View More View Less
  • 1 University of Veterinary Medicine, István u. 2, H-1078 Budapest, Hungary
  • 2 University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary
  • 3 University of Kaposvár, Hungary
Open access

Reports of Sarcocystis rileyi-like protozoa (‘rice breast disease’) from anseriform birds had been rare in Europe until the last two decades, when S. rileyi was identified in northern Europe and the UK. However, despite the economic losses resulting from S. rileyi infection, no recent accounts are available on its presence (which can be suspected) in most parts of central, western, southern and eastern Europe. Between 2014 and 2019, twelve mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were observed to have rice breast disease in Hungary, and the last one of these 12 cases allowed molecular identification of S. rileyi, as reported here. In addition, S. rileyi was molecularly identified in the faeces of one red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The hunting season for mallards in Hungary lasts from mid-August to January, which in Europe coincides with the wintering migration of anseriform birds towards the south. Based on this, as well as bird ringing data, it is reasonable to suppose that the first S. rileyi-infected mallards arrived in Hungary from the north. on the other hand, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are final hosts of S. rileyi, are ubiquitous in Hungary, and our molecular finding confirms an already established autochthonous life cycle of S. rileyi in the region. Taken together, this is the first evidence for the occurrence of S. rileyi in Hungary and its region.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Cromie, R. and Ellis, M. (2019): UK wild fowl Sarcocystis survey: 2015–2018 project report, Available at: [accessed February 13, 2019].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Csörgő, T., Karcza, Z., Halmos, G., Gyurácz, J., Magyar, G., Szép, T., Schmidt, A., Bankovics, A. and Schmidt, E. (2009): Hungarian Bird Migration Atlas Kossuth Publishing Zrt., Budapest [in Hungarian, with English summary].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Cawthorn, R. J., Speer, C. A. and Wobeser, G. A. (2003): Redescription of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 50, 476182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjerde, B. (2014): Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis rileyi from a common eider (Somateria mollissima) in Norway. Parasitol Res. 113, 35013509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ho, M. S., Barr, B. C., Marsh, A. E., Anderson, M. L., Rowe, J. D., Tarantal, A. F., Hendrickx, A. G., Sverlow, K., Dubey, J. P. and Conrad, P. A. (1996): Identification of bovine Neospora parasites by PCR amplification and specific small-subunit rRNA sequence probe hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34, 12031208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Mester, A., Takács, N., Baska, F., Majoros, G., Fok, É., Biksi, I., Német, Z., Hornyák, Á., Jánosi, J. and Farkas, R. (2015): Sarcocystis-infection of cattle in Hungary. Parasit. Vectors 8, 69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalisiñska, E., Betlejewska, K. M., Schmidt, M., Gozdzicka-Józefiak, A. and Tomczyk, G. (2003): Protozoal macrocysts in the skeletal muscles of a mallard duck in Poland: the first recorded case. Acta Parasitol. 48, 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kutkienė, L. and Sruoga, A. (2004): Sarcocystis spp. in birds of the order Anseriformes. Parasitol. Res. 92, 171172.

  • Kutkienė, L., Prakas, P., Sruoga, A. and Butkauskas, D. (2011): Identification of Sarcocystis rileyi from the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) in Europe: cyst morphology and results of DNA analysis. Parasitol. Res. 108, 709714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moorman, T. E., Baldassarre, G. A. and Richard, D. M. (1991): The frequency of Sarcocystis spp. and its effect on winter carcass composition of mottled ducks. J. Wildl. Dis. 27, 491193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moré, G., Maksimov, A., Conraths, F. J. and Schares, G. (2016): Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Germany. Vet. Parasitol. 220, 914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prakas, P., Liaugaudaitė, S., Kutkienė, L., Sruoga, A. and Švažas, S. (2015): Molecular identification of Sarcocystis rileyi sporocysts in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania. Parasitol. Res. 114, 16711676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prakas, P., Oksanen, A., Butkauskas, D., Sruoga, A., Kutkienė, L., Švažas, S., Isomursu, M. and Liaugaudaitė, S. (2014): Identification and intraspecific genetic diversity of Sarcocystis rileyi from ducks, Anas spp., in Lithuania and Finland. J. Parasitol. 100, 657661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Švažas, S., Morkūnas, M., Verhagen, J., Fouchier, R., Morkūnas, J., Mundkur, T., Czajkowski, A., Sruoga, A., Butkauskas, D., Krejaras, R., Jurgelevičius, V., Pridotkas, G., Milius, J., Tubbs, N. and Stanevičius, V. (2012): Surveillance of wild waterbirds for avian influenza viruses in Lithuania. Vet. Med. Zoot. 60, 7278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teacher, A. G., Thomas, J. A. and Barnes, I. (2011): Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change. BMC Evol. Biol. 11, 214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tuggle, B. N. and Friend, M. (1999): Sarcocystis. In: Cole, R. A. and Friend, M. (eds) Parasites and Parasitic Diseases (Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases). Other Publications in Zoonotics and Wildlife Disease. p. 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.



  • Impact Factor (2019): 0.991
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.372
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 32
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q2 Veterinary (miscellaneous)
  • Impact Factor (2018): 1.059
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.517
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 30
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Veterinary (miscellaneous)

Language: English

Founded in 1951
Publication: One volume of four issues annually
Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 68.
Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts


  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Contents: Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences
  • Elsevier Science Navigator
  • Focus On: Veterinary Science and Medicine
  • Global Health
  • Index Medicus
  • Index Veterinarius
  • Medline
  • Science Citation Index
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
  • The ISI Alerting Services
  • Zoological Abstracts


Subscribers can access the electronic version of every printed article.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Benkő, Mária

Managing Editor(s): Székely, András

Editorial Board

      Dénes, Béla
      Eszterbauer, Edit
      Fébel, Hedvig
      Fodor, László
      Harrach, Balázs
      Andras Komaromy (USA)
      Peter Massanyi (Slovak Republic)
      Nagy, Béla
      Németh, Tibor
      Neogrády, Zsuzsanna
      Kurt Pfister (Germany)
      Solti, László
      Szabó, József
      Vajdovich, Péter
      Varga, János
      Štefan, Vilĉek (Slovak Republic)
      Vörös, Károly
      Herbert Weissenböck (Austria)
      Zsarnovszky, Attila

Institute for Veterinary Medical Research
Centre for Agricultural Research
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
P.O. Box 18, H-1581 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (36 1) 467 4081 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 213 9793 (editor) Fax: (36 1) 467 4076 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 213 9793