surface of the tubing.

Open access

Abstract

The work focuses in architectural dimension of urban form, by confronting the plans of three neighborhoods in Prishtina that represent potentially three main urban paradigms of the last decades in city's urban transformation. The study aims to unfold the main elements, confront them, and expose to possible transformation. The work progressively decomposes each case into basic components and deductively to their minimal unit.

The research, through interpretation and graphic illustrations, analyzes the three plans by layers: basic elements and their relational modalities, urban matrix, open space character and composing minimal units. The process will identify the main components, and their generic potentiality to be considered as future inputs in city's development.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Naghm Mahdi Saidik Al-jamaily
,
Huda M. Atiea
,
Qusay A. Jabal
,
Waseem H. Mahdi
, and
Laith Abdulrasool Alasadi

Abstract

Even though concrete structures are safer than steel structures in terms of fire resistance, the risk exists in concrete structures by spalling or exploding, especially in high-strength concrete. This study aims to produce a particular type of concrete using waste ceramics as fine aggregate and waste glass as coarse aggregate and compare data with normal aggregate concrete. Studies show that using waste ceramic and glass increases the fire resistance of concrete. After fire exposure in the control mix, the residual compressive strength was 10 MPa. The waste aggregate concrete was found to be 26.9 MPa after 800 centigrade exposures, which was an excellent result. Waste materials decreased construction costs and led to a clean environment.

Restricted access

Abstract

Manufacturing ceramic green structures using starch consolidation casting is an established process that is simple, non-hazard, and low-cost. In this study, starch consolidation casting is used to prepare ceramics based on submicron monoclinic zirconia with additions of alumina and magnesia. Scanning electron microscopy results indicate that the size of pores decreased and the morphological irregularity increased when the tapioca starch content increased. The sample with 30 wt.% tapioca starch in a 55 wt.% slurry concentration had the highest estimated apparent porosity (around 56%), whereas the sample with 10 wt.% in a 68 wt.% suspension concentration had the lowest (about 35%).

Open access

Abstract

In the ever-changing realm of the contemporary workplace, adaptability and flexibility have emerged as crucial attributes for office buildings. The method of axes system design, in conjunction with modular structures, fosters a workspace that can seamlessly adapt to the evolving needs of offices. This system embodies a comprehensive approach to office design, emphasizing the integration of four important principles: modularity, adaptability, interconnectedness, and flexibility. The modular nature of the structural axes design allows for swift and cost-effective adjustments, facilitating customer needs. The dynamism of this system ensures that office spaces are in a perpetual state of evolution, reflecting the changing dynamics of the contemporary workplace as to be shown in this paper.

Open access

Abstract

Plastic pollution of oceans and seas is increasing every year and coastal countries need to pay particular attention to this problem. Four Asian countries – Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea – were analysed in terms of the amount of waste and plastic waste generated and their recycling rates. For each country, available data were collected and converted into a common unit of measurement – metric tonnes per 1,000 people. The countries' performance to date was analysed and used as a basis for projections for 2030. Based on the trends so far, Japan has seen an 11% reduction in plastics waste and a 6% reduction in waste over the period, while China has seen a 27% increase in waste and an 8% reduction in plastic waste. In South Korea, plastic waste increased by 49% and waste by 21%. In Singapore, waste decreased by 13% and plastic waste increased by 15%. On current trends, none of the countries are projected to reach their 2030 targets. However, by complying with current and newly introduced regulations, they have a chance to move closer to their targets.

Open access

Abstract

This study investigates sustainable methods for producing protein from soybean expeller via pH-shifting processes, aiming to reduce water usage in alkaline extraction by adjusting solid-to-liquid ratios per cycle and employing isoelectric precipitants like lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lactococcus Lactis) to enhance functional and antioxidant properties over a wide pH range. Results indicate that the most efficient approach involves three 1:10 (w/v) extraction cycles with lactic acid bacteria as precipitants, demonstrating high productivity and low specific water consumption. Protein content and recovery yield showed no significant differences compared to alternatives with higher water consumption or less eco-friendly precipitants. Despite lower solubility, protein products precipitated with lactic acid bacteria formed stable emulsions, exhibiting superior free radical scavenging activity.

Restricted access

Abstract

Microencapsulation of flaxseed oil (FO) has received lots of attention in the food and biopharmaceutical industries. To produce FO microcapsules, aqueous emulsions of FO with polymeric carbohydrates (maltodextrin (MD) with dextrose equivalent (DE) 19, gum Arabic (GA) and modified starch (MS)) were prepared by a rotor stator homogenization and subsequently, dehydration of emulsions were performed by spray drying (SD). The objective of this research was to study the effects of different combinations of polymeric carbohydrates with FO in emulsion to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency (EE). A 3 factorials–3 levels Box–Behnken design was used for the optimization purpose. The maximum EE was achieved using 0.79 MD-GA ratio, 20.23% MS and 24.62% FO in emulsion. Microcapsules obtained by optimum condition had EE 77.68%, particle size (D 32) 120.0 ± 0.43 μm, moisture content1.6 ± 0.13%, wettability 192 ± 5.5 s, solubility 75.49 ± 1.3%, bulk density 0.31 ± 0.025 g mL−1, tapped density 0.36 ± 0.01 g mL−1, Carr's Index 13.88 ± 0.01% and Hausner Ratio 1.16 ± 0.01.

Open access

This study assesses the elemental composition of Egyptian glauconite sediments, focusing on potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and macronutrients. The primary aim is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing these sediments as a natural source of potassium for agricultural purposes, besides conventional chemical fertilizers like potassium sulfate. To quantify elemental content, chemical analysis was employed across five distinct grain size fractions after grinding glauconite rock. The assessment included potassium, calcium, sodium, and PTE concentrations, utilizing potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium acetate lactate (AL Solution) as single extractants, and the BCR extraction protocol, in addition to measuring the pseudo-total content of these elements. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) facilitated a comparative analysis of elemental concentrations. Results indicate PTE concentrations within European Union regulations, with an absence of cadmium. Glauconite samples contain approximately 3–3.3% potassium by weight, alongside significant amounts of essential macronutrients (calcium, magnesium) and micronutrients (copper, nickel, zinc) crucial for agriculture. BCR sequential extraction protocol results closely align with or slightly surpass pseudo-total content results. Notably, the AL Solution demonstrates high efficiency compared to KCl or acetic acid in the first step of the BCR method. BCR sequential protocol provides valuable insights into various elemental forms and potential mobility. Overall, this study reveals that glauconite has the potential to serve as a promising alternative potassium fertilizer without causing adverse environmental impacts.

