View More View Less
  • 1 Teaching Hospital Leipzig and Jena Universities, Germany
  • 2 Independent Researcher
Restricted access

Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) descend from wolves (Canis lupus) sharing the same ecological niche of cooperative hunters, as humans. Initially, humans and wolves were competitors starting interspecific communication in order to avoid risk of injury. The evolutionary continuity of mammalian brains enabled interspecific prosocial contacts between both of them, which reduced stress, and enabled behavioral cultures leading to genetic isolation of those wolves. Dogs are the first domesticated animal living together with humans for about 25,000 years. Domestication means decreased aggression and flight distance toward humans, thus changes in the stress axis are crucial. The hypothesis of Active Social Domestication considers genetic selection as a necessary prediction but not a sufficient explanation of dog domestication. In addition, dog domestication is suggested to be an epigenetic disclosure. Due to changed stress activity, epigenetic mechanisms affect cerebral receptor activity and regulate transposon expressions, thus shaping brain function and behavior. Interspecific prosocial contacts initiated via serotonin release an enzymatic cascade enhancing, epigenetically, the glucocorticoid negative feedback loop. Reduced chronic stress improved social learning capability and inhibitory control. Over time, those wolves could integrate themselves into human social structures, thus becoming dogs. In analogy, human mental skills, such as creating art and culture, might have also improved during the Upper Paleolithic.

  • Ahmed, A. A., Ma, W., Ni, Y., Zhou, Q., Zhao, R. (2014) Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies aggressive behavior through alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and the serotonergic system in the chicken. Horm. Behav. 65, 97105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andics, A., Gácsi, M., Faragó, T., Kis, A., Miklósi, Á. (2014) Voice-sensitive regions in the dog and human brain are revealed by comparative fMRI. Curr. Biol. 24(5), 574578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arai, J. A., Li, S., Hartley, D. M., Feig, L. A. (2009) Transgenerational rescue of a genetic defect in long-term potentiation and memory formation by juvenile enrichment. J. Neurosci. 29, 14961502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arendt, M. (2016) Diet adaptation in dog reflects spread of prehistoric agriculture. Heredity 117, 301306.

  • Arendt, M., Fall, T., Lindblad-Toh, K., Axelsson, E. (2014) Amylase activity is associated with AMY2B copy numbers in dog: implications for dog domestication, diet and diabetes. Anim. Genet. 45(5), 716722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Axelsson, E., Ratnakumar, A., Arendt, M.-J., Maqbool, K., Webster, M. T., Lindblad-Toh, K. (2013) The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet. Nature 495, 360364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartal, I. B., Decety, J., Mason, P. (2011) Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats. Science 334, 14271430.

  • Belyaev, K. (1979) Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. J. Hered. 70(5), 301308.

  • Beetz, A., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Julius, H., Kotrschal, K. (2012) Psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of human-animal interactions: the possible role of oxytocin. Front. Psychol. 3, 234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berns, G. S., Brooks, A. M., Spivak, M. (2012) Functional MRI in awake unrestrained dogs. PLoS One 7, e38027.

  • Brothers, L. (1990) The neural basis of primate social communication. Motiv. Emot. 14, 81.

  • Brusini, I., Carneiro, M., Wang, C., Rubin, C. J., Ring, H., Afonso, S., Blanco-Aguiar, J. A., Ferrand, N., Rafati, N., Villafuerte, R., Smedby, Ö., Damberg, P., Hallböök, F., Fredrikson, M., Andersson, L. (2018) Changes in brain architecture are consistent with altered fear processing in domestic rabbits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115(28), 73807385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buschdorf, J. P., Meaney, M. J. (2015) Epigenetics/programming in the HPA axis. Compr. Physiol. 6(1), 87110.

  • Chamberlain, B., Ervin, F. R., Pihl, R. O., Young, S. N. (1987) The effect of raising or lowering tryptophan levels on aggression in vervet monkeys. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 28, 503510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Champagne, F. A., Weaver, I. C., Diorio, J., Sharma, S., Meaney, M. J. (2003) Natural variations in maternal care are associated with estrogen receptor alpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in the medial preoptic area. Endocrinology 144(11), 47204724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coppinger, R. P., Coppinger, L. (2001) Dogs: A New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darimont, C. T., Stronen, A. V., Navid, E. R., Quinn, M. S., Paquet, P. C., Bryan, H. M. (2014) Population genetic structure of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in a marine archipelago suggests island-mainland differentiation consistent with dietary niche. BMC Ecol. 14, 11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Waal, F., Dindo, M., Freeman, C. A., Hall, M. J. (2005) The monkey in the mirror: hardly a stranger. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 102(32), 1114011147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrari, P. F. (2016) Neurobiology of empathy, a lesson from primates. Dog Behav. 2(3).

