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  • 1 PTE BTK Pszichológia Intézet Szociál- és Szervezetpszichológia Tanszék
  • 2 PPKE BTK Pszichológia Intézet Szociál- és Szervezetpszichológia Tanszék
  • 3 PTE BTK Interdiszciplináris Doktori Iskola
  • 4 ELTE PPK Pszichológia Intézet Szociálpszichológia Tanszék

Tanulmányunkban a kollektív áldozati tudat nevű jelenség magyar nyelvű összefoglalóját kívánjuk nyújtani. Kollektív áldozati tudatról akkor beszélünk, ha egy csoport tagjai között nagyjából egybehangzóan osztott az a vélekedés, hogy a saját csoport egyszeri vagy akár sorozatos támadásoknak volt kitéve más csoportok által. Ezeket a támadásokat, amellett, hogy nem megérdemeltnek és igazságtalannak ítélik meg, olyan, a moralitás szabályait figyelmen kívül hagyó szándékos károkozásnak tartják, melyek bekövetkeztét a csoport nem volt képes megakadályozni, ezért kiszolgáltatottnak érzi magát. Ez a fajta identitáskonstruálás nemcsak a saját csoport belső működésére és jövőjére, hanem más csoportokkal való kapcsolataira nézve is jelentős hatással van.

A jelenség ismertetése során kitérünk a fogalom meghatározásával és operacionalizálásával kapcsolatos problémákra. Bemutatásra kerülnek a csoportszintű áldozattá válás tapasztalatát meghatározó dimenziók, a történelmi viktimizáció eredményeképpen létrejött kollektív áldozati identitás fenntartásának és továbbadásának módjai; emellett az áldozati identitáskonstruálás jelenségének funkciói, valamint destruktív és — lehetséges — konstruktív következményei is. Végezetül, a magyar történelmi pálya sajátosságaiból eredeztethető áldozati identitásállapot jellemzőit tárgyaljuk az elmúlt évek/évtizedek magyar társadalomtudományi kutatásai és elmélkedései alapján.

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