Open access

Ellátásbiztonság az energiaátmenet időszakában

Security of supply in times of energy transition

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Ágnes Csermely
,
Péter Kaderják
,
Balázs Lengyel
,
Anna Mészégető
, and
Pálma Szolnoki

Összefoglalás.

A zöld energetikai átállás folyamatát leggyakrabban klímavédelmi szempontok alapján elemzik. Ebben a cikkben az energiabiztonságra gyakorolt hatását vizsgáljuk a megújuló energiahordozók térnyerésének. A mérleg pozitív serpenyőjében szerepel az energiafüggetlenséghez való hozzájárulás, a széles körben elérhető technológia és a fosszilis energiahordozókhoz képest kiszámítható árazás. A folyamat ugyanakkor számos kihívással is együtt jár, melyek közül kiemeljük a szezonális tárolás lehetőségének korlátosságát, az ellátásbiztonsághoz szükséges nem időjárásfüggő tartalékkapacitások fenntartásának nehézségeit, a hálózatüzemeltetéssel kapcsolatos problémákat, a digitalizációval együtt növekvő kiberbiztonsági kockázatokat és a kritikus alapanyagok koncentrációjából fakadó kihívásokat. E kihívásokra költséghatékony megoldásokat kell kialakítani, így a zöldenergia térnyerése komplex, a szakpolitika koordinációját igénylő, több évtizeden áthúzódó folyamat lesz.

Summary.

The green energy transition process is most often analysed from a climate protection perspective. In this article, we look at the impact of rising renewable generation on the security of energy supply. On the positive side there is renewables’ contribution to energy independence, their widespread availability, and their predictable pricing compared to fossil fuels. However, the process of increasing the share of renewables also carries several challenges, including the limitations of seasonal storage, the difficulties of maintaining non-weather-dependent reserve capacity for security of supply, grid management issues, the growing cyber security risks associated with digitalisation and the concentration of the availability of critical minerals. Cost-effective solutions to these challenges need to be developed, making the take-up of green energy a complex process that requires policy coordination over the next several decades.

Open access

Előszó

Foreword

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Marcell Gáspár
and
Attila Aszódi
Open access

Energetikai szektorban előforduló por közegek robbanási és gyulladási tulajdonságainak vizsgálata

Investigation of the explosion and ignition properties of dust media occurring in energy sector

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Zoltán Siménfalvi
,
Viktória Kállai
,
Viktória Mikáczó
,
Máté Petrik
,
Tamás Pusztai
,
Bernadett Pusztai-Spisák
,
Zoltán Szamosi
,
Levente Tugyi
, and
L. Gábor Szepesi

Összefoglalás.

Ipari környezetben, ahol az alapanyagok között por alapanyagú termékek találhatóak, felmerül a porrobbanás lehetősége, ez alól az energiaszektor sem kivétel. Ebben az iparágban is megjelentek a biomasszák mint energiahordozók, amely termékekről számos esetben bebizonyosodott, hogy porrobbanás-veszélyesek, ezért szükséges védelmi intézkedéseket tenni. Jelen közleményünkben összefoglaljuk azon vizsgálati eljárásokat, amelyekkel meghatározhatóak a későbbi védelmi intézkedések alapadatául szolgáló paraméterek. Ismertetjük a vizsgálati eljárásokat, berendezéseket, valamint néhány konkrét vizsgálati eredményt is bemutatunk.

Summary.

In an industrial environment where dust-based products are among the raw materials, the potential for dust explosion arises, and the energy sector is no exception. This industry has also started to use biomass as a source of energy, which has been shown in many cases to be explosive and therefore requires protective measures. In this article, we have presented the distribution of dust explosion accidents in the US in 2021, which shows that 4% of the accidents directly related to the energy industry are much higher than the direct proportion. The set of conditions required for such accidents to occur is described and the investigation procedures that can be used to determine the parameters that will form the basis for future protection measurements are summarized. These parameters include the maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax), the explosion constant (Kst), the lower explosibility rate (LEL), the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC), the minimum ignition temperature of dust clouds (MIT), the layer ignition temperature (LIT), and finally the minimum ignition energy (MIE). The test procedures and equipment are described, and some concrete test results are presented. Determining these variables is essential for the design of explosion protection for a dust explosion hazardous technology or area. The description of the test procedures is based mainly on the standard specifications applicable in the European Union. The structure of the measurements and the interpretation of the results obtained are described through the analysis of a fermentation residual solid.

Open access

A hűtési és fűtési időszakot jellemző éghajlati klímaindexek változása Magyarországon

Observed changes in weather-dependent heating and cooling energy demand in Hungary

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Mónika Lakatos
and
Kinga Bokros

Összefoglalás.

Az elmúlt évtizedekben a globális felmelegedés hatásai Európában, azon belül a Kárpát-medencében is nyilvánvalóvá váltak, s ez a hatás jelentős mértékű az energiaszektorra is. A kizárólag az időjárás által befolyásolt függő fűtési és hűtési energiaigényt leíró technikai klímaindexek alakulását mutatjuk be Magyarországon, nevezetesen a fűtési foknap (Heating Degree Days) és a hűtési foknap (Cooling Degree Days) paramétereket vizsgáljuk. A jelen klímát leginkább jellemző éves és havi normálértékek mellett a változásokat is elemezzük. A múlt század elejétől a fűtési foknapok egyértelmű csökkenése, míg a hűtési foknapok egyértelmű emelkedése figyelhető meg. Országos átlagban 314,6 foknappal [°C nap] csökkent a fűtési foknapok éves összege a lineáris trendmodell szerint 1901-től, míg ugyanerre az időszakra 79,4 ℃ nappal nőtt a hűtési foknap értéke. A legutóbbi három évtizedben, a legintenzívebb melegedés időszakában igen markánsak a változások, s ez a folyamat minden bizonnyal folytatódik a század végéig és azon túl is.

Summary.

