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Barbara Tuska-SzalayDepartment of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary

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Nóra TakácsDepartment of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary

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Jenő KontschánPlant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, ELKH, Budapest, Hungary

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Zsuzsanna ViziDepartment and Clinic of Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary

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Sándor HornokDepartment of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1125-5178
Open access

Abstract

In this study, faecal samples of four American Staffordshire terrier dogs (used for illegal fighting) were analysed by DNA extraction, molecular-phylogenetic and parasitological methods, in order to examine the occurrence of protozoan, apicomplexan parasites. In one sample, the DNA of Sarcocystis morae was shown to be present. This species was identified based on 100% identity with already reported sequences of S. morae from cervids in Lithuania and Spain. The result was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The sporocysts of the canine S. morae isolate measured 14.95 × 9.75 μm on average. This is the first molecular evidence in support of the final host role of domestic dogs in the life cycle of S. morae. The most likely source of the infection was raw meat given to the examined dog to increase its physical achievement. In conclusion, under similar circumstances dogs may participate in the life cycle of S. morae in a ‘natural way’, shedding sporocysts/oocysts when used for hunting or taken to walks in forested areas.

Abstract

In this study, faecal samples of four American Staffordshire terrier dogs (used for illegal fighting) were analysed by DNA extraction, molecular-phylogenetic and parasitological methods, in order to examine the occurrence of protozoan, apicomplexan parasites. In one sample, the DNA of Sarcocystis morae was shown to be present. This species was identified based on 100% identity with already reported sequences of S. morae from cervids in Lithuania and Spain. The result was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The sporocysts of the canine S. morae isolate measured 14.95 × 9.75 μm on average. This is the first molecular evidence in support of the final host role of domestic dogs in the life cycle of S. morae. The most likely source of the infection was raw meat given to the examined dog to increase its physical achievement. In conclusion, under similar circumstances dogs may participate in the life cycle of S. morae in a ‘natural way’, shedding sporocysts/oocysts when used for hunting or taken to walks in forested areas.

Sarcocystis species (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites, which are obligatorily heteroxenous, i.e., their development involves both an intermediate and a final host. While there are approximately 200 valid species in the genus Sarcocystis, until recently the complete life cycle was only known for 26 of them (Dubey et al., 2016a). Sarcocystis species usually have herbivorous/omnivorous animals as intermediate hosts, in which they undergo asexual multiplication in the endothelial cells of blood vessels and eventually establish themselves in the muscle or nerve cells (Dubey et al., 2016a). After infected tissues of the intermediate host are consumed by the final host, sexual reproduction takes place in its small intestinal wall, entailing passage of infective oocysts/sporocysts to the environment (Rommel et al., 1972; Dubey et al., 2016a). Sarcocystis infection may cause pathologic consequences in the intermediate host, while carnivorous final hosts usually remain unaffected even in case of copious sporocyst shedding (Dubey et al., 2016a).

Twenty-one valid species of Sarcocystis are known to infect dogs as final host, most of which develop in domestic and wild ruminants as intermediate hosts (Dubey et al., 2016b). In addition, several new Sarcocystis spp. have recently been described from cervids in Europe (Gjerde et al., 2017a, 2017b), for most of which the final hosts are unknown but are suspected to be canids based on phylogenetic properties. This study aimed at examining Sarcocystis sporocysts from dog faeces by molecular-phylogenetic and parasitological methods.

All four dogs that provided samples for these analyses were American Staffordshire terriers (two males and two females, estimated age 5–6 years, body weight 16.7–23.2 kg), originating from the North Central region of Hungary. These dogs were found dead and were confiscated during a police operation against illegal dog fighting in December 2020. Their faecal samples, collected post mortem from the distal part of the large intestine, were analysed as part of a campaign to screen for Babesia infection, because recent data from Hungary support that dogs may be susceptible to a broader range of piroplasms than previously thought (Hornok et al., 2020). First, molecular screening was carried out to detect piroplasm and other apicomplexan DNA in the faeces. The remainder of the PCR-positive faecal samples were further analysed by flotation in Breza solution (specific gravity 1.3 g/mL) and concentrated sporocysts were examined by light microscopy, including the measurement of 50 sporocysts by morphometry.