  • Gallese, V. (2001) The ‘shared manifold’ hypothesis: From mirror neurons to empathy. In: Thompson, E. (ed.) Between Ourselves: Second-Person Issues in the Study of Consciousness. Imprint Academic, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 3350

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gordon, I., Jack, A., Pretzsch, C. M., Vander, W. B., Leckman, J. F., Feldman, R., Pelphrey, K. A. (2016) Intranasal oxytocin enhances connectivity in the neural circuitry supporting social motivation and social perception in children with autism. Sci. Rep. 6, 35054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gotts, S. J. (2012) Fractionation of social brain circuits in autism spectrum disorders. Brain 135(9), 27112725.

  • Gulevich, R., Oskina, I., Shichkevik, S., Federova, E., Trut, L. (2004) Effect of selection for behavior on pituitary-adrenal axis and proopiomelanocortin gene expression in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Physiol. Behav. 82, 513518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haas, B. W., Smith, A. K. (2015) Oxytocin, vasopressin, and Williams syndrome: epigenetic effects on abnormal social behavior. Front. Genet. 6, 28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammer, R. P., Hori, K. M., Blanchar, R. J., Blanchard, D. C. (1992) Domestication alters 5-HT1A receptor binding in rat brain. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 42, 2528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hare, B., Plyusnina, I., Ignacio, N., Schepina, O., Stepika, A., Wrangham, R., Trut, L. (2005) Social cognitive evolution in captive foxes is a correlated by-product of experimental domestication. Curr. Biol. 15, 226230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hare, B., Wobber, V., Wrangham, R. (2012) The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression. Anim. Behav. 83, 573585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harveson, P., Lopez, R., Collier, B., Silvy, N. (2007) Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics. Biol. Conserv. 134, 321331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Havlícek, F. (2015) Waste management in Hunter-Gatherer communities. J. Landsc. Ecol. 8(2).

  • Heberlein, M., Turner, D. C., Range, F., Virányi, Z. (2016) A comparison between wolves, Canis lupus, and dogs, Canis familiaris, in showing behaviour towards humans. Anim. Behav. 122, 5966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herbeck, Y., Khantemirova, A., Antonov, V., Goncharova, N., Gulevich, R. G., Shepeleva, D., Trut, L. (2017) Expression of the DNA methyltransferase genes in silver foxes experimentally selected for domestication. Russ. J. Genet. 53, 483489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, S., Slomianka, L., Farmer, A. J., Kharlamova, A. V., Gulevich, R. G., Herbeck, Y. E., Trut, L., Wolfer, D. P., Amrein, I. (2015) Selection for tameness, a key behavioral trait of domestication, increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in foxes. Hippocampus 25(8), 963975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, R. G., Gagnidze, K., McEwen, B. S., Pfaff, D. W. (2015) Stress and the dynamic genome: steroids, epigenetics, and the transposome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(22), 68286833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jensen, P. (2015) Adding ‘epi-’ to behaviour genetics: implications for animal domestication. J. Exp. Biol. 218(Pt. 1), 3240.

  • Joly-Mascheroni, R. M., Senju, A., Shepherd, A. J. (2008) Dogs catch human yawns. Biol. Lett. 4, 446448.

  • Julius, H., Beetz, A., Kotrschal, K. (2014). Bindung zu Tieren: Psychlogische und neurobiologische Grundlagen tiergestützter Interventionen [Attachment to pets: an integrative view of human-animal relationships with implications for therapeutic practice by Henri Julius]. Hogrefe, Göttingen.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, C., Pörtl, D. (2018) Scavenging hypothesis: lack of evidence for dog domestication on the waste dump. Dog Behav. 4(2).

  • Kilner, J. M., Lemon, R. N. (2013) What we know currently about mirror neurons. Curr. Biol. 23, R1057R1062.

  • Kis, A., Bence, M., Lakatos, G., Pergel, E., Turcsán, B., Pluijmakers, J., Vas, J., Elek, Z., Brúder, I., Földi, L., Sasvári-Székely, M., Miklósi, Á., Rónai, Z., Kubinyi, E. (2014) Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris). PLoS One 9, e83993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U., Fehr, E. (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435, 673676.