In recent decades, the effects of global warming have become evident in Europe, including the Carpathian Basin, and this impact is significant for the energy sector. The most obvious impact of climate change in Hungary is the increase in extremes associated with high temperatures. Not only summer, but also winter and transition seasons show a warming trend, affecting all productive and service sectors. Rising temperatures could lead to shorter heating seasons and milder cold months, potentially reducing heating energy demand. However the heat waves have become more frequent and intense due to warming, leading to an increase in cooling energy demand. In the first part of this article, we present the evolution of heating degree-days from the beginning of the last century to the present day for the whole area of Hungary. The heating degree day is an indicator of the energy consumption for heating of buildings, which depends only on the weather. That is a temperature value, expressed in °Cday, which is proportional to the amount of energy required to heat the indoor environment to a given temperature on a given day, taking into account the daily minimum, maximum and mean temperature for a specific base temperature (15.5°Cday). Importantly, its value does not depend on the insulation of the buildings, economic indicators or the type of energy sources. Essentially, the colder the weather, the more the air temperature deviates from the base temperature of 15.5 degrees Celsius, the more energy is needed to heat the indoor environment and the higher the heating degree day value will be. In addition, we present the analysis of cooling degree days. The cooling degree day is derived in a similar way, following the logic of the heating degree day derivation. Therefore, the warmer the weather and the higher the air temperature is above the base temperature of 22°C, the more energy is needed to cool the indoor environment.

Based on the results presented in the article, we can conclude that the annual as well as the monthly amounts of heating degree-days have decreased since the beginning of the last century, with the greatest decrease in mountainous areas and in Western Hungary. One of the few benefits of climate change is that less energy is needed to heat interiors, and this is particularly true for the last decades, when annual heating degree-day amounts were usually lower than normal. At the same time, as heating degree-days have decreased, as the heat waves have become more frequent and intense with warming, resulting in an increase in cooling degree-days. In Hungary, on average, the last 30 years have been characterised by the highest cooling degree-day values over the last century’s climate normal periods. On a national average, the annual amount of heating degree-days has decreased by 314.6°Cday according to the linear trend model since 1901, while the cooling degree-day value has increased by 79.4°Cday over the same period. During the period of most intense warming, the August weather-dependent cooling energy demand increased the most. Due to the urban heat island effect in the inner-city environment, cooling of buildings requires additional energy. The recent trends is likely to continue until the end of the century and beyond. Therefore important to monitor changes in climate parameters affecting energy security and to develop an effective strategy and action plans to address the climate risks for the energy sector.

Open access

Parti szűrésű vízbázisok vízföldtani vizsgálata a Duna magyarországi szakaszán

Hydrodynamic modeling of riverbank filtrated systems along the Danube River in Hungary

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Gábor Nyiri
,
Zsombor Fekete
,
Andrea Kolencsikné Tóth
,
Tamás Madarász
,
Balázs Zákányi
,
Endre Turai
,
Endre_Kázmér Nádasi
, and
Péter Szűcs

Összefoglalás.

Jelen tanulmányunkban két Duna menti parti szűrésű vízbázis vizsgálatát tűztük ki célul. A Tiszta Ivóvíz: a biztonságos ellátás multidiszciplináris értékelése a forrástól a fogyasztóig című Nemzeti Kiválósági Program keretében két olyan kiemelt fontosságú parti szűrésű vízbázist vizsgáltunk, amelyek meghatározó szerepet játszanak a Fővárosi Vízművek ellátási területén, Budapesten. Választásunk a Szentendrei-szigeten található surányi vízbázisra, valamint a Csepel-szigeten található ráckevei vízbázisra esett. A két vízbázis vizsgálatának célja az volt, hogy a területen végzett terepi mérések és mintavételezések, valamint a modellezési szimulációk segítségével átfogó képet kapjunk ezen két terület hidrogeológiai viszonyairól, hidraulikai viselkedéséről. Ennek érdekében számos terepi mérést végeztünk, amelyek fontos adatokat szolgáltattak a két vízbázis hidrodinamikai modelljének felépítéséhez és kalibrációjához.

Summary.

In this study, we dealt with two significant riverbank filtration systems along the Danube: the Surány water base located on Szentendre Island and the Ráckeve water base located on Csepel Island. These are two important drinking water bases of the Budapest Water Works, which provide a significant proportion of the capital’s water needs and are of great importance from the point of view of water security. At these riverbank filtered water bases, water is produced with horizontal collector wells, which, thanks to their design, are capable of extracting large amounts of raw water. The aim of our work was to get to know the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the area using the tools of field measurements and geophysical measurements. To this end, we measured the following parameters in different temporal resolutions: water level, temperature, specific electrical conductivity, pH. In this study, we present the results that have more significant information. Geophysical tests were also carried out at the two water bases, which provided important information regarding the geological inhomogeneity. Using the field measurements, two hydrodynamic model was also built for each study area. Our field measurements were also a great help for the calibration of our model. In this study the calibration of these models was shown. The hydrodynamic models were performed in the modeling environment of the Groundwater Modeling System, using the MODFLOW code. The characteristic of the model is that the tentacle wells were defined using MODFLOW’s Revised Multi-Node Well package. With the help of these models we would like to determine the arrival times in the future, as well as examine different scenarios that can be linked to extreme weather conditions. Based on the field measurements, we can make the following main conclusions regarding the examined water bases:

  • During the entire period of the year, the hydraulic gradient from the Danube side is greater than from the background direction. Based on this, we can say that the Danube is the dominant supply water source in both cases.

  • The hydraulic gradient changes over time, which is constantly influenced by changes in the water level of the Danube and changes in the produced yields.

  • As the hydraulic gradient changes, the speed of the water flow also changes, so the access time changes from time to time, even from day to day.

  • The specific electrical conductivity measurements showed that the Danube’s flood causes a large decrease in the value of the specific conductivity in the northern area. In addition to the decrease in conductivity, the measurement results also show a time shift, which, does not necessarily show the value of the access time.

  • Based on geophysical measurements, it can be said that the Ráckeve water base has greater inhomogeneity than the Surány water base. As a result, the zonal calibration of the hydrodynamic model of the Ráckeve water base became necessary.

