Materials and Applied Sciences

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Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition of monofloral bee-collected pollen from the coffee (Coffea robusta) plant and its pellet morphology. According to the results coffee bee pollen (CBP) has a high nutritional value. It contains a large percentage of protein, reducing sugar, and lipid. Also, vitamins (B2 and E) and minerals (K, Ca, and P) were found in CBP. In addition, the results revealed that the total polyphenols content (TPC) was 10.62 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW) and antioxidant activity (AA) of CBP was 5.52 μmol TE/g DW. Some physical properties of CBP pellet were recorded such as moisture, relative diameter, sphericity, bulk density, and colour parameters. The pollen pellet exhibits shapes of colour from light to dark yellow. These results pointed out that CBP can be used as a remarkable source of compounds with antioxidant activity and health-protective capacity for humans.

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Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.

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Cake is a popular bakery product consumed by almost everyone due to its low economic cost and shelflife, however, it is recognised unhealthy because of high fat and sugar contents. The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and sensory properties of muffins baked using 100% of sugar and fat replacement as stevia sweetener (rebaudioside A and erythritol) and chia seed mucilage, respectively. The combination of sweetener with chia gel (SCC) had the highest moisture content, while the replacement of fat in muffin (CC) revealed similarity to the control in lightness and redness values. There was also no significant difference in terms of firmness when only the sweetener was replaced (SC). While the control muffin obtained the highest overall acceptability score, the lowest score was observed in CC. Thus, muffins with reduced fat and sugar contents can benefit the consumer in terms of health, but further optimisation of formulations for both replacers is needed for better sensory acceptance.

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Seventeen samples of Calabrian ewe’s milk, ewe’s cheese (Pecorino del Poro) made with raw milk, goat’s milk, and goat’s cheese (Caprino d’Aspromonte) made with raw milk were used to obtain 124 yeast isolates. The most abundant species was Debaryomyces hansenii (61.3%), followed by Candida zeylanoides (32.3%) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (3.2%). The enzymatic profile of 25 selected yeast strains was determined. Lastly, they were studied for their interaction with eight dairy lactic acid bacteria – four coccal-shaped and four rod-shaped. The best strains may be used as adjunct cultures for cheese making.

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Ball and Beam system is one of the most popular and important laboratory models for teaching control systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy to the position control for the ball and beam system. Firstly, a nonlinear controller is proposed based on the backstepping approach. Secondly, in order to adapt online the dynamic control law, adaptive laws are developed to estimate the uncertain parameters. The stability of the proposed adaptive backstepping controller is proved based on the Lyapunov theorem. Simulated results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: H. Soltanmoradi, M.S. Maniati, A. Davoodabadi, A. Mosapour, S. Samavarchi Tehrani, M. Pazhoohan, F. Daemi, and H. Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar

Abstract

Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that can be continuous or recurrent. It has been previously reported that intestine probiotics play an essential role in the bidirectional communication of the intestine and brain. This study aims to investigate the antidepressant effects of kefir, a probiotic supplement, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and their potentials in depression-like behaviour treatment in two-week and four-week treatments. In the present study, BALB/c mice were used for this purpose. The saline- and fluoxetine-treated groups were designed as negative and positive control groups, respectively. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests have been performed to assess the level of depression-like activity. We have observed that two-week treatment reduces the duration of depression-like activities, and four-week treatment enhances the antidepressant properties. Overall, our results suggest that kefir, L. rhamnosus GG, and the investigated probiotic supplement have antidepressant-like properties.

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Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.

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Abstract

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the important vegetables in the world due to large production area and consumer interest. Biotic and abiotic stresses have negative effect on tomato production. Utilisation of rootstocks conferring resistance to biotic stresses can be considered as the most effective and environment friendly solution in tomato production to overcome this problem. Although wild tomato species is a good rootstock candidate due to its resistance to multiple plant diseases, effects of wild tomato species as rootstock on mineral nutrient composition and fruit quality are not clear. In the present study, effects of interspecific hybrids derived from two wild tomato species (Solanum habrochaites and Solanum penellii) as rootstock on tomato fruit mineral nutrient composition (phosphor (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu)) and fruit quality traits (soluble solids content (SSC), pH, percent titratable acidity (TA), and lycopene content) were evaluated. In the study, Amaron, Armstrong, and Arazi commercial rootstocks were used as control and AK0004 F1 (candidate tomato hybrid) was used as a source of scion. As result, only lycopene content was affected by different rootstocks. S. penellii was found to be with more potential for lycopene content. For mineral nutrient composition, all hybrids and controls had similar contents of potassium, phosphor, calcium, and magnesium. Manganese and copper contents decreased in all plants. S. habrochaites had more potential regarding nitrogen, iron, and zinc contens than S. penellii. This is the first study to evaluate two interspecific hybrids derived from S. habrochaites and S. penellii, and the results might be useful to understand effects of rootstocks derived from wild tomato species on mineral nutrient content and fruit quality.