  • Kubinyi, E., Virányi, Z., Miklósi, Á. (2007) Comparative social cognition: from wolf and dog to humans. Comp. Cogn. Behav. Rev. 2, 2646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulikova, A., Zhanaeva, E., Popova, N. (1989) Change in activity of tryptophan hydroxylase in the brains of silver foxes and gray Norway rats during selection for behavior. Genetika 25, 346350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumsta, R., Hummel, E., Chen, F. S., Heinrichs, M. (2013) Epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor gene: implications for behavioral neuroscience. Front. Neurosci. 7, 83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamm, C., Batson, C. D., Decety, J. (2007) The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 19, 4258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lanfumey, L., Mongeau, R., Cohen-Salmon, C., Hamon, M. (2008) Corticosteroid-serotonin interactions in the neurobiological mechanisms of stress-related disorders. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 32, 11741184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeDoux, J. E. (2012) Evolution of human emotion: a view through fear. Prog. Brain. Res. 195, 431442.

  • Li, J., Zhao, Y., Li, R., Broster, L. S., Zhou, C., Yang, S. (2015) Association of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs53576 polymorphism with sociality: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 10, e0131820.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lim, M. M., Young, L. J. (2006) Neuropeptidergic regulation of affiliative behavior and social bonding in animals. Horm. Behav. 50, 506517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, K. (1967) So kam der Mensch auf den Hund [Man meets dog]. dtv Verlagsgesellschaft, Munchen, Germany.

  • Marshall-Pescini, S., Cafazzo, S., Virányi, Z., Range, F. (2017) Integrating social ecology in explanations of wolf-dog behavioral differences. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 16, 8086.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall-Pescini, S., Ceretta, M., Prato-Previde, E. (2014) Do domestic dogs understand human actions as goal-directed? PLoS One 9(9), e106530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall-Pescini, S., Passalacqua, C., Miletto Petrazzini, M. E., Valsecchi, P., Prato-Previde, E. (2012) Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) make counterproductive choices because they are sensitive to human ostensive cues? PLoS One 7(4), e35437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall-Pescini, S., Virányi, Z., Range, F. (2015) The effect of domestication on inhibitory control: wolves and dogs compared. PLoS One 10, e0118469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McClintock, B. (1984) The significance of responses of the genome to challenge. Science 226(4676), 792801.

  • McEwen, B. S., Morrison, J. H. (2013) The brain on stress: vulnerability and plasticity of the prefrontal cortex over the life course. Neuron 79(1), 1629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGowan, P. O., Sasaki, A., D’Alessio, A. C., Dymov, S., Labonté, B., Szyf, M., Turecki, G., Meaney, M. J. (2009) Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat. Neurosci. 12, 342348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meaney, M. J., Szyf, M. (2005) Maternal care as a model for experience-dependent chromatin plasticity? Trends Neurosci. 28, 456463.

  • Mech, L. D. (2009) Possible use of foresight, understanding, and planning by wolves hunting Muskoxen. ARCTIC 60(2), 145149.

  • Mellars, P. (2005) The impossible coincidence. A single-species model for the origins of modern human behavior in Europe. Evol. Anthropol. 14, 1227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miklósi, Á., Kubinyi, E., Topál, J., Gácsi, M., Virányi, Z., Csányi, V. (2003) A simple reason for a big difference. Curr. Biol. 13, 763766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Modahl, C., Green, L., Fein, D., Morris, M., Waterhouse, L., Feinstein, C., Levin, H. (1998) Plasma oxytocin levels in autistic children. Biol. Psychiatry 43, 270277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murrin, L. C., Sanders, J. D., Bylund, D. B. (2007) Comparison of the maturation of the adrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems in the brain: implications for differential drug effects on juveniles and adults. Biochem. Pharmacol. 73, 12251236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagasawa, M., Mitsui, S., En, S., Ohtani, N., Ohta, M., Mogi, K., Sakuma, Y., Onaka, T., Kikusui, T. (2015) Oxytocin-gaze positive loop and the coevolution of human bonds. Science 348(6232), 333336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niehoff, D. (1999) The Biology of Violence. Free Press, New York.

