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  • 1 Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem, Kognitív Tudományi Tanszék
  • 2 Országos Orvosi Rehabilitációs Intézet Agysérültek Rehabilitációs Osztálya

Jelen tanulmány tudomásunk szerint az első magyar nyelvű áttekintés a prospektív emlékezet (prospective memory, PM) témájában, melynek kettős célja van. Egyrészt összefoglalja a PM legfontosabb fogalmait, elméleteit, kísérleti és idegtudományi eredményeit, ismertetve a kutatások klinikai relevanciáját. A PM a jövőbeli szándékokra irányuló emlékezet, egy olyan összetett kognitív képesség, amely alapvető a mindennapi feladataink ellátása során. Működése a prefrontális kéreghez és kapcsolataihoz köthető, így számos, a frontostriatális rendszert érintő kórkép esetén sérülést mutat. Áttekintésünk fókuszában egy gyakori neurológiai kórkép, a traumás agysérülés áll. E személyek hétköznapjait a leginkább megnehezítő, gyakori és tartós kognitív zavar a PM sérülése. Ennek ellenére kevés kutatás foglalkozott a csökkent PM-működést meghatározó tényezőkkel ebben a betegcsoportban, az eredmények pedig ellentmondásosak.

Tanulmányunk további célja, hogy összefoglalja a traumás agysérült személyek PM-teljesítményével kapcsolatos empirikus kutatásokat. Szakirodalmi áttekintésünkben 25 empirikus tanulmányt azonosítottunk, amelyekben traumás agysérült felnőtt személyek PM-teljesítményét hasonlították össze egészséges kontrollszemélyekével. Az eredmények alapján megállapítható, hogy traumás agysérülést követően jellemző a PM diszfunkciója. Azonban számtalan tényező befolyásolhatja a PM-teljesítményt ebben a populációban: a sérülés súlyossága, lokalizációja, a kómában és a poszttraumás amnéziában töltött idő, a sérülés óta eltelt idő, a hangulatzavarok és a komorbid kognitív zavarok; valamint az olyan feladatjellemzők, mint a mérőeszköz típusa, a PM összetevői, illetve a prospektív kulcsinger és a folyamatban lévő feladat jellegzetességei. Elgondolásunk szerint e kutatási eredmények nemcsak a PM működésének megértésével kapcsolatban szolgálnak fontos következtetésekkel, hanem támpontokat adhatnak a rehabilitációs, terápiás munkára nézve is, megteremtve egy jövőbeli hatékony, a PM-funkciókra fókuszáló kognitív tréning kidolgozását traumás agysérült személyek számára.

To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the fi rst review in Hungarian on the topic of prospective memory (PM), and it has a dual objective. On the one hand, it summarizes the most important concepts, theories, experimental and neuroscientifi c results of PM, describing the clinical relevance of the research. PM refers to the memory for future intentions, and it is a complex cognitive ability that is essential in performing our day-to-day tasks. PM function is related to the prefrontal cortex and its connections, and its dysfunction is well-documented in several diseases affecting the frontostriatal system. This review focuses on traumatic brain injury, a common neurological disorder. Patients with traumatic brain injury experience PM dysfunction, which is a common and persistent cognitive disorder making their everyday life the most diffi cult. Nevertheless, little research has investigated the factors contributing to decreased PM performance in this patient population, and the results are contradictory.

Another goal of our study is to summarize empirical research on PM performance after traumatic brain injury. In this literature review, we identifi ed 25 empirical studies comparing the PM performance of adults with traumatic brain injury with those of healthy controls. Based on these empirical results, PM dysfunction is a common fi nding after traumatic brain injury. However, a number of factors can affect PM performance in this population: the severity and localization of injury, time spent in coma, length of posttraumatic amnesia, time since injury, mood disorders and comorbid cognitive disorders, and task characteristics, such as the type of measurement, the components of the PM task, and features of the PM cue and the ongoing task. In our opinion, these fi ndings not only provide essential conclusions about understanding the functioning of PM, but they can also establish the foundation for rehabilitation and therapeutic work, and contribute to the creation of an effective cognitive training focused on PM for traumatic brain injury patients.

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