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Abstract

Location specific services are widely used in outdoor environment and their indoor counterpart is gaining more popularity as well. There is no standardized technology exists for indoor localization, usually smart phone is used as a localization platform and the field strength of an existing radio frequency infrastructure is used as the location specific information. Smart devices are also equipped with several sensors capable of capturing the motion data of the device. Detecting the walking step, turn, stairs motion type can refine the indoor position using digital indoor map as a reference. The real-time recognition of the motion type is possible with a precisely constructed and trained convolutional neural network and therefore it can improve the stability of the localization.

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Abstract

Brigittaplatz located in the 20th district of Vienna, which is a mixed culture residential community with various issues. This paper attempts to uncover the existing problems, weaknesses, potential opportunities of the site and explore a set of local interventions to accomplish site regeneration through architectural and landscape measures. Study utilizes two axes to improve and reconnect the public service, green corridor as well as the interactive relationship. All the proposed interventions are not merely public facility renewal but a new functional and social design, which is trying to reactivate the various relationships in the site that can enhance the quality of life and carry over the impact to larger scales. Authors seek a holistic approach to regenerate Brigittaplatz.

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Abstract

Multi-layer metamodeling is a metamodeling method that provides great flexibility for domain prototyping, while it also ensures rigid validation of domain rules. Visualization of multi-layer models would be essential in order to promote this new modeling technique in industrial setups; however, the traditional way of representing model entities is not sufficient here. Dynamic Multi-Layer Algebra is a multi-layer metamodeling approach that addressed the challenges of multi-layer modeling, but uses a text-based language to create models. This paper presents Dynamo, a visual notation for Dynamic Multi-Layer Algebra, which is also applicable to other multi-layer metamodeling approaches. The paper elaborates the graphical syntax and the design decisions.

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This paper studies the two widely used material models for predicting the dynamic behavior of soils, the Ramberg-Osgood and Hadrin-Drnevich models. Resonant column and torsional simple shear test results on dry sand were used to calibrate and evaluate the model built in the finite element software Midas GTS NX. Both material models are already implemented by the software. This study estimates the ability and efficiency of both soil models coupled with the Masing criteria to predict the behavior of soil when subjected to irregular loading patterns, (e.g., earthquakes), and measure the two most important dynamic properties, the dynamic shear modulus, and the damping ratio.

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Abstract

The objective of the study is an assessment of a Ratka small water reservoir in Slovakia by using two main aspects, i.e., the hydrotechnical, geotechnical and environmental aspects.

An evaluation of the actual state of a small water reservoir was solved in a complex way. Based on the field measurements, the quality of surface water was controlled in order to check if the surface water quality indicators meet the requirements of government regulations. In addition to the terrain measurements, laboratory measurements were performed. The results assess the actual state of the small water reservoir in details, including an assessment of the water quality with proposed measures for improving the condition of the water reservoir.

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This research work is related to the study of effects on properties of concrete having rice husk ash as cementitious supplementary materials. Total four mixes of concrete were done with varying percentages of rice husk as 6%, 12% and 18%. The tensile, flexural and compressive strengths that contain rice husk ash were determined by testing cubes, cylinders and beams. There was a replacement of 6%, 12% and 18% of rice husk ash in all mixes except the control mix. The concrete's flexural strength with rice husk ash increases at the beginning and at the later age (i.e., 28 days) similar to control mix; however, variation in compressive and splitting tensile strength is negligible. The optimum results are achieved with 6% replacement of cement with rice husk ash. Therefore, it was inferred that rice husk ash could be used as partial replacement of cement in concrete to produce economic concrete.