  • Oberman, L. M., Pineda, J. A., Ramachandran, V. S. (2007) The human mirror neuron system: a link between action observation and social skills. Soc. Cogn. Affect Neurosci. 2(1), 6266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oliva, J. L., Wong, Y. T., Rault, J.-L., Appleton, B., Lill, A. (2016) The oxytocin receptor gene, an integral piece of the evolution of Canis familaris from Canis lupus. Pet Behav. Sci. 1, 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palagi, E., Norscia, I., Demuru, E. (2014) Yawn contagion in humans and bonobos: emotional affinity matters more than species. PeerJ 2, e519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pichtel, J. (2005) Waste Management Practices. Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial. CRC Press, New York.

  • Platts, A. E., Land, S. J., Chen, L., Page, G. P., Rasouli, P., Wang, L., Lu, X., Ruden, D. M. (2009) Massively parallel resequencing of the isogenic Drosophila melanogaster strain w(1118); iso-2; iso-3 identifies hotspots for mutations in sensory perception genes. Fly (Austin). 3(3), 192203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plyusnina, I. Z., Oskina, I. N., Trut, L. N. (1991) An analysis of fear and aggression during early development of behaviour in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 32, 253268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Popova, N. K., Voitenko, N. N., Pavlova, S. I., Trut, L. N., Naumenko, E. V. (1980) Genetics and phenogenetics of the hormonal characteristics of animals. VII. Correlative interrelationship between serotonin of the brain and the hypothalamicehypophysealeadrenal system in conditions of emotional stress in domesticated and undomesticated silver-black foxes. Genetika 16, 18651870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pörtl, D., Jung, C. (2017) Is dog domestication due to epigenetic modulation in brain? Dog Behav. 3(2).

  • Prato-Previde, E., Custance, D. M., Spiezio, C., Sabatini, F. (2003) Is the dog-human relationship an attachment bond? An observational study using Ainsworth’s strange situation. Behaviour 140, 225254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radley, J. J., Rocher, A. B., Rodriguez, A., Ehlenberger, D. B., Dammann, M., McEwen, B. S., Morrison, J. H., Wearne, S. L., Hof, P. R. (2008) Repeated stress alters dendritic spine morphology in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 507, 11411150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Range, F., Jenikejew, J., Schröder, I., Virányi, Z. (2014) Differences in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves. Front. Psychol. 5, 1299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Range, F., Virányi, Z. (2011) Development of gaze following abilities in wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS One 6(2), e16888.

  • Range, F., Virányi, Z. (2013) Social learning from humans or conspecifics: differences and similarities between wolves and dogs. Front. Psychol. 4, 868.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Range, F., Virányi, Z. (2014) Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs. PLoS One 9, e86559.

  • Reep, R. L., Finlay, B. L., Darlington, R. B. (2007) The limbic system in mammalian brain evolution. Brain Behav. Evol. 70, 5770.

  • Reul, J. M., de Kloet, E. R. (1985) Two receptor systems for corticosterone in rat brain: microdistribution and differential occupation. Endocrinology 117, 25052511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rizzolatti, G., Craighero, L. (2004) The mirror-neuron system. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 169192.

  • Romero, T., Ito, M., Saito, A., Hasegawa, T. (2014) Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves. PLoS One 9, e105963.

  • Roozendaal, B., McEwen, B. S., Chattarji, S. (2009) Stress, memory and the amygdala. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(6), 423433.

  • Rutherford, S. L., Lindquist, S. (1998) Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution. Nature 396(6709), 336342.

  • Saetre, P., Lindberg, J., Leonard, J. A., Olsson, K., Pettersson, U., Ellegren, H., Bergström, T. F., Vilà, C., Jazin, E. (2004) From wild wolf to domestic dog: gene expression changes in the brain. Mol. Brain Res. 126, 198206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, S. J., He, X., Willsey, A. J., Ercan-Sencicek, A. G., Samocha, K. E., Cicek, A. E., Murtha, M. T., Bal, V. H., Bishop, S. L., Dong, S., Goldberg, A. P., Jinlu, C., Keaney, J. F., Klei, L., Mandell, J. D., Moreno-De-Luca, D., Poultney, C. S., Robinson, E. B., Smith, L., Solli-Nowlan, T., Su, M. Y., Teran, N. A., Walker, M. F., Werling, D. M., Beaudet, A. L., Cantor, R. M., Fombonne, E., Geschwind, D. H., Grice, D. E., Lord, C., Lowe, J. K., Mane, S. M., Martin, D. M., Morrow, E. M., Talkowski, M. E., Sutcliffe, J. S., Walsh, C. A., Yu, T. W., Autism Sequencing Consortium, Ledbetter, D. H., Martin, C. L., Cook, E. H., Buxbaum, J. D., Daly, M. J., Devlin, B., Roeder, K., State, M. W. (2015) Insights into autism spectrum disorder genomic architecture and biology from 71 risk loci. Neuron 87(6), 12151233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shipman, P. (2015) How do you kill 86 mammoths? Taphonomic investigations of mammoth megasites. Quarter. Int. 359–360, 3846.

