Author:
Attila Zsarnovszky Agribiotechnology and Precision Breeding for Food Security National Laboratory, Department of Animal Physiology and Health, Institute of Physiology and Nutrition, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

Search for other papers by Attila Zsarnovszky in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Open access

Abstract

Dissection of the matter into its constituents leads us to the smallest particles that we know. These particles form a material structure that is determined by the electromagnetic field generated and carried by those particles. Changes in any of the two major constituents leads to changes in that material system, be it a living organism or a lifeless object. The latter statement carries the mystery of life that is born from a continuous and programmed series of system changes fuelled by an energy source with a yet unknown functioning mechanism. The present work is a theoretical approach towards the understanding and potential discovery of the aforementioned, not-yet-known cellular energetic mechanism. Understanding the energetic basis of intracellular biochemistry is equally important in human and animal therapeutics. Additionally, as all such discoveries offer novel solutions in various fields of the global industry, the final outcome of this theoretical work also brings about the idea of a new discovery in electronics industry.

Abstract

Dissection of the matter into its constituents leads us to the smallest particles that we know. These particles form a material structure that is determined by the electromagnetic field generated and carried by those particles. Changes in any of the two major constituents leads to changes in that material system, be it a living organism or a lifeless object. The latter statement carries the mystery of life that is born from a continuous and programmed series of system changes fuelled by an energy source with a yet unknown functioning mechanism. The present work is a theoretical approach towards the understanding and potential discovery of the aforementioned, not-yet-known cellular energetic mechanism. Understanding the energetic basis of intracellular biochemistry is equally important in human and animal therapeutics. Additionally, as all such discoveries offer novel solutions in various fields of the global industry, the final outcome of this theoretical work also brings about the idea of a new discovery in electronics industry.

Introduction

Electromagnetism is inseparable from the material world and also from living organisms. The electromagnetic field (EMF) is a given extent of space powered (charged) by electric and magnetic fields. The EMF affects charge holder particles; this effect is called electromagnetic power (electromagnetic interaction). Living organisms are in continuous interaction with the EMF that surrounds them and also permeates/exists in their body. Particles that determine the structure of the matter (elementary particles, atoms, molecules) and the space occupied by these particles, which is, as a matter of fact, an EMF, do not allow us to keep our life-processes away and independent (neither theoretically, nor practically) from the effects of the EMF. Considering that electromagnetism has been known for more than a century, it is surprizing how little is known about the interactions of the EMF and living organisms, and how little scientific focus this field of science has received so far.

The goal of this work is to establish a theoretical pathway towards understanding the interrelationship of matter and energy in living organisms through the theoretical analysis of known chemical-biochemical mechanisms and their logical entanglement with cellular energetics. As a result of this theoretical work, a radically new approach to the understanding of interaction of cellular energy and nucleic acid function is presented by the author, which may not only change our current concept on nucleic acid functions, but may also lead to novel discoveries in electronics industry. Therefore, the reader is likely to disagree, nevertheless, the author will try to keep his thoughts in the runway of simple scientific facts, hoping that the content of this work will generate new grounds for the discussion and the interpretation of EMF-living matter interactions.

To signify the importance of the message of this work, we need to keep in mind our very limited knowledge in this field of science, in times when the chemical and informatics industry continuously produces and leaves behind its fingerprints: characteristic features of our living environment overfilled with hazardous chemicals and an electro smog that is largely different in parameters from the one that had been part of the living world before the current industrial achievements of humankind. In fact, it is the difference in the parameters of the EMF we live in that makes living organisms struggle, many times unsuccessfully, to win over the modificational effects of the all-time EMF of the living environment. Therefore, an open-minded approach to the topic is certainly timely.