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Abstract

In recent years, in order to increase the energy efficiency of older buildings in Hungary, several tenders have supported the modernization of the thermal insulation. Various thermal insulation materials have been installed on walls, on slab and on floor. Unfortunately there are cases where thermal insulation materials are not installed in accordance with the construction permit or the manufacturer’s instructions, which poses a serious danger in case of a fire. During the research the effects of heat on the behavior of Expanded PolyStyrene, a thermal insulation material often used in Hungary is examined. Laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out, which are presented in detail in this paper. The aim of the research is to contribute to increase the fire safety of buildings.

Open access

Abstract

With the rapid economic development, the original layout structure and spatial functions of the city have been affected. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate the potential and vitality of space through social interaction based on the analysis of activity behavior and traffic travel. Through communication in the existing leftover space, a living community with the purpose of spatial emotional connection is established or reconstructed. The social habits of residents have also undergone many adjustments and reorganizations. In this way, the degree of connection between people and space is deepened, to guide the public to actively participate in the adjustment of the characteristics of leftover space and space optimization, broaden the application boundary of space.

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Abstract

During the following research project, the effects of an electrically heated window on the thermal comfort parameters of permanently occupied spaces were examined. A thermal manikin and a Testo 400 comfort-meter were used for the tests. To characterize the space, the predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dis-satisfied method was applied. The examination of the comfort indices took place in the vicinity of an electrically heated window glass. During the measurements the surface temperature of the glazing was changed, alongside the distance from the glazing at which the measuring instruments were set up. The project aimed to assess the results measured by the thermal manikin and assess the usability of heated window glazing, taking thermal comfort into account.

Open access

Abstract

A calculation system has been developed to determine the optimum dimensions of asymmetric I-beams for minimum shrinkage. The objective function is the minimum mass; the unknowns are the I-beam dimensions; the constraints are the stress, local buckling, and deflection. Different steel grades have been considered (235, 355, 460 (MPa) yield stress) and other aluminum alloys (90, 155, 230 (MPa) yield stress). The material, the span length, the loading, and the applied heat input have been changed. It is shown, that using optimum design; the welding shrinkage can be reduced with prebending and can save material cost as well.

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Abstract

A conceptual rainfall-runoff model was used for estimating the impact of climate change on the runoff regime in the Myjava River basin. Changes in climatic characteristics for future decades were expressed by a regional climate model using the A1B emission scenario. The model was calibrated for 1981–1990, 1991–2000, 2001–2010, 2011–2019. The best set of model parameters selected from the recent calibration period was used to simulate runoff for three periods, which should reflect the level of future climate change. The results show that the runoff should increase in the winter months (December and January) and decrease in the summer months (June to August). An evaluation of the long-term mean monthly runoff for the future climate scenario indicates that the highest runoff will occur in March.

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Abstract

During the flood situations in May and June 2010, the culmination of the Váh River and the Danube River was accompanied by the groundwater level rising in the Rye Island, in some boreholes even to their maximum measured levels. The increased groundwater level caused major problems, e.g. flooded cellars and underground spaces, contaminated drinking water in wells, flooded railways and farmlands. As a part of the research concentrating on the groundwater flooding phenomena in the Rye Island, the flood situation from the year 2010 was reconstructed, establishing the basis for a construction of the flood hazard maps and flood risk management plans. The problem was solved with a MODFLOW numerical model using the Groundwater Modeling System.

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Abstract

Nowadays, self-driving cars have a wide reputation among people that is constantly increasing, many manufacturers are developing their own autonomous vehicles. These vehicles are equipped with various sensors that are placed at several points in the car. These sensors provide information to control the vehicle (partially or completely, depending on the automation level). Sight distances on roads are defined according to various traffic situations (stopping, overtaking, crossing, etc.). Safety reasons require these sight distances, which are calculated from human factors (e.g., reaction time), vehicle characteristics (e.g., eye position, brakes), road surface properties, and other factors. Autodesk Civil 3D is a widely used tool in the field of road design, the software however was developed based on the characteristics of the human drivers and conventional vehicles.

Open access

Abstract

The study demonstrates and evaluates an approach in the structural analysis phase when assessing reinforced concrete slabs.

Due to different values of a parameter in the tests’ results, 10 models was crated for the first case study and 4 models for the second one.