DNA was extracted directly from the faecal samples (without concentration) using the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions. DNA extracts were molecularly analysed by a conventional PCR modified from Casati et al. (2006), amplifying an approx. 500-bp-long part of the 18S rDNA with the primers BJ1 (forward: 5′-GTC TTG TAA TTG GAA TGA TGG-3′) and BN2 (reverse: 5′-TAG TTT ATG GTT AGG ACT ACG-3′). This method is also suitable for detecting Babesia DNA in faecal material (Hornok et al., 2015a), as well as for verifying the presence of other apicomplexan genera including Sarcocystis, as reported (Hornok et al., 2015b).

Purification and sequencing of the PCR product were done by Biomi Ltd. (Gödöllő, Hungary). The obtained sequence was manually edited using the BioEdit program, then aligned with GenBank sequences by the nucleotide BLASTN program (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The new sequence was submitted to GenBank (accession number: MW579603). This sequence and all sequences retrieved from GenBank were trimmed to the same length prior to phylogenetic analysis. This dataset was resampled 1,000 times to generate bootstrap values. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with the Maximum Likelihood method (Jukes–Cantor model) by using MEGA 7.0.

In one faecal sample, the DNA of Sarcocystis morae was present, with 100% (491/491 bp) identity to GenBank sequences from fallow deer (MN443755), red deer (KY973375) and red fox (KT873775), reported from Lithuania, Spain and Germany, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis also supported the species identity of this canine isolate, because it clustered within the phylogenetic group of S. morae sequences deposited in GenBank from various parts of Europe. These formed a sister group to Sarcocystis grueneri (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phylogenetic tree of species closely related to Sarcocystis morae based on the 18S rRNA gene. The tree was generated with the Maximum Likelihood method and the Jukes–Cantor model. The sequence obtained in this study is indicated with red colour and bold accession number. Branch lengths represent the number of substitutions per site inferred according to the scale shown. Insert: three sporocysts of S. morae from dog faeces (bar = 10 μm)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 69, 2; 10.1556/004.2021.00017

Following concentration with flotation, the only protozoan parasites seen in the PCR-positive faecal sample were S. morae sporocysts. These sporocysts were oval in shape and measured (12.5–17.5) × (7.5–12.5) μm, with mean values of 14.95 × 9.75 μm (Fig. 1, insert). This size range considerably overlaps with measurements of sporocysts of Sarcocystis cervicanis ([15.1–17.1] × [10.3–11.9] μm: Hernández Rodriguez et al., 1981b), an unidentified Sarcocystis sp. (15.4 × 8.8 μm: Poli et al., 1988) and Sarcocystis gracilis (15 × 10 μm: Dubey et al., 2016c). The sporocysts of these species were all reported from dogs after consuming the meat of relevant intermediate hosts, i.e., red deer, fallow deer and roe deer, respectively. Thus, Sarcocystis species that have cervids as intermediate hosts and canids as final hosts cannot be distinguished according to their sporocyst size in dog faeces.

This is the first molecular evidence of the final host role of domestic dogs in the life cycle of S. morae. Prior to this study, to the best of our knowledge, no experimental proof had been published in support of this, although sequences closely related to that of S. morae were reported from two wild living canids, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) sampled in Germany (Moré et al., 2016).

Sarcocystis morae has recently been described as a new species, with red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) as typical intermediate hosts (Gjerde et al., 2017b). In a broader sense, S. morae belongs to the group of Sarcocystis species, of which canids are suspected to be the final hosts based on phylogenetic properties (Gjerde et al., 2017b).