The interaction of the matter and the EMF can be best shown, perhaps, by the example of the structure of the hydrogen atom. This very simple atom consists of a single proton and one single electron. The proton is the nucleus (atomic core) carrying a positive charge, thus, generating an EMF around itself. The electron carries a negative charge and also generates an EMF around its own self. Since the two EMFs are of the opposite charges, the two EMFs get into an interaction with each other on the basis of attraction between the generators of the opposite charges. Thus, there are two EMF-generating material particles, each with its own EMF in this unity, and in this atomic form, the two particles are dynamically positioned in space as determined by the unity of the two EMFs as a vector power. So, as described, the structure of the hydrogen atom is determined by the elementary particles of the atom and their EMFs. It is, however, not only the structure that is being determined by the interacting particles and their EMFs: the unit's typical physical and chemical attributes that make it known as the hydrogen atom are also determined by that discussed matter-EMF interaction.

Interaction of two hydrogen atoms leads to the formation of the hydrogen molecule. In this form of being, there are two protons and two electrons, with their EMFs in one pack of the matter (hydrogen molecule), and just like in the case of the atomic form, the physical and chemical attributes of the molecular structure of hydrogen are determined by all participating particles, their EMFs and the interaction between all constituents. Bigger and more complex molecules are structured, organized and, with regard to their chemical properties, defined by the same logic in the setup of their structure. It is, thus, an all-time truth that the physical and chemical properties of the matter are determined by the constituting material elements, their EMFs and the complex interactions between all these constituting elements.

Again: On the larger scale, the material world is determined by the matter and the EMF generated by the matter. This means that if any or both of the mutually interdependent constituents change, it results in changes in physical and chemical attributes: the length of the chemical bonds may change, the angle these bonds form with each other may change, the shape of the electron orbitals may change, and ultimately, the chemical affinity of the given chemical unit to various types of chemical reactions may change.

We have no generally accepted definition for life so far. In the lack of such a definition we now define life as a form of dynamic and genetically determined interaction between material particles as long as these interactions remain de facto genetically determined and regulated. Within this frame, it can be stated that living systems are in dynamic equilibrium with their environment, however, the actual form of manifestation of the interactions between the individuum and its environment is an outcome of the aforementioned mutual affection (inter-determination) between the matter and its EMF.

So, if we accept that the material world, just as life processes, is determined by the interaction between the matter and the EMF, we must also accept that the healthy or the diseased forms of the being are also determined by the aforementioned interaction.

The statements made above indicate how worrisome living in electro smog can (and should) be, since changes in the parameters of the EMF in and around living organisms may well influence their health status.

The basics of further thinking

As seen from the Introduction, the effects of EMFs on biological systems are not uniform. As in the case of chemical effects, the chemical parameters of a given substance are the major determinant of the effects, the same can be stated in the case of the EMF: it is the quality and the combination of the actual parameters in effect that determine whether the overall EMF effect is adverse, neutral or beneficial (medicative). The reason why the accordance is not total is that the afore-mentioned theory of matter-EMF interaction (that is the basis of all existing states of being) does not take into account that dissection of the matter into always smaller pieces leads to the disappearance of the matter itself, and the EMF is the one that remains. The actual depth where the matter disappears, depends only on the level of the technique used for the observation of the two components.

Considering this paradox, we can make two fundamental statements:

  1. a.EMF is crucial in the maintenance of any (healthy or pathological) state of the biological organism;
  2. b.Contemplating along the line of the above statement, we can establish special theoretical basics for the determination of life that later can be used as reasonable and acceptable hypotheses for scientific experiments aiming to prove whether or not these hypotheses are correct. Below, some of these theoretical basics are presented and briefly discussed.

Interrelationship between the EMF and the matter (living tissue)

Life manifests itself through life-signs (physiological-biochemical processes). Life-signs show a high level of organisation (i.e. life-signs are strictly regulated) and are energy-dependent. This means that the biological, biochemical components that are needed for life have to be available in adequate quality and quantity, and further, in order for them to interact in the form of a biological process, biochemical energy is also needed. It is safe to say that life-signs should be investigated from three distinct aspects. These are: the needed and participating components; the biochemical energy; and the interrelationship of the components and the biochemical energy.