In order to compare the results in terms of the flexural bearing capacity, the slabs were analyzed by using elastic finite element analysis and yield-line analysis.

Comparing the results shows that minor modification in the parameters associated with bearing capacity and the boundary conditions can affect the adequacy factor considerably, while the parameters those relate to boundary conditions affect the distribution of the yield lines.

Open access

Abstract

The examination of the human gait cycle can be useful for physiotherapists for identifying and/or predicting body motion disorders and it provides important data about the patient's condition in many ways. In this paper, the progress of a special TheraSuit physiotherapy treatment of a child, who has reduced mobility due to cerebral palsy, has been investigated. Generally, this type of disorder is classified into strict levels and the effectiveness of the therapy is expressed by changing between distinct levels. On the other hand paper describes a new markerless self-developed movement analysis system, which is able to show the effectiveness of the treatment with quantitative parameters. These parameters are determined by statistical methods.

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Abstract

The manifestation of installation art is becoming more and more diversified and closer to the people in the urban public space. It forms an interactive environment with the urban space. This article discusses the relationship between installation art and urban renewal from the perspective of art intervention in urban public spaces. Through the observation, investigation and case analysis of installation art in the city, above all, it summarizes the development context of installation art, then elaborates the intervention strategies and characteristics of installation art in urban public space, analyzes the role of installation art in urban public space, and finally summarizes the value of installation art to urban renewal.

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Abstract

In this study, an endeavor is made to discuss mainly the mechanism, use, and application of polymer modified concrete which is increasing in general fame due to its simplicity, ease of handling, proficiency, and agreeable outcomes. This work explores the impact of adding a new polymer named glycoluril on the mechanical property through the estimation of compression, tension, and flexural strength. Physical properties such as density, sorptivity, and acid resistance were studied to establish the durability of concrete. This examination additionally ponders the impact of polymer in concrete and polymer dosage. Series of concrete mix with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% glycoluril by the mass of binder were prepared, cured, and tested in 7 days and 28 days. Results indicate that there is no adjustment in the workability aspect, however, the improvement of strength factor in compression, tension, and flexure is recorded when compared with the conventional concrete. The experimental results show that by increasing the proportion of glycoluril, the strength of concrete increased up to 3% in addition. In the meantime, the 3% addition provided a higher outcome than the other blend. Further expanding the polymer content marginally decreased the strength. The outcome affirms that the utilization of new polymer in concrete will increase the desired property.

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Abstract

On August 24th, 2016, the town of Accumoli has suffered from a strong earthquake of 6.2 magnitudes, which caused a life loss, destroyed buildings, and huge numbers of homeless people. Now, four years after the earthquake, the village has not yet been reconstructed, no long-term housing has been provided for the inhabitants, and even the rubble of the destroyed houses has not been removed from the site. The significance of this paper is to provide some design scenarios for shelters using wood and membrane as construction materials, in order to provide housing in Accumoli for the existing population in a new site next to the destroyed one. These proposed design projects are part of the consortium of the “Scuola di Ricostruzione di Accumoli”.

Open access

Abstract

At present, many great Chinese cities are undergoing changes in urban development models, from focusing on speed construction to quality construction. People pay more attention to the improvement of construction quality, from the perspectives of culture, spirit, urban image and function optimization.

The creation of place scripts is an important method of modern urban space, and in specific place to design, deepen, and arrange certain procedures and content, so that people can experience different feelings, learn more stories, or cultivates sentiment through various experiences, inherit diverse memories. This paper is based on design projects to analyze research and build place scripts to summarize the expressions that shape memory.