In particular, it has long been postulated that red foxes and hunting dogs may play the final host role in the life cycle of Sarcocystis species affecting cervids, but for several species the exact final hosts are still unknown or are only suspected (Basso et al., 2020). In this context, based on molecular results and less consistent (98.8–99.1%) sequence identities, it was suggested that domestic dogs may be the final hosts of Sarcocystis linearis and/or Sarcocystis taeniata (Basso et al., 2020). Similarly, while tissue cysts of a Sarcocystis species with band-like protrusions were reported to be infective for the dog during experimental feeding (Poli et al., 1988), later the relevant species could not be identified with certainty (Gjerde et al., 2017b).

On the other hand, while the final host spectra of Sarcocystis species are frequently referred to at the family level, it is not necessarily true that all canids are natural hosts for the same Sarcocystis species. For instance, although hunting dogs may have regular access to mallards infected with Sarcocystis rileyi, they are not known to be susceptible to this species (Dubey et al., 2003), in contrast to red foxes (Szekeres et al., 2019).

In summary, Sarcocystis species which infect cervids as intermediate host and have a sarcocyst wall with ribbon-like or band-like protrusions (Gjerde et al., 2017b) cluster in the same phylogenetic group based on both the 18S rRNA (Gjerde et al., 2017b) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes (Rudaitytė-Lukošienė et al., 2020). Among these five species (Fig. 1), only S. cervicanis (Hernández Rodriguez et al., 1981a, 1981b) and S. grueneri (Dubey et al., 2016c) have hitherto been known to infect dogs as final hosts. Based on the present results, S. morae is also added to this list.

In a geographical context, results of the molecular-phylogenetic analysis performed here are less conclusive, because identical or closely related 18S rRNA sequences of S. morae have been reported from northern, central and western Europe, as reflected by their clustering (Fig. 1). Nevertheless, S. morae has not been hitherto reported in Hungary and its region. At the same time, the occurrence of a closely related species, S. grueneri was already demonstrated in red deer in the country (Entzeroth et al., 1983), and S. gracilis (having dogs as final hosts) was originally described from roe deer in Hungary (Rátz, 1909).

The Sarcocystis-infected dog in this study could probably ingest meat from cervids as part of the raw meat-based diet (including game animals as its source) which is practised in Hungary among dog owners to increase physical achievement of their dog (Hornok et al., 2006). This mode of feeding is known as a potential source of transmission of Sarcocystis species (van Bree et al., 2018). Thus, giving raw meat of game animals to dogs allows the latter to participate in the life cycle of S. morae in a ‘natural way’, shedding sporocysts/oocysts when used for hunting or taken to walks in forested areas.

Acknowledgement

Project no. TKP2020-NKA-01 has been implemented with the support provided from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary, financed under the ‘Tématerületi Kiválósági Program 2020 (2020-4.1.1-TKP2020)’ funding scheme. The authors are grateful to Dr. Sándor Szekeres for editing the phylogenetic tree.