The organism transposes the energy of ingested nutrients into high-energy phosphate (chemical) bonds of energy-carrying molecules, such as the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This form of energy storage is used for fuelling various kinds of energy-demanding biochemical reactions through breaking up the energy-storing phosphate bonds and supplying the energy demand of linked biochemical reactions.

Saving the chemical energy into phosphate bonds was described by Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker, as the mechanism of ATP formation, for which they, in 1997, received the Nobel Prize (Boyer, 1993, 1997; Abrahams et al., 1994).

While there is detailed knowledge about the biosynthesis of ATP, little or nothing is known about the break-up of the high-energy phosphate bond, in the sense that we practically know nothing about the way the energy, freed from those bonds, approaches the reacting molecules and targets a given chemical locus specifically. In an imaginary slow-motion visual of such a process, the following question arises: why does the energy, released from the phosphate bond, not dissipate to all directions of the three-dimensional space; and if it does not dissipate, what is the mechanism that keeps that energy in a given area and/or directs it to the required coordinates of that space to serve as the fuel of a certain biochemical reaction?

Imagining such events in this micro-dimension, the question inevitably arises whether or not (a) mechanism(s) exist(s) in living cells that is/are able to store the chemical energy released from the bond for some time and/or direct it specifically to where it is actually meant to be used?

To answer this question, we need to focus on some of the key elements and key processes that are already known to be parts of the biological system, and whose physical-chemical attributes, at least in theory, may help us find a possible answer. Many of the known biological macromolecules have helical structure, such as the myosin in muscles or better yet, the nucleic acids (NA). Below, I will discuss the structure of DNA because these molecules, being the core of the genome, are the major determinants of life. Figure 1 shows the basic structure of the NA (DNA).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Double strand structure of DNA (source of image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_labels.jpg)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

Figure 2 shows the structure of NA in a more detailed form, also demonstrating the 3D conformation of the molecule.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The basic structure of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA (source of image: https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribonukleinsav)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

From Fig. 2, it is evident that NAs have a helical structure, namely, they form a spiral in space, and on the outer margin of the double spiral (strand) they possess rows of phosphate groups. These phosphate groups thus again form a double spiral that I will refer to as a “phosphorus-collar” (P-collar). What could be the role and consequence of this structure? In order to answer this question, we need to search for something to grab and hold on to.

First of all, we need to consider some relevant chemical attributes of the phosphorus.

Chemical reactions and the phosphorus

According to traditional chemistry, material substances participating in chemical reactions do react at a given speed with each other if a) the reaction occurs in a closed system, b) the reacting substances are present in predefined amounts and concentrations and c) the environmental conditions are constant. When this system runs out of any or all of the reacting substances, a dynamic equilibrium forms in which the given chemical reaction goes on to both directions in equal amounts. If the system is open and the substances can be gained from the environment, the reaction continues instead of the formation of the dynamic equilibrium. Since the speed of these reactions is proportional to the concentration of the reacting substances, such a reaction has been known as a “chemical reaction with a linear dynamics”.

Over the past 50 years, several reports surfaced about certain substances whose chemical reactions do not follow the conventional linear dynamics. This novel type of reactions differed from the conventional linear dynamics in that their speed varied in a pulsating manner. Speaking of closed systems again, these reactions show periods of slower and then faster interactions between the reacting substances, while as the concentration of the reacting chemicals decreases, the oscillation of the reaction speed decreases as well. At the point of the dynamic equilibrium the oscillation ends. If the reaction produces changes in colour, the oscillation can be seen, i.e., visually detected. Since in this case, the reaction speed is not continuously proportional with the concentrations of the reacting substances, these reactions are known as ones with non-linear dynamics. In the simple case mentioned above the reaction shows an oscillation in time, i.e., a temporal oscillation. However, substances have been discovered that also show a spatial oscillation when reacting with each other. In this case, the speed of the chemical reaction occurs in a way that higher-speed areas are separated from lower-speed areas following certain geometrical patterns. If the reaction is associated with a change in colour or produces light, the oscillation becomes visible.