Open access

Abstract

Thermomechanical treatments and variations in chemical composition during the production of these alloys allow their properties to be adjusted as necessary. In the present research, the influence of chemical modification was analyzed by adding a combination of two rare earth elements (lanthanum and cerium) and performing a pretreatment before natural and artificial aging. With this, it was observed that said chemical modification led to an increase in hardness after artificial aging and specific suppression of the hardening speed at room temperature, combined with a pretreatment process to improve the density of the nucleation site and take advantage of the possible vacancy capture effect. Furthermore, microstructural changes were observed in the study alloys by scanning electron microscopy. The above allows the design of alloy production processes according to the requirements of each application.

Open access

Abstract

Elderberry pomace, a by-product generated by elderberry processing industries, may be a favourable resource for further utilisation due to its components of high nutritional quality. In our research, elderberry pomace extract (EP) was added to apple juice as natural food additive for controlling microbial spoilage and enriching antioxidant components.

During the 8-week storage period of enriched apple juice (EPA) and control apple juice samples antioxidant properties were evaluated using the FRAP assay, Folin–Ciocalteu method, and pH differentiation method. The amount of polyphenols components was quantified using an RP-HPLC method. The microbiological status of samples was studied by determining the total viable and yeast/mould counts. The EPA is an important source of polyphenol components and other bioactive compounds, and the results suggest that extract of elderberry pomace could be a promising natural preservative to improve microbiological stability during refrigerated storage and increase the quality of apple juice.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Z.Z. Yang
,
J.Q. Zhang
,
B.B. Shi
,
J.Q. Qian
, and
H. Guo

Abstract

Myricetin has been reported to have a wide variety of beneficial physiological functions. The present study investigated the antihyperlipidaemic activity of myricetin against hyperlipidaemia of high-fat diet-fed obese rats. The four-week antihyperlipidaemic activity was assayed by giving different doses of myricetin to hyperlipidaemic rats. Results showed that myricetin could reduce the harm caused by oxidative stress, decrease thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value, and decrease total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels of hyperlipidaemic rats. Quantitative analysis of gene expression showed that myricetin's lipid-lowering activity can be activated by downregulating gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) with upregulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA level. Thus, myricetin had significant health benefits and could be explored as a potentially promising dietary supplement for treating hyperlipidaemia.

Open access

Abstract

Conversion of economic microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) into high value-added prebiotic glucans, is not only stimulates utilisation of renewable lignocellulosic biomass, but also provides cheap prebiotics to reduce high incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Herein, glucans (C0.25–C0.50–C1.00) from MCC were prepared by pre-impregnation with dilute sulphuric acid (0.25–0.50–1.00%) and ball-milling treatment for 1 h. NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography of the glucan products showed a significant reduction in the degree of polymerisation (DP) and molecular weights (Mw). All prepared glucans improved gut stress evaluated by in vitro digestion and fermentation (young and aging mouse faecal inocula). C1.00 with lower DP and Mw showed better water solubility, earlier peak, and exhibited increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity, higher ratios of Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli, and a higher level of short chain fatty acids better than C0.25 and C0.50 treatment (P < 0.05). Better prebiotic effects were observed in aging mice than in young mice. The highest ratio of Lactobacillus to E. coli was a 2.13-fold increase for aging mice compared to a 1.79-fold increase for young mice, relative to the initial value after C1.00 treatment. The study provides a novel pathway and a new resource for producing glucan.

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NMR characterization of the permeability and structure of Boda Claystone Formation (BCF)

BCF - reservoir rock by NMR

A Bodai Aleurolit Formáció (BAF) permeabilitásának és szerkezetének NMR jellemzése

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Vanda Papp
,
Róbert Janovics
, and
Mónika Kéri

Summary

High-level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep geological repositories, for which a possible geological environment in Hungary is the Boda Claystone Formation. In the repository site selection, the geochemical investigation of the host rock is necessary including the structural characterization. In this study, the porosity (p%~1.5% and 5.84%) and the T2cutoff value (0.12 ms and 0.10 ms) of two siliciclastic rock was determined by desktop low-field NMR, the value of which differed from the 3 ms accepted for clay-bound water and the 33 ms for movable water in clastic reservoirs. Based on the T2cutoff, the producible porosity was found to be high, however, based on the T2 distributions, the bound-water types dominate the composition of the water phase of the rock.

Open access

Abstract

Mango fruits' quality, marketability, and shelf life are significantly influenced by postharvest decay. Mango fruit disease development during storage is inhibited by fungicides. The objective of this investigation was to assess the relative effectiveness of two fungicides, azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4% SC and hexaconazole 5% SC, in mitigating postharvest deterioration of mango cv. ‘Langra’ during low temperature storage. Three pathogens were found associated with postharvest decay of mango, i.e. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, and Penicillium expansum. In comparison to untreated ones, the preharvest application of fungicide treatments provided noticeably better disease control. The foliar application of azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4% SC (0.1%) 15 days before the harvesting of fruits significantly improved fruit firmness, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, reduced the disease incidence, percentage disease index, and lesion diameter followed by the application of hexaconazole 5% SC (0.1%) compared to the control. Furthermore, it was found that pre-harvest fungicide spraying of azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4% SC (0.1%) was an effective treatment for lowering postharvest deterioration and enhancing the physio-chemical characteristics of mango fruits during low-temperature storage.

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Abstract

Ergosterol, as a precursor for synthesising useful molecules like vitamin D2, possesses significant physiological functions in both fungal and human systems. In fungi, ergosterol plays a crucial role in stress responses. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, the changes in specific ergosterol content of Kluyveromyces marxianus under various stress conditions are less known. This study investigated how ergosterol content changes in response to different stress factors. Carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio was examined using experimental design. The effects of aeration and shear force beside constant overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) were examined. Cell growth and specific ergosterol content were investigated using ethanol stress during a two-stage fermentation. Based on the results, contradictory settings regarding C/N ratio and shear force were found to be favourable for cell growth and specific ergosterol content. However, increased aeration consistently elevated specific ergosterol content and favoured cell growth as well (2.5-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively). In K. marxianus fermentations, higher ergosterol yield can be achieved through a two-stage fermentation (138.9 mg L−1 compared to 52.9 mg L−1), where the first stage provides favourable conditions for cell growth, and the second stage involves stress (beneficial for ergosterol production) conditions. Conclusions drawn from the two-stage fermentation results suggest that early transitioning of cell growth to the second phase will not result higher adaption and specific ergosterol content compared to the transition at the end of exponential growth phase.