References

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    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casati, S., Sager, H., Gern, L. and Piffaretti, J. C. (2006): Presence of potentially pathogenic Babesia sp. for human in Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 13, 6570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R., Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016a): General biology of Sarcocystis species. In: Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 1108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R., Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016b): Sarcocystosis in dogs (Canis familiaris). In: Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 269272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R., Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016c): Sarcocystis infection in cervids. In: Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 293307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Cawthorn, R. J., Speer, C. A. and Wobeser, G. A. (2003): Redescription of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 50 ,476482.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Entzeroth, R., Nemeséri, L. and Scholtyseck, E. (1983): Prevalence and ultrastructure of Sarcocystis sp. from red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Hungary. Parasit. Hung. 16 ,4752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjerde, B., Giacomelli, S., Bianchi, A., Bertoletti, I., Mondani, H. and Gibelli, L. R. (2017a): Morphological and molecular characterization of four Sarcocystis spp., including Sarcocystis linearis n. sp., from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Italy. Parasitol. Res. 116 ,13171338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjerde, B., Luzón, M., Alunda, J. M. and de la Fuente, C. (2017b): Morphological and molecular characteristics of six Sarcocystis spp. from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain, including Sarcocystis cervicanis and three new species. Parasitol. Res. 116 ,27952811.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández Rodriguez, S., Navarrete, I. and Martinez-Gómez, F. (1981a): Sarcocystis cervicanis, a new parasite species of red deer (Cervus elaphus) [in Spanish]. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. 41 ,4351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández Rodriguez, S., Martinez-Gómez, F., Navarrete, I. and Acosta-Garcia, I. (1981b): Optical and electron microscopic study of the cysts of Sarcocystis cervicanis [in Spanish]. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. 41 ,351361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Edelhofer, R., Fok, É., Berta, K., Fejes, P., Répási, A. and Farkas, R. (2006): Canine neosporosis in Hungary: screening for seroconversion of household, herding and stray dogs. Vet. Parasitol. 137 ,197201.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Estók, P., Kováts, D., Flaisz, B., Takács, N., Szőke, K., Krawczyk, A., Kontschán, J., Gyuranecz, M., Fedák, A., Farkas, R., Haarsma, A. J. and Sprong, H. (2015a): Screening of bat faeces for arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa: Babesia canis and Besnoitia besnoiti-like sequences from Chiroptera. Parasit. Vectors 8 ,441.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Mester, A., Takács, N., Baska, F., Majoros, G., Fok, É., Biksi, I., Német, Z., Hornyák, Á., Jánosi, S. and Farkas, R. (2015b): Sarcocystis-infection of cattle in Hungary. Parasit. Vectors 8 ,69.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Sándor, A. D., Földvári, G., Ionică, A. M., Silaghi, C., Takács, N., Schötta, A. M. and Wijnveld, M. (2020): First broad-range molecular screening of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes (Pholeoixodes) kaiseri, with special emphasis on piroplasms. Acta Vet. Hung. 68 ,3033.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moré, G., Maksimov, A., Conraths, F. J. and Schares, G. (2016): Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Germany. Vet. Parasitol. 220, 914.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poli, A., Mancianti, F., Marconcini, A., Nigro, M. and Colagreco, R. (1988): Prevalence, ultrastructure of the cyst wall and infectivity for the dog and cat of Sarcocystis sp. from fallow deer (Cervus dama). J. Wildl. Dis. 24, 97104.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rátz, I. (1909): Protozoa parasitising the muscles and species occurring in the Hungarian fauna [in Hungarian]. Állattani Közl. 8 ,137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rommel, M., Heydorn, A. O. and Gruber, F. (1972): Life cycle of Sarcosporidia. 1. The sporocyst of S. tenella in cat faeces [in German]. Berl. Münch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 85 ,101105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, E., Prakas, P., Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Ž., Servienė, E., Januškevičius, V. and Butkauskas, D. (2020): Molecular identification of two Sarcocystis species in fallow deer (Dama dama) from Lithuania. Parasitol. Int. 75 ,102044.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szekeres, S., Juhász, A., Kondor, M., Takács, N., Sugár, L., Hornok, S. (2019): Sarcocystis rileyi emerging in Hungary: is rice breast disease underreported in the region? Acta Vet. Hung. 67 ,401406.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Bree, F. P. J., Bokken, G. C. A. M., Mineur, R., Franssen, F., Opsteegh, M., van der Giessen, J. W. B., Lipman, L. J. A. and Overgaauw, P. A. M. (2018): Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs. Vet. Rec. 182 ,50.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basso, W., Alvarez Rojas, C. A., Buob, D., Ruetten, M. and Deplazes, P. (2020): Sarcocystis infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus) with eosinophilic myositis/fasciitis in Switzerland and involvement of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs in the transmission. Int. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl. 13, 130141.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casati, S., Sager, H., Gern, L. and Piffaretti, J. C. (2006): Presence of potentially pathogenic Babesia sp. for human in Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 13, 6570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R., Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016a): General biology of Sarcocystis species. In: Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 1108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R., Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016b): Sarcocystosis in dogs (Canis familiaris). In: Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 269272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Calero-Bernal, R., Rosenthal, B. M., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R. (2016c): Sarcocystis infection in cervids. In: Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 293307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Cawthorn, R. J., Speer, C. A. and Wobeser, G. A. (2003): Redescription of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 50 ,476482.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Entzeroth, R., Nemeséri, L. and Scholtyseck, E. (1983): Prevalence and ultrastructure of Sarcocystis sp. from red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Hungary. Parasit. Hung. 16 ,4752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjerde, B., Giacomelli, S., Bianchi, A., Bertoletti, I., Mondani, H. and Gibelli, L. R. (2017a): Morphological and molecular characterization of four Sarcocystis spp., including Sarcocystis linearis n. sp., from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Italy. Parasitol. Res. 116 ,13171338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjerde, B., Luzón, M., Alunda, J. M. and de la Fuente, C. (2017b): Morphological and molecular characteristics of six Sarcocystis spp. from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain, including Sarcocystis cervicanis and three new species. Parasitol. Res. 116 ,27952811.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández Rodriguez, S., Navarrete, I. and Martinez-Gómez, F. (1981a): Sarcocystis cervicanis, a new parasite species of red deer (Cervus elaphus) [in Spanish]. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. 41 ,4351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández Rodriguez, S., Martinez-Gómez, F., Navarrete, I. and Acosta-Garcia, I. (1981b): Optical and electron microscopic study of the cysts of Sarcocystis cervicanis [in Spanish]. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. 41 ,351361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Edelhofer, R., Fok, É., Berta, K., Fejes, P., Répási, A. and Farkas, R. (2006): Canine neosporosis in Hungary: screening for seroconversion of household, herding and stray dogs. Vet. Parasitol. 137 ,197201.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Estók, P., Kováts, D., Flaisz, B., Takács, N., Szőke, K., Krawczyk, A., Kontschán, J., Gyuranecz, M., Fedák, A., Farkas, R., Haarsma, A. J. and Sprong, H. (2015a): Screening of bat faeces for arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa: Babesia canis and Besnoitia besnoiti-like sequences from Chiroptera. Parasit. Vectors 8 ,441.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Mester, A., Takács, N., Baska, F., Majoros, G., Fok, É., Biksi, I., Német, Z., Hornyák, Á., Jánosi, S. and Farkas, R. (2015b): Sarcocystis-infection of cattle in Hungary. Parasit. Vectors 8 ,69.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornok, S., Sándor, A. D., Földvári, G., Ionică, A. M., Silaghi, C., Takács, N., Schötta, A. M. and Wijnveld, M. (2020): First broad-range molecular screening of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes (Pholeoixodes) kaiseri, with special emphasis on piroplasms. Acta Vet. Hung. 68 ,3033.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moré, G., Maksimov, A., Conraths, F. J. and Schares, G. (2016): Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Germany. Vet. Parasitol. 220, 914.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poli, A., Mancianti, F., Marconcini, A., Nigro, M. and Colagreco, R. (1988): Prevalence, ultrastructure of the cyst wall and infectivity for the dog and cat of Sarcocystis sp. from fallow deer (Cervus dama). J. Wildl. Dis. 24, 97104.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rátz, I. (1909): Protozoa parasitising the muscles and species occurring in the Hungarian fauna [in Hungarian]. Állattani Közl. 8 ,137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rommel, M., Heydorn, A. O. and Gruber, F. (1972): Life cycle of Sarcosporidia. 1. The sporocyst of S. tenella in cat faeces [in German]. Berl. Münch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 85 ,101105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, E., Prakas, P., Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Ž., Servienė, E., Januškevičius, V. and Butkauskas, D. (2020): Molecular identification of two Sarcocystis species in fallow deer (Dama dama) from Lithuania. Parasitol. Int. 75 ,102044.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szekeres, S., Juhász, A., Kondor, M., Takács, N., Sugár, L., Hornok, S. (2019): Sarcocystis rileyi emerging in Hungary: is rice breast disease underreported in the region? Acta Vet. Hung. 67 ,401406.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Bree, F. P. J., Bokken, G. C. A. M., Mineur, R., Franssen, F., Opsteegh, M., van der Giessen, J. W. B., Lipman, L. J. A. and Overgaauw, P. A. M. (2018): Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs. Vet. Rec. 182 ,50.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Mária BENKŐ