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Abstract

Implementing wind farms in heights of a hilly terrain where wind speed is expected to be large may be viewed as a means to increase wind energy production without occupying fertile lands. Micro sitting of a wind farm in these conditions can gain dramatically from CFD simulation of fluid flow in the ABL above complex topography. However, this issue still poses tough challenges regarding the turbulence model to be used and the way to operate the near wall treatment in the presence eventually of separation. In this work, prediction capacity of RANS turbulence models was studied for a typical hill under the assumption of steady state and incompressible airflow regime in neutral ABL. Two models were analyzed by using COMSOL Multiphysics software packages. These included standard kϵ, and shear-stress transport kω. The most up-to-date procedures dedicated to near wall treatment were applied along with refined closer coefficients adjusted for the particular case of ABL. Considering wind tunnel test data, performance of the previous models was discussed in terms of converging mesh, computational time, reattachment point position and propensity of the model to retrieve the right level of turbulence flow in conditions of neutral stratifications. Then, a numerical simulation of the turbulent airflow over two slopes shapes of the symmetry hill by the validation of the experimental data has been then carried out. Both turbulence models agree well with air-velocity tested windward of the hills H3 and H5. Therefore, it was found that the standard kϵ model performs very well at the different positions of the low slope hill, and at the summit of a steep hill, but it over-predicts wind speed close to the wall, which requires an improvement of the near-wall treatment. However, the SSTkω model in neutral case of the ABL was given consistent simulation results with experimental data for prediction of the flow separation and recirculation region at the leeward side of a steep hill, whereas standard kϵ model under the neutral condition and the SSTkω model by using standard coefficients were failed to predict accurately detailed characteristics of recirculation region process.

Open access

Abstract

In a broad scope, the term Information System (IS) is a scientific field of research study that approaches the scope of managerial, strategic, and operational activities complex in the storing, processing, distributing, gathering, and utilizing of knowledge and its associated technologies in organizations and industry. The model of railway supplier selection using BI-KM framework is situated on a horizontal structure of the organization and its technology transformation to execute the organization goal, with technology as enabler and driver (technology adoption), organization as the principal environment (business process analysis), and Information Management (data modeling). This study is significant in supporting data scenarios by focusing on the heuristic view of an industry approach to problem-solving management issues. Furthermore, the research development was to identify integrated framework adoption that contributes to strategic performance diagnostics dashboard. By understanding the factors of theoretical framework adoption, these conceptual frameworks assure competitive advantage. Besides, this railway supplier selection excellence model analyzed the extent and provides a potential solution to strategic decision-making issues. The study directs to regulate the adoption of the theoretical framework towards conceptual framework by using the role of Business Intelligence (BI) to analyze the quality of data presented as the railway supplier selection criteria from operational management through data analytics. Moreover, this will be united to help the best cycles and instruments in essential execution by the executives of a railway supplier selection dashboard for simulating data as interactive supplier performance.

Open access

Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the viability of probiotic bacteria as well as physicochemical and sensory characteristics of synbiotic added sucrose-free mango nectar. The mango nectar samples were prepared incorporating different concentrations of inulin and stevia (0, 2 and 4% w/w) and stored for 45 days at 4 °C. The results indicated that the growth of Lactobacillus casei was strongly influenced by the beverage composition. Therefore, the addition of inulin and stevia had a positive effect on the viability of L. casei, especially with 2% w/w inulin or inulin in combination with stevia. However, bacterial viability reduced during storage. According to the results, pH and total soluble solid content of the samples decreased during storage; however, the viscosity values of mango nectars were elevated by the addition of inulin and stevia. Additionally, all beverages were considered a suitable medium to keep the L. casei survival above the minimum recommended value (106–107 CFU mL−1) during storage. In general, it can be concluded that the sample containing 2% inulin and 2% stevia in combination provided the best viability of L. casei with acceptable physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics that could be introduced as synbiotic and low-calorie mango nectar.

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Abstract

The anaerobic digestion is a well-known method in waste management of biodegradable wastes to transform waste to energy. Proper digestion requires optimal fermentation conditions to improve the quality and yield of biogas.

The objective of this study was to characterize the biodegradation process of synthetic and organic wastewater. Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) were utilized as a bioindicator for anaerobic digestion and monitoring of the fermentation process. Besides bioindication, the viability of the microalgae and the chlorophyll concentration were also assessed in such fermentation processes, since microalgae can be a potential source for biofuel production and a plant nutrient.

The biodegradation process was studied for a month in an anaerobic tank reactor. The fermentation processes and lengths of the fermentation stages were successfully monitored and separately identified based on the pH and gas development. Furthermore, the amount and dynamics of the biogas yield also revealed that the fermentation process was about 510 hours in both cases. In contrast, increased temperature in thermophilic range (45°C) accelerates the degradation processes and resulted in shorter hydrolysis (60 hours), acetogenesis (24 hours) and longer methanogenesis (81 hours) stages, where higher biogas yield was also achieved (59.3%). During the process, the concentration of nutrients showed logarithmical tendencies and COD showed power tendency in time. The extent and the direction of the changes were in correspondence with microalgae activity. In thermophilic circumstances, living microalgae biomass dropped significantly without recovery therefore such an environment is not a viable option for microalgae growth. Moreover, dead microalgae biomass seems to act as a substrate for fermentation slightly increasing the concentration of some nutrients in the wastewater.