Open access

Abstract

Facial recognition technology is transformative in security and human-machine interaction, reshaping societal interactions. Robust descriptors, essential for high precision in machine learning tasks like recognition and recall, are integral to this transformation. This paper presents a hybrid model enhancing local binary pattern descriptors for facial representation. By integrating rotation-invariant local binary pattern with uniform rotation-invariant grey-level co-occurrence, employing linear discriminant analysis for feature space optimization, and utilizing an artificial neural network for classification, the model achieves exceptional accuracy rates of 100% for Olivetti Research Laboratory, 99.98% for Maastricht University Computer Vision Test, and 99.17% for Extended Yale B, surpassing traditional methods significantly.

Restricted access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
F. Brahmi
,
S. Achat
,
I. Mateos-Aparicio
,
T. Sahki
,
O. Bedjou
,
N. Ben Bara
,
L. Benazzouz-Smail
,
H. Haddadi-Guemghar
,
K. Madani
, and
L. Boulekbache-Makhlouf

Abstract

This work proposes the optimisation of the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) for total phenolic content (TPC) from potato peels (PP). The optimised extract was obtained using ethanol 20% (v/v) for 30 min at 40 °C, and it was found to be rich in total phenolics (45.03 ± 4.16 mg GAE/g DM) and flavonoids (7.52 EQ/g DM) and exerted a good antioxidant effect with IC50s of 125.42 ± 2.78, 87.21 ± 7.72, and 200.77 ± 13.38 μg mL−1 for DPPH, phosphomolybdate, and FRAP, respectively. PP were used for the fresh cheese formulation, and this supplementation did not impact its physicochemical properties; however, the phenol content and antioxidant capacity of formulated cheeses were improved. PP-enriched fresh cheese presented a good acceptability, even better than the control.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Josef Hadipramana
,
Fetra Venny Riza
,
Ade Faisal
,
Bambang Hadibroto
, and
Shahrul Niza Mokhatar

Abstract

The study aims to investigate and find natural fiber as concrete reinforcement using the self-compacting concrete method. Methods of adding fiber and self-compacting concrete methods are exciting because these two methods have different characteristics and advantages. Therefore, the performance of the fresh-state flow capability of the self-compacting concrete method, which contains various fibers, was observed. Coconut fiber, pineapple leaf fiber, ijuk sugar palm fiber, and artificial polypropylene fiber were used with varying compositions of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% by mass of binder. The results show that coconut and pineapple fiber concrete met the European Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete standards. The coconut and pineapple fiber concrete performed admirably in all tests.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Reyzov
,
M. Eftimov
,
S. Gancheva
,
M. Todorova
,
M. Zhelyazkova-Savova
,
M. Tzaneva
, and
S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on the liver in a model of high-fat, high-fructose (HFHF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifty rats were allocated to five groups – Control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other groups were provided a HFHF diet. During MS induction, daily oral treatment was performed. Control and MS groups received 10.0 mL kg−1 distilled water, while the other three groups received AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. After 10 weeks, liver samples were collected and inspected histologically as well as immunohistochemically to determine the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and MAC387. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was calculated. In MS rats, steatotic, inflammatory and degenerative alterations of the liver were detected, Bax and MAC387 were markedly elevated, while Bcl-2 was non-significantly reduced. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio significantly increased. The histopathological alterations were prevented by the AMFJ treatment. Compared to MS group, Bax and MAC387 values were significantly lower and Bcl-2 value was higher resulting in significantly lower (P < 0.001) Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in all AMFJ-treated groups. AMFJ, administered during MS induction in rats, prevented the occurrence of inflammatory, steatotic, degenerative, and pro-apoptotic changes in the liver.

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Abstract

The article evaluates how well the goals of the European Green Deal are justified, especially considering the risks to energy and food security arising from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. We agree with the objectives of the European Green Agreement as a whole, but whether some of the objectives which feature in the EASAC study can be achieved by 2030 is questionable, and the description of the tools necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. Among other things, there is hardly any mention of the role played by precision farming with digitalization, which is a revolutionary change from an ecological and economic point of view, in reducing the use of synthetic inputs, in regenerating the original state of the soil, in reducing GHG emissions, thus in increasing biodiversity, and at the same time in intensifying production, and finally in expanding the application of biotechnology. We examine these areas in our analysis. Some of the objectives of the EASAC study to be achieved by 2030 are subject to debate, and the description of the information and communication conditions necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. The IoT (Internet of Things) responds to global and local challenges: it integrates the precision technologies, WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), artificial intelligence, mobile field (Smart Small Robots) and remote data loggers (UAVs: Unmanned Air Vehicles and satellites), Big Data, and cloud computing. Consequently, decision support is increasingly developing into unmanned decision making. IoT (Internet of Things) is the basis of “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring approaches.

This article evaluates the implementation of European Green Agreement objectives in light of energy and food security risks arising from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While overall support for the agreement exists, the feasibility of certain EASAC study objectives by 2030 is called into question due to insufficient tools specifications. Notably absent is the emphasis on precision farming with digitalization, which is a transformative ecological and economic practice. Our analyses look into its function in reducing synthetic inputs, soil regeneration, GHG emission reduction, biodiversity enhancement, production intensification, and biotechnology development. Debates surround EASAC study objectives for 2030, despite limited information and communication restrictions. The Internet of Things (IoT) arises as a solution, combining precision technology, WSNs (wireless sensor networks), AI (artificial intelligence), smart small robots, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), satellites, big data, and cloud computing. As a result, decision support turns toward unmanned decision-making, with IoT laying the groundwork for “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring systems.