Although we already know about the existence of oscillating chemical reactions, the explanation of their mechanism is not yet known. A number of theories exist to explain the non-linear dynamics. For example, according to one of these theories, the accumulation of one of the reaction products slows the base reaction, however, when the system uses up this product, the decrease of its concentration permits a higher base reaction speed again.

There is an alternative explanation based on the detection of the changing pH value, but this approach did not lead to a generally accepted explanation of the oscillation.

For the present work (theory), the most fitting hypothesis that spatial oscillation might arise from the Brownian motion (separation) of the participants of the chemical reaction getting into accord with the high-frequency EMF in their immediate neighbourhood.

As of the capability of certain chemical reaction partners to act in the form of non-linear dynamics, it is currently believed that elements having only one equilibrium-state are not able to go into oscillating reactions, while elements having two states of equilibrium are able to react in a non-linear fashion. Therefore, it is reasonable to discuss some aspects of the chemical attributes of the phosphorus in this work.

Phosphorus (P, atomic number: 15), may occur with two chemical valences (trivalent and pentavalent form) and can form compounds in both valence forms. Thus, phosphorus has two equilibrium-states.

Robert Boyle described (at the end of the seventeenth century) that periodic luminescence (glowing) can be seen during the oxidation of P (Harvey, 1957). One of the best-known textbook descriptions was provided by Lengyel in 1967, showing that oxidation of gas-phase P in the presence of water vapor is associated with periodic luminescence.

In the context of the present theory, a special form of P is of particular importance: this is the black P. In this form, the P is chemically trivalent, and all P atoms are connected to other three P atoms. Thus, the set of interconnected trivalent P atoms provide a one-atom-thick phosphorus layer, in other words, a layer of P hexagons. Because of this structure, the black P is one of the most promising semi-conductors in the electronics industry.

Now returning to the biological systems, the chemical attributes of P raises some important questions regarding its role in NAs.

The first such question is whether the P-collar of the NA could pick up further phosphate groups, just as found in nucleoside triphosphates being the base of NA biosynthesis. In such a triphosphate group-form, the P is in pentavalent form. Imagine the fusion of the two molecules below (Fig. 3; this applies to DNA-sequences not covered by histones and could be determined by 31P MRI).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nucleoside triphosphates. Are they potential temporary components of the nucleic acids? (Source of image: https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenilát-cikláz#/media/Fájl:Adenylate_kinase2.png; https://erettsegi.com/tetelek/kemia/nukleinsavak/)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

The next question is whether in the molecular micro-environment an ‘extended’ P collar hypothesized above could transform temporarily into a trivalent P-layer and then back into the pentavalent form (the latter is the form we currently know). Under laboratory circumstances, a very high pressure is necessary for such a transformation. However, in the micro (atomic) environment of the phosphate group, a lysis of a phosphate-bond may release so much energy locally that it would be comparable to the energy released by a nuclear explosion in our macro environment. It would be extremely important to clarify this question because if this is an existing and working atomic process (without us currently knowing about it), the temporary, trivalent P-collar would work as a semi-conductor (temporarily act as an electrical wire that propagates an electric induction), followed by the re-formation of the conventional pentavalent P-collar. This could be a manifested form of P-reactions with non-linear dynamics and also the basis of an oscillation that will be described below.

If the hypothesis of the trivalent P-collar proves to be true, it would mean that we found a possible avenue travelled by the biochemical energy released from high-energy bonds; in other words, we could have found the way how life-energy is being transmitted and propagated from storage bonds into biochemical reactions. It would mean that we have found a potential energy system through which the organism ensures its structural integrity and its function (physiology).

To understand what kind of oscillation we are talking about, we first need to bring up an analogy. The analogy is the parts of an antenna: the coil and the condenser.

By the antenna here we mean a device designed to receive or send radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves that proceed in the three-dimensional space, inside and outside our bodies.

Electromagnetic radiation is practically oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are perpendicular to each other. It proceeds with the speed of light, carrying energy and impulse. All electromagnetic radiations can be classified according to their frequency, over their entire range giving the full electromagnetic spectrum. The theory of electromagnetic waves was first described by James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1878) Scottish physicist in 1873.