Open access

Abstract

Enzymatic hydrolysates of mechanically deboned meat (MDM) for a long time have been used as flavouring and functional food ingredients in the food industry and also as the bases of formula foods for special dietary uses.

The aim of the present study was to produce MDM hypo-antigenic products with improved digestibility and high biological value to be used as a milk protein alternative. turkey MDM was treated with digestive enzymes (trypsin and/or α-chymotrypsin, or pancreatin), followed by freeze drying. The optimised reaction conditions of hydrolysis were at 6% (w/v) of meat protein in 0.1% NaHCO3 buffer, pH 7.5; pancreatin enzyme with 50 TAME units/g meat protein substrate, 37 °C and 60 min). Hydrolysates (MDMH) were assessed for degree of hydrolyses (DH, %) by using trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid method and MW distribution by SDS-PAGE. Modification of immune reactive binding sites in MDMHs was monitored by immunoblot with cow’s milk, chicken egg or meat allergic human patients’ sera. Biological value indices (True Digestibility (TD), Net Protein Utilisation (NPU), Biological Value (BV)) were determined using rat feeding trials. Among the MDMH products, the pancreatic hydrolysate proved to be the most favourable in terms of biological value and digestibility as well as hypoallergenic property.

Open access

Abstract

The main contribution of this paper is to present the efficiency of LabVIEW in simulating and controlling a servo system with conventional methods (PI and PID control), as well as sliding mode control (SMC). The control of an actual system with LabVIEW and NI hardware provides an efficient implementation platform, using both LabVIEW’s graphical programming and the text-based m-file language MathScript RT. Both programming environments and the connection to NI hardware are relatively easy to use, therefore, ideal for education. The graphical “coding” can help novice users to see through their algorithms. However, the mathematical background of sliding mode control is difficult compared to conventional PID control; the SMC implementation for practical uses can be quite simple, as the presented example demonstrates. The first didactic step is a simulation with the Control Design and Simulation, as well as MathScript RT Modules. Then a myRIO Student Embedded Device is used to control a real servo system. LabVIEW code can be compiled to run on computers, (soft) real-time targets, and FPGAs (hard real-time targets), so students can easily and quickly step up to real industrial measurement and control problems without the need to learn new programming environments.

Open access

Abstract

The irregular buildings constitute a large part of urban infrastructure and they are currently adopted in many structures for architectural or esthetic reasons. In contrast, the behavior of these buildings during an earthquake generates a detrimental effect on their regularity in elevation which leads to the total collapse of these structures.

The objective of this work is essentially to model reinforced concrete framed buildings irregular in elevation subjected to seismic loads by the Finite Element Method (FEM). This modeling aims to evaluate several parameters: displacements, inter-storey drifts and rigidities, using two dynamic calculation methods; one modal and the other spectral modal. The latter is widely used by engineers.

For this purpose, a detailed study of the frames which have several setbacks in elevation is carried out to validate the correct functioning of our FEM calculation code in both cases of modal and modal spectral analyses. The performance, accuracy and robustness of the FEM calculation code produced in this study is shown by the good correlation of the obtained results for the treated frames with those obtained using the ETABS software.

Open access

Abstract

The study demonstrated that cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus cornucopiae and Pleurotus djamor on selenium enriched substrate did not significantly affect biological efficiency (%), but total soluble protein content, total phenolic content, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity (%) were found to be significantly improved in Se enriched fruit bodies as compared to the control. Elemental analysis of the Se biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms through SEM-EDS showed signals characteristic for selenium on surface of P. ostreatus. var. florida and P. djamor confirming that selenium was incorporated into the cell wall of these fruiting bodies. The Se content was found to be 22.34 μg g−1 dw in Se enriched wheat straw and 0.059 μg g−1 dw in respective non-enriched wheat straw. Se contents of Se-enriched fruit bodies were found to be higher compared to non-enriched Pleurotus spp. FT-IR spectra of proteins from Pleurotus spp. indicated an increase in the flexibility, unfolding, hydrophilicity of the proteins upon Se supplementation.

