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  • 1 Testnevelési Egyetem
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Háttér és célkitűzések

Az utánpótlássport specifikumai közé tartozik a korai lemorzsolódás elleni küzdelem, mely területen a szülői és edzői támogatás minősége kiemelt jelentőségű a sportolók motivációjának fenntartásában. A vizsgálat célja, hogy felmérje a kapcsolatot az utánpótláskorú sportolók célorientációja és az észlelt szülői és edzői autonómia támogatás mértéke között.

Módszer

A felmérésben 127 (fiú n = 65, lány n = 62), 12–21 év közötti (átlagéletkor:16,16 év; szórás 3,00) karatéka vett részt és töltötte ki a 3×2 Teljesítés–cél kérdőív a sportban (3×2 AGQ-S; Mascret, Elliot és Curry, 2015) skálát, az Észlelt edzői autonómia támogatás kérdőívet (SCQ; Deci, 2001; Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Barkoukis, Wang és Baranowski, 2005) és az Észlelt szülői autonómia támogatás kérdőívet (PASSES; Hagger és mtsai, 2007).

Eredmények

Az eredmények alapján kapcsolat van a sportoló feladatcéljai és az észlelt autonómia támogatás között (edzői rs = 0,314 p < 0,001; szülői rs = 0,292 p = 0,002). Ez a kapcsolat különösen az alacsonyabb edzésszámmal és kisebb eredményekkel jellemezhető sportolóknál lelhető fel, de eltűnik, ha az edzések száma emelkedik, vagy ha országos szinten értek el eredményeket. A kiemelt eredményekkel rendelkező sportolók esetében kapcsolat jelenik meg a célorientációk és az észlelt szülői autonómia támogatás között (rs = 0,707 p = 0,005). A feladatcélokat a lineáris regressziós modellek szerint az észlelt szülői autonómia támogatás növekvő mértéke jelezte előre.

Következtetések

Eredményeink alapján kitűnik, hogy a sportolói karrier kezdeti szakaszában a szülők és az edzők szerepe is jelentős, valamint kirajzolódik az, hogy a szülői szerepkör befolyását érdemes lehet újraértelmezni. Gyakorlati szempontból – a korai lemorzsolódás mértékének csökkentése érdekében – az utánpótlásképzés rendszerébe hasznos lenne beépíteni a sportháromszög dinamikai sajátosságainak megismertetését pszichoedukációs keretek között.

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