The antenna is an electrotechnical device designed to send or receive electromagnetic waves in the category of radio waves. It is practically an open oscillating circuit set to the frequency of waves to be detected.

Oscillating circuits are electric circuits that can be ignited into oscillation by (external) energy. There are serial and parallel oscillating circuits, consisting of a coil and a condenser (capacitor) connected in a serial or parallel fashion.

When energy is fed into one of the two constituents (coil or condenser), the energy starts to swing between the coil and the condenser. The coil and the condenser alternately function as the source or the storage of the energy input. The result of the swinging is the electric oscillation that can even be monitored by an oscilloscope.

The coil is an electric conductor with a helical shape and an insulation between the threads of the coiled-up conductor.

Analogy I.: Coil and nucleic acid (NA).

Comparing the structure of the DNA in Fig. 2 and that of the coil (Fig. 4), one can quickly find similarities between the two structures: they are both of a helical shape. While electric power can be fed into the coil, it is still a question whether any such energy could be fed into the “coil” of a NA. Nevertheless, P, the element of the P-collar can be fed with magnetic power: this phenomenon is being used in the MRI imaging. The possible ability of the P-collar to oscillate between the trivalent and pentavalent P forms, and the consequential possibility for the P-collar to temporarily act as an electric conductor was discussed above.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scheme of serial oscillating circuit (left) and parallel oscillating circuit (right). (Source of images: wikipedia.org)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

The analogy between the NA and the coil of the antenna becomes particularly important, if we find an intracellular analogy for the other constituent of the oscillating circuit, i.e., the condenser. Let us first revise the structure of the condenser (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scheme of the condenser (capacitor). Note the separation of opposite charges. (Source of image: https://www.bristolwatch.com/ele4/cap1.htm)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

Condensers are devices designed to store electric charge. Simple condensers consist of two plates made of an electrically conductive material (e.g., a metal) and separated by a non-conductive material (or dielectric). Capacity is the most important parameter of a condenser (capacitor). By definition, capacity is the ratio of the accumulated charges and the voltage they generate (in the condenser).

As mentioned above, when energy is fed into any of the two interconnected constituents (coil or condenser) of the oscillating circuit, the energy starts swinging between the condenser and the coil. In this process, the coil and the condenser alternately function as each other's source of energy and energy store. The result of the swinging is the electric oscillation. The charged condenser discharges through the coil. As a result, the charge arriving into the coil builds up an EMF. At the end of this process all energy is concentrated in the coil. When no more energy can be integrated into the EMF of the coil, the EMF collapses and by doing so, it induces a voltage and a migration of charges towards the condenser until all this energy accumulates in the condenser (see animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XH-w89TFCFY).

Note: in reality, because of the resistance of such a system, a continuous addition of energy is needed to keep the oscillation working.

Now let's see one of the candidate biological structures for the condenser.

Analogy II: Condenser and mitochondrion.

The condenser's structure and function is shown in Fig. 5, with the notion that in practice there is an electric non-conductor layer between the metal plates holding the positive and negative charges.

The structure of a mitochondrion is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mitochondrion: Electron microscopic appearance (upper panel) and schematic (lower panel). (Source of image: https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/7/7b/Mito_pic_diagram.gif)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, meaning that they release energy from high-energy molecules through stereotypic chemical processes and incorporate this energy into ATP, thereby fuelling the cell with sufficient amount of chemical energy. The aforementioned stereotype reaction chains are partly linked to enzyme systems that are located between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. Another series of these stereotype reactions are linked to enzyme systems that are connected to the inner membrane of the mitochondrion (Fig. 7). During a series of biochemical reactions here, enzymes transmit electrons from one to the next and so on, altogether forming an electron chain; meanwhile, protons are released and accumulated in the intermembrane space (these protons play a fundamental role in the biosynthesis of ATP; Fig. 8).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Electron transport along the inner membrane enzymes and the accumulation of protons in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion. Note the separation of opposite charges (Source of Image: http://www2.szote.uszeged.hu/dmi/downloads/MarotiP_eloadasok/Biofizika%20alapjai/Kemiozm%C3%B3zis,%20membr%C3%A1ntranszport.pdf)