Open access

The use of organic fertilization is declining in Hungary due to the sharp fall of livestock stand since the middle of the 1980s. Most farmers are forced to use solely chemical crop enhancers. A bifactorial small plot experiment was carried out between 10 May 2023 and 19 October 2023 in Keszthely, in order to examine the effects of farmyard manure (M), green manure (GM) and stem residues (SR) on the nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiencies of maize at equidistantly increasing (0–70–140–210–280 kg N ha–1) nitrogen doses. The relationship between some vegetative traits (dry biomass weight, Leaf Area Index (LAI)) and yield, furthermore leaf relative water content (RWC) was also examined. According to the results, organic fertilizer substitution significantly increased the N content both in whole plant and grain samples of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR treatments, compared to the chemically fertilized control (NPK). In case of P and K only slight differences were observed. Whole plant K contents of NPK+M were significantly higher than in the other treatments (P = 0.045; P = 0,005), furthermore P contents in grain samples were significantly higher in NPK+M (P = 0.004) and NPK+GM+SR (P = 0.05) than in control. Harvest index (HI [%]) of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR were 1.06 and 1.05 times higher than in NPK. Depending on the treatment, P0023 maize hybrid absorbed 58.7–74.64% of total N uptake in the grain (HIN%), and the utilization of 1 kg N fertilizer for the extra yield above the yield of the individual control was 0.39–1.38 kg (AREN). Significant positive correlations were observed between dry biomass weight and yield (NPK: r = 0.937, P = 0.019; NPK+M: r = 0.971, P = 0.006; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.88, P = 0.049), furthermore LAI and yield (NPK: r = 0.9, P = 0.037; NPK+M: r = 0.983, P = 0.003; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.784, P = 0.117). Highest RWC values – which may be related to better soil aggregate stability – were measured in NPK+GM+SR treatment, therefore there may be a great potential in this treatment among drought conditions. The effect of organic amendments is particularly noticeable with smaller nitrogen doses so they should be used to reduce inorganic fertilizer application and the resulting environmental risks.

Open access

Abstract

Steviol glycosides (SGs) are natural sweeteners derived from stevia leaves, which have various applications in food and beverage products. The extraction efficiency of SGs depends on several factors, such as solvent type, solid to solvent ratio, centrifugal force, and temperature. This study aimed to compare the effects of different solvents (ethanol and water) and leaf moisture (dry and fresh) on the extraction efficiency of major steviol glycosides (SGs) of rebaudioside A (Reb A), stevioside (ST), and rebaudioside C (Reb C) in stevia (var. Levent 93) plant. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimise the extraction parameters for each extraction type. The results showed that ethanol was a more effective solvent than water, however, aqueous extraction was more environmentally friendly and low-cost, and could also yield high concentrations of SGs when fresh leaves were used. The major SGs had similar concentrations in ethanolic extraction, but Reb A was twice as high as ST in aqueous extraction. Reb C was influenced by the solid to solvent ratio in both extraction types, but more so in water extraction. Temperature had a positive effect on ST and Reb C in water extraction of fresh leaves, but not in water extraction of dry leaves or ethanolic extraction. The results of this study contribute to the optimisation of SGs extraction from stevia leaves and provide insights for future research on the effects of different solvents and extraction parameters on the quality and purity of SGs.

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Abstract

Both onion and shallot are the most common ingredients to use for many recipes. Consuming onion and shallot provide health benefits including antidiabetic effects. However, the benefits of onion and shallot mixture at different ratios have not been studied in terms of total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and antidiabetic effects. Our study revealed that shallot significantly increased total phenolic content in the mixture from 492 ± 32 μg mL−1 (100% v/v onion) to 803 ± 24 μg mL−1 (100% v/v shallot) depending on the ratios of shallot in the mixture. Shallot also significantly enhanced total antioxidant capacity, SOD-like activity, α-amylase inhibition, and α-glucosidase inhibition in the mixture. Shallot juice exhibited the highest percentage inhibition of α-amylase activity (40.51 ± 1.57%) and α-glucosidase activity (89.61 ± 2.85%) in comparison to those of onion juice and the mixture. In addition, significant positive correlation between phenolic compound and different variables was observed (P < 0.05). Phenolic compounds present in onion and shallot are probably responsible for many health benefits including antidiabetic effects.

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Abstract

Chinese onion (Allium chinense G. Don) is an edible vegetable as well as a traditional Chinese medicine. It is rich in steroidal saponins and possesses broad health benefits. In this study, the optimal extraction protocol of the total saponins from Chinese onion (ACS) was explored, and the content of the total steroidal saponins in ACS reached 56.62%. Network pharmacology was applied to predict the related signalling pathways and targets between the main phytochemicals in ACS and hypercholesterolaemia. Enrichment analysis showed that ACS might intervene hypercholesterolaemia through the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. Meanwhile, cholesterol-lowering effects were verified by ACS intervention in high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia in Kunming mice. Compared with the model group, the TC and LDL-C levels of mice were decreased and the HDL-C level increased significantly after administration of ACS at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 day−1. The body weight gain, liver index, and atherosclerosis index all decreased dramatically. ACS could significantly reduce the fat content in the liver and reduce the number of fat droplets from the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of mouse liver. The immunohistochemical staining indicated that ACS could up-regulate the expression of PI3K protein in the liver, thus playing an anti-hypercholesterolaemic role. This study indicated that ACS exhibited significant therapeutic and preventive effects on hypercholesterolaemia, and exerted anti-hypercholesterolaemia through the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway.

Open access

Abstract

Nutritional problems can be seen in children living separated from their families. This cross-sectional pilot study aimed to evaluate intuitive eating, diet quality, and nutritional status of children living separated from their families. A total of 55 adolescent girls aged 12–18 years participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, and 24-h dietary recall data were collected. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and the Turkish version of the Healthy Lifestyle-Diet (HLD-TR) index were used. Participants were divided into two groups according to their scores on the diet quality index using the 50th percentile. Group 1 consisted of participants with a score of 25 points or less, and Group 2 consisted of participants with a score above 25 points. Waist circumference (72.0 (66–83), 65.0 (60–77)) was significantly higher in Group 1 (P < 0.05). IES–2 score (3.05 (2.85–3.40), 3.30 (3.12–3.90)) and two sub–factors; reliance in hunger and satiety cues (2.80 (1.80–3.40), 4.00 (2.60–4.60)) and body–food choice congruence (2.50 (2.00–3.50), 3.50 (3.00–4.50)) were higher in Group 2 (P < 0.05). After adjustment for body mass index, age, and energy intake, there was a significant positive correlation between IES-2 and HLD-TR scores (P = 0.029). In conclusion, it may be advantageous to resort to strategies that promote intuitive eating to reduce obesity and associated problems in this vulnerable group.

