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  • 1 Neonatológiai Tanszéki Csoport I.sz. Gyermekklinika Semmelweis Egyetem
  • 2 Pszichológiai Doktori Iskola, Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem
  • 3 Agyi Képalkotó Központ, MTA Természettudományi Központ
  • 4 Kognitív Tudományi Tanszék, Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem
  • 5 Pannon Egyetem, Magyar és Alkalmazott Nyelvtudományi Intéze

A kognitív fejlődéspszichológiai és pszicholingvisztikai kutatások egyöntetű következtetése, hogy a koraszü- löttség nagy fokban növeli az atipikus nyelvi fejlődés rizikóját, mivel a koraszülötteket gyakran már csecsemőkoruktól kezdve sajátos nyelvi fejlődés jellemzi. A témában 1999 és 2018 között publikált kutatási eredmények alapján levonható az az egyértelmű következtetés, hogy a koraszülöttek atipikus nyelvi fejlődése a nyelvi feldolgozási szintek (fonológiai, morfoszintaktikai, szemantikai, szintaktikai) mindegyikét érintheti. Az óvodáskori nyelvi zavarok – számos tanulmány szerint – már a csecsemőkorban előrejelezhetők a viselkedésesnél érzékenyebb módszerekkel (pl. eseményhez kötött agyi potenciál).

Az atipikus nyelvi fejlődés hátterében viselkedéses és idegtudományi módszerekkel számos potenciális okot azonosítottak. Ilyen például az intrauterin (harmadik trimeszter) nyelvi tapasztalat hiánya, az éretlenség az agyi struktúrák sajátos vagy megzavart fejlődése.

Tény viszont, hogy a koraszülöttek nyelvi fejlődésének pontos megismerését számos olyan módszertani nehézség hátráltatja, mint a vizsgált populáció heterogenitása, a nyelvi mérőeljárások alacsony megbízhatósága, a korrigált és/vagy kronológiai kor alkalmazása. Mindez a mai napig nyitott kérdéseket vet fel mind a klinikai gyakorlat, mind a kutatások szempontjából.

A koraszülött-ellátás fejlődésének köszönhetően nő azoknak a kutatásoknak a jelentősége, amelyek a koraszülöttek nyelvi zavarainak a ma ismertnél mélyebb és megbízhatóbb feltárására irányulnak. A releváns tanulmányokban közölt eredmények várható hatása a klinikai gyakorlatra új lehetőséget ígér a nyelvi zavarok minél korábbi azonosításában, valamint a korai, prevenciós célú, a korai nyelvi fejlődést facilitáló programok kialakításában.

The unanimous conclusion of developmental-psychological and the psycholinguistical research is that pre- term birth enhances the risk of atypical language development, as preterm infants often undergo a special language development from infancy on.

With reference to the results of scientific investigations published between 1999 and 2018, unambiguous inference can be made: the atypical language development of preterm infants can be manifested at all levels of language processing (phonology, morphosyntax, semantics, syntax). According to the vast majority of studies the developmental language disorders prior to the school start are predictable already in infancy. These can be predicted for example by the event related brain potentials which proved to be more sensitive method compared to the behavioral ones.

A significant number of potential factors contributing to atypical language development were identified by the application of various behavioral and brain imaging methods. For example the absence of intrauterine (third trimester) language experience, the biological immaturity, as well as the specific or disturbed development of brain structures.

However, the exact disclosing of the preterm infants' language development is set back by several methodological problems such as the population heterogeneity, the applied linguistic measures of low reliability and the ambiguity in general use of adjusted and/or chronological age. These unsolved issues still produce highly-debated questions both from the point of the clinical practice and research.

Due to the continuous development of preterm infants' medical care the importance of those studies are increasing which put larger emphasis on more qualitative examinations oflanguage disorders compared to what is known nowadays.

The expected effects of all the results of relevant studies could produce a remarkable influence on clinical practice and provide new opportunity for the earlier identification of developmental language disorders. Furthermore, they could contribute to the development of effective, early facilitation of language development in preventive programs.

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