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Separation of charges alongside the inner mitochondrial membrane. Note the similarities between the location of charges in the condenser and the inner mitochondrial membrane

Citation: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 72, 2; 10.1556/004.2023.00976

During the electron transport and proton migration illustrated in Fig. 8, a concentration and, at the same time, a charge gradient evolves between the two sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. As a result, a membrane voltage forms. In this system, just like in the condenser, there is a conductor layer on both sides of the inner membrane, with the membrane itself in between, producing the charge-holders and, at the same time, keeping the opposite charges separated from each other.

Thus, there is an obvious analogy between the coil-condenser unit (antenna) and the unit given by (mitochondrial) DNA and the inner mitochondrial membrane with the opposite charges on its two sides. However, there is a very important difference we need to consider: while the coil-condenser unit is composed by the two constituents positioned next to each other (i.e. in a two-dimensional way), mitochondrial DNAs are positioned inside the mitochondrial matrix, meaning that the ‘coil’ is positioned inside the ‘condenser’, thereby suggesting a three-dimensional functional model in live cells. Considering this setup, which is unusual at the minimum in practical life, some important questions arise:

  1. 1.)How can an energy oscillation be induced in a three-dimensional setup of the coil and condenser? Could there be an oscillation by expansion followed by shrinkage in space?

As a potential answer, please consider the chemical reactions with non-linear dynamics described above, since the model of a three-dimensional oscillating circuit could be functional!

  1. 2.)To what extent can the proposed, potentially oscillating system of the mitochondrion be considered as closed or open energetic system?

Considering that the distribution of charge holders in two layers (as described above) is a highly regulated process, the efficacy of the condenser could be a biologically regulated factor.

  1. 3.)How does this three-dimensional setup of the coil and condenser determine the direction of the electromagnetic line of forces?

We do not know the answers, therefore a three-dimensional model should be built for further experimentation: such a model could be used in electronics with unforeseen possibilities, and could largely promote our understanding of the function of mitochondria as well.

Another interesting question may come up:

Simply put, the mitochondrion may function as a sphere condenser. If this is so, the question is, besides the possibility of a three-dimensional oscillation, whether the special three-dimensional shape of the ‘condenser’, i.e. the shape of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which has different conformations in different tissue types (known as the manifested forms of mitochondrial dynamics), plays a role in the shaping of the EMF generated by the mitochondrion (currently known as the membrane potential of the mitochondria)?

To test this hypothesis, serial ultrathin sections should be obtained and the 3-D model of the mitochondrion should be re-created. Then, according to the 3-D mitochondrion model, a 3-D oscillating circuit prototype should be built to examine the electric and biological effects of regulated parameters generated by the prototype. In such a prototype, the dynamics of biochemical reactions occurring in mitochondria could be tested with regulated EMF parameters.

Based on the theoretical approach of the present work, a short summary can be composed: It is a possible scenario that high-energy phosphate bonds may form on the P-collar. The hydrolysis of those phosphate bonds results in the release of energy that is instantly fed into the NA coil At the time of energy release, and also as a result of it, pentavalent P transforms into trivalent P, thereby transforming the P-collar into an electric conductor. When this energy fills the NA coil, it generates an EMF, which subsequently collapses. When this collapse occurs, trivalent P transforms into the pentavalent form, and the energy stored in the coil, instead of migrating back to the condenser (inner mitochondrial membrane), is used to propel genomic events. A next oscillating pulse is then fuelled by the ongoing condenser function of the inner mitochondrial membrane, including the incorporation of energy into ATP, which then serves to supply the energy needs of a next coil-phase of the oscillation.