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Abstract

A product with increased quality and nutritional value can be developed by enriching noodles with shrimp meat (SM). The formulation of noodle dough was supplemented with SM (10, 20 and 30% w/w). The noodles were freeze-dried due to the susceptibility of added SM to spoilage. Water activity values of all samples were below 0.35. The highest protein (19.37 ± 1.04%), lipid (39.30 ± 1.69%), moisture (6.31 ± 0.42%) and energy (571.14 ± 10.16 kcal/100 g) contents were determined in noodles with 30% shrimp meat content (30S). Carbohydrate value of noodles decreased with the SM fortification level. Cooking quality characteristics of SM added noodles, especially 10S, were better in terms of weight gain, volume increase and cooking loss. The highest L* and b* values, which are expected to be high by the consumers, were reached with 10S and 30S, respectively. The value of a* increased with the addition of SM. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness values of the noodles increased with an increase in the level of shrimp content. Addition of SM improved the microstructure of noodles due to enriched protein matrix. Nutritious noodles with high cooking quality and a potential for long shelf life are intended for athletes and individuals with special nutritional needs.

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Abstract

Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.

Open access

Abstract

Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.

Open access

Abstract

A quaternary supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement decreases CO2 emission. This paper has investigated the properties of mortars made from different quaternary blends of wood ash, steel slag powder and glass powder with ordinary Portland cement at different replacement levels of 0, 24, 25, and 30% by weight of the binder. The blended mortar mixtures tested for flow, compressive strength and density. The results showed that the flow of mortars is decreased with the combined use of steel slag powder, glass powder, and wood ash compared with control mix. Compressive strength reduced with the combination of steel slag powder, glass powder and wood ash but this reduction effects is acceptable especially at 24% replacement contain super-plasticizer compared with the ecological benefit.

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Abstract

A quaternary supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement decreases CO2 emission. This paper has investigated the properties of mortars made from different quaternary blends of wood ash, steel slag powder and glass powder with ordinary Portland cement at different replacement levels of 0, 24, 25, and 30% by weight of the binder. The blended mortar mixtures tested for flow, compressive strength and density. The results showed that the flow of mortars is decreased with the combined use of steel slag powder, glass powder, and wood ash compared with control mix. Compressive strength reduced with the combination of steel slag powder, glass powder and wood ash but this reduction effects is acceptable especially at 24% replacement contain super-plasticizer compared with the ecological benefit.

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Abstract

Recently, one of the most common needs of people are to be connected to the Internet anytime, anywhere, anyhow. The Internet of Things is a materialized paradigm in which everyday objects are implemented with Internet connectivity, enabling them to collect and interchange information. As energy is expected to be more expensive, the energy supply is often not available for IoT devices, the low power wide area networks attempt to be the solution to this problem. LoRaWAN provides radio coverage over long distances by enhancing the reach of the base stations via adapting transmission rates, transmission power, modulation, duty cycles, etc. This paper aims to decrease the power consumption using machine learning and deep neural network by applying support vector regression and deep neural network algorithms, which can support to extend the battery lifetime.

Open access

Abstract

Recently, one of the most common needs of people are to be connected to the Internet anytime, anywhere, anyhow. The Internet of Things is a materialized paradigm in which everyday objects are implemented with Internet connectivity, enabling them to collect and interchange information. As energy is expected to be more expensive, the energy supply is often not available for IoT devices, the low power wide area networks attempt to be the solution to this problem. LoRaWAN provides radio coverage over long distances by enhancing the reach of the base stations via adapting transmission rates, transmission power, modulation, duty cycles, etc. This paper aims to decrease the power consumption using machine learning and deep neural network by applying support vector regression and deep neural network algorithms, which can support to extend the battery lifetime.

Open access

Abstract

This article considers factors of number of sidings and the occurrences of transit traffic and presents a comparison of selected railway lines in Poland. Multi-criteria analysis methods were used, like the zero unitarization method and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method. The comparison made it possible to arrange the selected railway lines in the order from the most to the least useful. The obtained results showed also that zero unitarization method is limited only to the analysis of all lines on which transit traffic occurs or all lines without transit traffic. The comparison of all lines is possible using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method.