Managing Editor: András SZÉKELY

Editorial Board

  • Béla DÉNES (National Food Chain Safety Office, Budapest Hungary)
  • Edit ESZTERBAUER (Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Hedvig FÉBEL (National Agricultural Innovation Centre, Herceghalom, Hungary)
  • László FODOR (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Balázs HARRACH (Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Peter MASSÁNYI (Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic)
  • Béla NAGY (Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tibor NÉMETH (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna NEOGRÁDY (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Alessandra PELAGALLI (University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
  • Kurt PFISTER (Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany)
  • László SOLTI (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • József SZABÓ (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Péter VAJDOVICH (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • János VARGA (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Štefan VILČEK (University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice, Kosice, Slovak Republic)
  • Károly VÖRÖS (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Herbert WEISSENBÖCK (University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria)
  • Attila ZSARNOVSZKY (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)

ACTA VETERINARIA HUNGARICA
Institute for Veterinary Medical Research
Centre for Agricultural Research
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
P.O. Box 18, H-1581 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (36 1) 467 4081 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 213 9793 (editor) Fax: (36 1) 467 4076 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 213 9793

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2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
1040
Journal Impact Factor 0,959
Rank by Impact Factor Veterinary Sciences 103/144
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,876
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,222
Journal Citation Indicator 0,48
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Veterinary Sciences 106/168
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
36
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,313
Scimago Quartile Score Veterinary (miscellaneous) (Q2)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,7
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Veterinary 79/183 (Q2)
Scopus
SNIP
0,610

2020  
Total Cites 987
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
0,955
Rank by Veterinary Sciences 101/146 (Q3)
Impact Factor  
Impact Factor 0,920
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 1,164
Impact Factor
Journal  0,57
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Veterinary Sciences 93/166 (Q3)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 49
Items
Total 49
Articles
Total 0
Reviews
Scimago 33
H-index
Scimago 0,395
Journal Rank
Scimago Veterinary (miscellaneous) Q2
Quartile Score  
Scopus 355/217=1,6
Scite Score  
Scopus General Veterinary 73/183 (Q2)
Scite Score Rank  
Scopus 0,565
SNIP  
Days from  145
submission  
to acceptance  
Days from  150
acceptance  
to publication  
Acceptance 19%
Rate

 

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
798
Impact Factor 0,991
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,897
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,092
Immediacy
Index
0,119
Citable
Items
59
Total
Articles
59
Total
Reviews
0
Cited
Half-Life
9,1
Citing
Half-Life
9,2
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00080
Article Influence
Score
0,253
% Articles
in
Citable Items
100,00
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,09791
Average
IF
Percentile
42,606
Scimago
H-index
32
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,372
Scopus
Scite Score
335/213=1,6
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
General Veterinary 62/178 (Q2)
Scopus
SNIP
0,634
Acceptance
Rate
18%

 

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
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Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 710 EUR / 892 USD
Print + online subscription: 824 EUR / 1028 USD
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 732 EUR / 892 USD
Print + online subscription: 848 EUR / 1028 USD
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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1951
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0236-6290 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2705 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2022 0 14 16
Jul 2022 0 17 11
Aug 2022 0 13 7
Sep 2022 0 27 29
Oct 2022 0 57 13
Nov 2022 0 41 12
Dec 2022 0 11 2