Altogether, here is the hypothetical answer to our initial question, as to what kind of power is responsible for the orientation of biological energy to the exact location of need instead of the 3-D dissipation of energy after its release: the biological system may work on the basis of multiple oscillating circuits whose EMF partly overlap and these EMFs could be responsible for the orientation of the biological energy deliberated from high-energy chemical bonds to fuel biochemical reactions in a targeted fashion.

References

  • Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G., Lutter, R. and Walker J. E. (1994): Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F 1 -ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria. Nature 370, 621628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyer, P. D. (1993): The binding change mechanism for ATP synthase – Some probabilities and possibilities. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1140, 215250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyer, P. D. (1997): The ATP synthase – a splendid molecular machine, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 66, 717-749.

  • Harvey, E. N. (1957): A Hystory of Luminescence. From the Earliest Times until 1900, Am. Philos. Soc., Philadelphia.

  • Lengyel, B. (1967): Általános és szervetlen kémiai praktikum. Tankönyvkiadó vállalat, Budapest.

  • Maxwell, J. C. (1873): A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. I-II. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

  • Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G., Lutter, R. and Walker J. E. (1994): Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F 1 -ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria. Nature 370, 621628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyer, P. D. (1993): The binding change mechanism for ATP synthase – Some probabilities and possibilities. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1140, 215250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyer, P. D. (1997): The ATP synthase – a splendid molecular machine, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 66, 717-749.

  • Harvey, E. N. (1957): A Hystory of Luminescence. From the Earliest Times until 1900, Am. Philos. Soc., Philadelphia.

  • Lengyel, B. (1967): Általános és szervetlen kémiai praktikum. Tankönyvkiadó vállalat, Budapest.

  • Maxwell, J. C. (1873): A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. I-II. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
Author informations are available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

 

The manuscript preparation instructions are available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

 

Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Ferenc BASKA

Editorial assistant: Szilvia PÁLINKÁS

 

Editorial Board

  • Mária BENKŐ (Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gábor BODÓ (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Béla DÉNES (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest Hungary)
  • Edit ESZTERBAUER (Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Hedvig FÉBEL (National Agricultural Innovation Centre, Herceghalom, Hungary)
  • László FODOR (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • János GÁL (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Balázs HARRACH (Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Peter MASSÁNYI (Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic)
  • Béla NAGY (Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Tibor NÉMETH (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Zsuzsanna NEOGRÁDY (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Dušan PALIĆ (Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany)
  • Alessandra PELAGALLI (University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy)
  • Kurt PFISTER (Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany)
  • László SOLTI (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • József SZABÓ (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Péter VAJDOVICH (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • János VARGA (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Štefan VILČEK (University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice, Kosice, Slovak Republic)
  • Károly VÖRÖS (University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Herbert WEISSENBÖCK (University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria)
  • Attila ZSARNOVSZKY (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)

ACTA VETERINARIA HUNGARICA
Institute for Veterinary Medical Research
Centre for Agricultural Research
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
P.O. Box 18, H-1581 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (36 1) 287 7073 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 467 4081 (editor)

E-mail: acta.veterinaria@univet.hu (ed.-in-chief)

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Contents: Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences
  • Elsevier Science Navigator
  • Focus On: Veterinary Science and Medicine
  • Global Health
  • Index Medicus
  • Index Veterinarius
  • Medline
  • Science Citation Index
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
  • SCOPUS
  • The ISI Alerting Services
  • Zoological Abstracts

 

2023  
Web of Science  
Journal Impact Factor 0.7
Rank by Impact Factor Q3 (Veterinary Sciences)
Journal Citation Indicator 0.4
Scopus  
CiteScore 1.8
CiteScore rank Q2 (General Veterinary)
SNIP 0.39
Scimago  
SJR index 0.258
SJR Q rank Q3

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2025 Online subsscription: 832 EUR / 916 USD
Print + online subscription: 960 EUR / 1054 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1951
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0236-6290 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2705 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Feb 2024 0 0 0
Mar 2024 0 0 0
Apr 2024 0 0 0
May 2024 0 0 0
Jun 2024 0 87 58
Jul 2024 0 111 66
Aug 2024 0 0 0