Restricted access

Abstract

This article considers factors of number of sidings and the occurrences of transit traffic and presents a comparison of selected railway lines in Poland. Multi-criteria analysis methods were used, like the zero unitarization method and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method. The comparison made it possible to arrange the selected railway lines in the order from the most to the least useful. The obtained results showed also that zero unitarization method is limited only to the analysis of all lines on which transit traffic occurs or all lines without transit traffic. The comparison of all lines is possible using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method.

Restricted access

Abstract

As it is clear, worldwide buildings are the largest consumer of the final energy consumption. In Algeria, it has been reported that 33% of the overall energy consumption was attributed to buildings. This is due to the design and constructional techniques of the residential buildings, which do not address the local climatic condition. To assess this situation, the study is focused on analyzing the existing residential buildings in Algeria, in terms of energy, thermal, daylight, and indoor air quality performance, using a dynamic simulation software. Typical building design in a hot and dry climate was selected. The results revealed that the existing residential buildings do not comply with the energy-efficient design standards. It was concluded that further strategies should be applied in this sector, in terms of building design, materials, and façade configuration.

Open access

Abstract

As it is clear, worldwide buildings are the largest consumer of the final energy consumption. In Algeria, it has been reported that 33% of the overall energy consumption was attributed to buildings. This is due to the design and constructional techniques of the residential buildings, which do not address the local climatic condition. To assess this situation, the study is focused on analyzing the existing residential buildings in Algeria, in terms of energy, thermal, daylight, and indoor air quality performance, using a dynamic simulation software. Typical building design in a hot and dry climate was selected. The results revealed that the existing residential buildings do not comply with the energy-efficient design standards. It was concluded that further strategies should be applied in this sector, in terms of building design, materials, and façade configuration.

Open access

Abstract

The urban story of the Ex European city in Biskra presents an inevitable impact on the perceptive images of the Algerian cities. The examination of the building’s condition in the historical center indicates a deteriorated state in most of the structure caused by various degradations. The field study aims to classify the French quarter’s constructions according to multiple criteria, based on the identifications of related conservation statuses. Thus the census data contributes to the regeneration of the checkerboard condition while proceeding with the resolution of the threatening mutations - amplifying the qualities and potentials for a sustainable renewal of this built heritage.

Open access

Abstract

The urban story of the Ex European city in Biskra presents an inevitable impact on the perceptive images of the Algerian cities. The examination of the building’s condition in the historical center indicates a deteriorated state in most of the structure caused by various degradations. The field study aims to classify the French quarter’s constructions according to multiple criteria, based on the identifications of related conservation statuses. Thus the census data contributes to the regeneration of the checkerboard condition while proceeding with the resolution of the threatening mutations - amplifying the qualities and potentials for a sustainable renewal of this built heritage.

Open access

Abstract

The most crucial function in drilling wells is the rate of penetration, which is modeled by many researchers, and the best one is Young-Bourgyen model, which is used in this study. Eight factors affecting rate of penetration have been studied and approved in developing a mathematical equation that shows the combined effects of these variables on rate of penetration optimization. This paper presents an efficient way to find the optimum values for parameters of the Young-Bourgyen model using metaheuristic algorithms. An actual drilling data was used from Khangiran field to calculate the difference between the actual penetration rate and the predicted one by different optimization algorithms. Particle swarm optimization, dynamic differential annealing optimization, artificial bee colony, gray wolf optimization, Harris hawk's optimization, flower pollination algorithm, firefly algorithm, whale optimization algorithm, and sine cosine algorithm are used to find best possible solution.

Open access

Abstract

The most crucial function in drilling wells is the rate of penetration, which is modeled by many researchers, and the best one is Young-Bourgyen model, which is used in this study. Eight factors affecting rate of penetration have been studied and approved in developing a mathematical equation that shows the combined effects of these variables on rate of penetration optimization. This paper presents an efficient way to find the optimum values for parameters of the Young-Bourgyen model using metaheuristic algorithms. An actual drilling data was used from Khangiran field to calculate the difference between the actual penetration rate and the predicted one by different optimization algorithms. Particle swarm optimization, dynamic differential annealing optimization, artificial bee colony, gray wolf optimization, Harris hawk's optimization, flower pollination algorithm, firefly algorithm, whale optimization algorithm, and sine cosine algorithm are used to find best possible solution.

Open access