  • Siewertsen, C., French, E., Teramoto, M. (2015) Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy. Adv. Mind Body Med. 29, 2225.

  • Spring, B. (1984) Recent research on the behavioral effects of tryptophan and carbohydrate. Nutr. Health. 3(1–2), 5567.

  • Stoeckel, L. E., Palley, L. S., Gollub, R. L., Niemi, S. M., Evins, A. E. (2014) Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study. PLoS One 9, e107205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, G., Gudsnuk, K., Kuo, S. H., Cotrina, M. L., Rosoklija, G., Sosunov, A., Sonders, M. S., Kanter, E., Castagna, C., Yamamoto, A., Yue, Z., Arancio, O., Peterson, B. S., Champagne, F., Dwork, A. J., Goldman, J., Sulzer, D. (2014) Loss of mTOR-dependent macroautophagy causes autistic-like synaptic pruning deficits. Neuron 83(5), 11311143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thalmann, O., Shapiro, B., Cui, P., Schuenemann, V. J., Sawyer, S. K., Greenfield, D. L., Germonpre, M. B., Sablin, M. V., Lopez-Giraldez, F., Domingo-Roura, X., Napierala, H., Uerpmann, H.-P., Loponte, D. M., Acosta, A. A., Giemsch, L., Schmitz, R. W., Worthington, B., Buikstra, J. E., Druzhkova, A., Graphodatsky, A. S., Ovodov, N. D., Wahlberg, N., Freedman, A. H., Schweizer, R. M., Koepfli, K.-P., Leonard, J. A., Meyer, M., Krause, J., Paabo, S., Green, R. E., Wayne, R. K. (2013) Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient Canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs. Science 342, 871874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Topál, J., Gergely, G., Erdohegyi, A., Csibra, G., Miklósi, A. (2009) Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants. Science 325(5945), 12691272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trut, L., Oskina, I., Kharlamova, A. (2009) Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model. BioEssays 31, 349360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Udell, M., Dorey, N. R., Wynne, C. (2010) The performance of stray dogs (Canis familiaris) living in a shelter on human-guided object-choice tasks. Anim. Behav. 79, 717725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • vonHoldt, B. M., Shuldiner, E., Koch, I., Kartzinel, R., Hogan, A., Brubaker, L., Wanser, S., Stahler, D., Wynne, C., Ostrander, E. A., Sinsheimer, J., Udell, M. (2017) Structural variants in genes associated with human Williams-Beuren syndrome underlie stereotypical hypersociability in domestic dogs. Sci. Adv. 3(7), e1700398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vyas, A., Mitra, R., Shankaranarayana Rao, B. S., Chattarji, S. (2002) Chronic stress induces contrasting patterns of dendritic remodeling in hippocampal and amygdaloid neurons. J. Neurosci. 22(15), 68106818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waddington, C. H. (1952) Selection of the genetic basis for an acquired character. Nature 169, 625626.

  • Waterland, R., Jirtle, R. (2003) Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation. Mol Cell Biol 23(15), 293300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weaver, I. C. G. (2011) A role for DNA methylation in experience-dependent (Re)programming of defensive responses. In: Clelland, J. D. (ed.) Genomics, Proteomics, and the Nervous System, Advances in Neurobiology 2. Springer, New York, NY.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welberg, L. (2008) Mirror neurons: singing in the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 163.

  • Whiten, A. (2013) Humans are not alone in computing how others see the world. Anim. Behav. 86(2), 213221.

  • Wilkins, A. S., Wrangham, R. W., Fitch, W. T. (2014) The “Domestication syndrome” in mammals: a unified explanation based on neural crest cell behavior and genetics. Genetics 197, 795808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yong, M. H., Ruffman, T. (2014) Emotional contagion: dogs and humans show a similar physiological response to human infant crying. Behav. Processes 108, 155165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, L. J., Wang, Z., Donaldson, R., Rissman, E. F. (1998) Estrogen receptor alpha is essential for induction of oxytocin receptor by estrogen. Neuroreport 9(5), 933936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimen, E. (1997) Der Wolf [The wolf]. Kosmos, Stuttgart, Germany.