Open access

Abstract

With the rise of the digital era, digital reading and learning have become widespread. University libraries, as core locations for study and communication, face challenges in fully meeting the demands of modern teaching and learning. This paper takes the library at the Changqing campus of Shandong University of Arts as a case study to explore the environmental space design of constructed libraries in the digital era. By reviewing relevant concepts and theoretical frameworks, analyzing the existing environment, and researching intervention design methods, the paper discusses the positive role of adapting to the digital future in renovating established library spaces.

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Abstract

Streaming services spread rapidly. Among these services there are the linear TV, video library or program review system, while the online platform offering these contents is called mobile TV. A recommendation system may not only keep existing clients, but may also generate further turnover, should it introduce new content to the users. In this paper a recommendation system based on the Élő point calculation method is addressed. It is detailed how the programs should be grouped into different dimensions and what type of categories should be considered. Further, the idea of punch cards is introduced. Besides, the user profiles are set. The match system introduced by Élő is applied to the present situation. The system is introduced at a local mobile TV provider with 20,000 users.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Ali J. Mohammed
,
Hussein Hayder Mohammed Ali
,
Anwar S. Barrak
,
A. M. Hussein
, and
Murad Ramadan Mohammed

Abstract

A computational model is developed to investigate the convective heat transfer properties and the fluid flow characteristics of cupric oxide - water nano-fluid in a horizontal circular pipe aiming to provide insights into optimizing heat transfer in such systems. A twisted tape with varied twist ratios is inserted. This quantitative investigation used five Reynolds number from 4,000 to 12,000 under a uniform heat flux scenario of 25,000 W m−2. All experiments were performed as a single-phase fluid with cupric oxide values of 0, 0.4, 1, and 2% by volume. By reducing the twist ratio and increasing volume concentration, the average heat transfer coefficient of cupric oxide-water nano-fluid was improved. For a twist ratio of 4D, the maximum heat transfer improvement was 228% greater than the plain pipe. The presence of twisted tape with modest step ratios causes the friction factor to grow.

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Abstract

This research aims to study the pullout resistance of a helical pile using three methods of machine learning techniques, which are: random forest regression, support vector regression, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, based on experimental results of a helical pile. The performance of these three techniques has been d compared and the results show that random forest algorithm has best performance than neuro-fuzzy inference system and support vector technique. The results show that machine learning considered a good tool in terms of estimating the pullout resistance of helical piles in the soil.

Open access

Abstract

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing is widely utilized for producing thermoplastic components with functional purposes. However, the inherent mechanical limitations of pure thermoplastic materials necessitate enhancements in their mechanical characteristics when employed in certain applications. One strategy for addressing this challenge involves the incorporation of reinforcement materials, such as carbon fiber (CF), within the thermoplastic matrix. This approach leads to the creation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) suitable for engineering applications. The utilization of CFRPs in 3D printing amalgamates the benefits of additive manufacturing, including customization, cost-effectiveness, reduced waste, swift prototyping, and accelerated production, with the remarkable specific strength of carbon fiber. This study encompasses tensile and compressive testing of distinct material compositions: recycled polylactic acid (rPLA), PLA enriched with 10 wt.% carbon fiber, pristine polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), and PETG bolstered with 10 wt.% carbon fiber. Tensile tests adhere to the ASTM D3039 standard for specimens of rectangular shape, while the ASTM D695 standard governs the compressive testing procedures. Additionally, an inquiry into the influence of the primary 3D printing build orientation parameter on the tensile and compressive strengths of diverse materials was conducted. The outcomes reveal that rPLA exhibits superior mechanical properties in both tensile and compressive tests, irrespective of flat or on-edge build orientations. In the context of tensile strength analysis, it is noteworthy that rPLA demonstrated a superior performance, surpassing CFPLA by 30% in flat orientation and exhibiting a remarkable 39.2% advantage in on-edge orientation. Moreover, PLA reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits superior tensile and compressive properties compared to its PETG counterpart. A comparative analysis between CFPLA and CF-PETG indicates that CF-PLA demonstrates higher tensile strengths, with increases of 26.6 and 27.6% for flat and on-edge orientations, respectively. In the context of compressive strength analysis, rPLA surpassed CFPLA, PETG, and CF-PETG by 23.7, 53, and 67%, respectively. Intriguingly, the findings indicate that the incorporation of 10 wt.% carbon fiber diminishes the tensile and compressive properties in comparison to pure PETG.

Open access

Abstract

The manufacture of High-Performance Concrete (HPC) in bridge deck construction is part of an experimental framework that is also developing in the numerical domain to fill the existing gaps in understanding its behavior. However, the numerical modeling of HPC for bridge decks remains largely under-explored. It is precisely this gap that has sparked our interest in this research area, thus giving our work its innovative character.

This study primarily aims to deepen the understanding of the behavior of HPC bridge decks while manufacturing an efficient and economical HPC using local materials possessing very high properties (mechanical, physical, elastic, durability, and implementation) and advanced numerical modeling. This modeling has enabled us to study the behavior of HPC bridge decks in relation to cracking through the Extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM), an innovative solution that enables the modeling of discontinuities without complicating the process. This has been confirmed by the quality of the results, which show an excellent correlation with experimental data, underscoring the accuracy of the modeling. These results also reveal that the use of HPC in bridge construction can significantly reduce degradation risks while enhancing their performance. Consequently, the adoption of HPC stands out as a beneficial strategy, not only to minimize bridge degradation but also to extend their durability.

Open access

Abstract

Spatial data management is crucial for applications like urban planning and environmental monitoring. While traditional relational databases are commonly used, they struggle with large and complex spatial data. NoSQL databases provide support for unstructured data and scalability. This article compares the performance and disk space usage of SQL Server (a relational database) and MongoDB (NoSQL database) using an open-source library. Experiments conducted with the OpenStreetMap dataset from Central America show that the MongoDB database outperformed the relational SQL Server database in most cases, offering practical advantages for spatial data management in Geographic Information System applications.

Open access

Abstract

This study is devoted to condition-based maintenance using vibration analysis. It proposes a numerical and experimental methodology to assist in the detection and vibratory monitoring of chipping faults on gear teeth.

The aim of this work is to model the dynamic behavior of the gear link and to treat the vibration behavior of gear flaws theoretically and experimentally. This article is going to study the case of a breast gear, a defect located on the wheel, another defect on the pinion and the wheel and the insufficient center distance defect based on experiments carried out on a test bench manufactured in the laboratory.

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Abstract

Climate change manifested its adverse impacts last year, with an extreme drought leading to a drastically low water level in Lake Velence, Hungary. Nature-based solutions have the potential to alleviate these impacts locally. While a few initiatives have been implemented in Hungary, widespread adoption of these solutions is expected to be a goal for the more distant future.

This research focuses on one catchment at Lake Velence to evaluate decision-maker's readiness and urban water management infrastructure for broadly implementing nature-based solutions. Methods include delineating the stormwater system and creating a numerical model to evaluate rainfall-runoff processes and the possible impacts of nature-based retentions. Surveys among local mayors were conducted to assess their perception of existing water infrastructures and implementations of nature-based solutions. Its widespread use may become significant, but its effect on the lake's water level remains negligible.

Open access

Abstract

This study focuses on the optimization dynamics of racing go-karts, which is heavily influenced by the frame's stiffness. Lacking suspensions and differentials, go-karts rely on the frame stiffness for wheel balancing and skid prevention by lifting the inner rear wheel during turns. Utilizing a rigid-flexible model in MSC Software ADAMS View, validated by frame deformation measurements, this research integrates finite element analysis with multibody techniques. The model, leverages computer aided design files for frame geometry and employs finite element analysis for frame validation. It facilitates evaluating go-kart dynamics through simulations, aiding in maneuver testing and design optimization. This approach provides a comprehensive framework for advancing go-kart designs.

Open access

Application of color-coded Digital Variance Angiography in endovascular interventions

Színkódolt Digitális Variancia Angiográfia alkalmazása az endovaszkuláris intervenció területén

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
István Góg
,
János P. Kiss
,
Péter Sótonyi
, and
Krisztián Szigeti

Summary.

Digital Variance Angiography (shortly DVA) is a novel imaging technology used in the field of interventional radiology. Its use is primarily studied in lower-limb vascular diagnostics and interventions and based on the promising results of in-silico and retrospective clinical studies, a prospective clinical trial has been performed showing the remarkable dose-lowering capability of this technology, which is an all-time important goal in medicine regarding radiation safety. DVA can also be combined with a relatively un-investigated technology called color-coded angiography, which is based on visualizing flow related functional data to increase the efficiency and safety of vascular interventions. The use of this technique has been investigated during prostatic artery embolization with promising results and a retrospective analysis of lower-limb color-coded angiographies was also performed to compare color-coded DVA with color-coded digital subtraction angiography. The results of the latter investigation showed that color-coded DVA can reproduce the same data as a previously marketed method.

Összefoglalás.

A “Digital Variance Angiography” (DVA) az intervenciós radiológiában alkalmazott új módszer, melynek alkalmazási lehetőségeit döntően alsóvégtagi intervenciók során vizsgálták. Korábban végzett in silico és retrospektív vizsgálatok alapján felmerült, hogy a módszer segítségével a klinikai gyakorlatban alkalmazott sugárdózisnál alacsonyabb dózissal végezhető képalkotás, ezen hipotézist pedig egy nemrégiben végzett prospektív klinikai vizsgálat eredményei erősítették meg. A vizsgálat során a DVA módszerrel 70%-os sugárdózis csökkentést értek el, mely alapján elmondható, hogy a módszer jelentős mértékben képes hozzájárulni az intervenciós radiológiai tevékenységek biztonságosabbá tételéhez.

A DVA módszer mellett munkacsoportunk az ún. színkódolt angiográfia (“color-coded angiography”) vizsgálatával is foglalkozik, mely korábbi tanulmányok alapján számos területen adhat kiegészítő klinikai információt a vizsgált érbetegségről, a módszer egyértelmű klinikai előnyei azonban megfelelő klinikai vizsgálatok és vizsgálati protokollok hiányában jelenleg nem ismertek. A módszer kombinálható a DVA módszerrel, ennek gyakorlatban való vizsgálata céljából munkacsoportunk prosztata artéria embolizációs beavatkozások során alkalmazta a színkódolt DVA technikát. A tanulmány eredményei felvetették a színkódolt DVA („color-coded DVA”, „ccDVA”) klinikai előnyét a prosztata daganatok tápláló ereinek azonosításában, mely az embolizációs beavatkozások kulcs eleme. A vizsgálat limitáló tényezője volt, hogy csak kvalitatív analízist végeztünk, a ccDVA módszer által biztosított kvantitatív paraméterek nem kerültek elemzésre, emellett a módszer nem színkódolt technológiával került összevetésre.

Alsóvégtagi intervenciók során készült képanyag retrospektív vizsgálata során a színkódolt DVA más, klinikai gyakorlatban már elérhető technológiával (Siemens „iFlow”) való összehasonlítását is elvégeztük. A mérés során a beavatkozás előtt és után készült képeken a ballonos tágításra kijelölt érszakasztól proximálisan és disztálisan mérési pontok kerültek felvételre, ahol idő-intenzitás görbék kerültek kiolvasásra. A görbékből csúcs elnyelődés („peak attenuation”) és görbe alatti terület („area under curve”) paraméterek számítása történt meg. A ccDVA és iFlow módszerek eredményei közötti abszolút és relatív különbségeket számoltuk, illetve korreláció analízist végeztünk. Két különböző képalkotó protokoll alapján csoportosítottuk a vizsgálati anyagot. Eredményeink azt mutatták, hogy a színkódolt DVA bizonyos feltételek mellett képes jól reprodukálni a más technológia által biztosított klinikai adatokat. Az alacsony elemszám miatt biztos következtetéseket nem tudtunk levonni, azonban egy esetleges prospektív vizsgálat megtervezéséhez szükséges lényeges megfigyelésekre tettünk szert.

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Abstract

In China, the decline of industrial communities suffering from both the aging of physical space and the breakdown of social relations. How to make marginalized and closed industrial communities actively integrate into the development of urban renewal has gradually become an issue of concern.

The paper takes the “Jingzhou New Town Industrial Park Urban Design Project” as an opportunity to explore a transformation path suitable for China's national conditions through the study of the history, culture, current problems, and renewal strategies of this heritage-type industrial community.

The study finally proposes three renewal strategies for industrial communities, which provide samples with certain reference value for the renewal of old industrial communities.

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