View More View Less
  • 1 Semmelweis University Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology Budapest Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.

  • Blalock, J.E., Smith, E.M.: A complete regulatory loop between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Fed Proc 44, 108–111 (1985).

    Smith EM , 'A complete regulatory loop between the immune and neuroendocrine systems ' (1985 ) 44 Fed Proc : 108 -111.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, E.M., Phan, M., Kruger, T.E., Coppenhaver, D.H., Blalock, J.E.: Human lymphocyte production of immunoreactive thyrotropin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 6010–6013 (1983).

    Blalock JE , 'Human lymphocyte production of immunoreactive thyrotropin ' (1983 ) 80 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 6010 -6013.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Trepel, F.: Number and distribution of lymphocytes in man. A critical analysis. Klin Wschr 52, 511–515 (1974).

    Trepel F , 'Number and distribution of lymphocytes in man. A critical analysis ' (1974 ) 52 Klin Wschr : 511 -515.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harbour-McMenamin, D., Smith, E.M., Blalock, J.E.: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induction of leukocyte-derived corticotropin and endorphins. Infect Immunol 48, 813–817 (1985).

    Blalock JE , 'Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induction of leukocyte-derived corticotropin and endorphins ' (1985 ) 48 Infect Immunol : 813 -817.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Artuc, M., Böhm, M., Grützkau, A., Smorodchenko, A., Zuberbier, T., Luger, T., Henz, B.M.: Human mast cells in the neurohormonal network: Expression of POMC, detection of precursor proteases, and evidence for IgE-dependent secretion of alpha-MSH. J Invest Dermatol 126, 1976–1981 (2006).

    Henz BM , 'Human mast cells in the neurohormonal network: Expression of POMC, detection of precursor proteases, and evidence for IgE-dependent secretion of alpha-MSH ' (2006 ) 126 J Invest Dermatol : 1976 -1981.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, E.M., Harbour-McMenamin, D., Blalock, J.E.: Lymphocyte production of endorphins and endorphin-mediated immunoregulatory activity. J Immunol 135, 779s–782s (1985).

    Blalock JE , 'Lymphocyte production of endorphins and endorphin-mediated immunoregulatory activity ' (1985 ) 135 J Immunol : 779s -782s.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bhargava, H.N.: Opioid peptides, receptors, and immune function. NIDA Res Monogr 96, 220–233 (1990).

    Bhargava HN , 'Opioid peptides, receptors, and immune function ' (1990 ) 96 NIDA Res Monogr : 220 -233.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harbour, D.V., Smith, E.M., Blalock, J.E.: Splenic lymphocyte production of an endorphin during endotoxic shock. Brain Behav Immun 1, 123–133 (1987).

    Blalock JE , 'Splenic lymphocyte production of an endorphin during endotoxic shock ' (1987 ) 1 Brain Behav Immun : 123 -133.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ottaviani, E., Trevisan, P., Pederzoli, A.: Immunocytochemical evidence for ACTH- and beta-endorphin-like molecules in phagocytic blood cells of urodelan amphibians. Peptides 13, 227–231 (1992).

    Pederzoli A , 'Immunocytochemical evidence for ACTH- and beta-endorphin-like molecules in phagocytic blood cells of urodelan amphibians ' (1992 ) 13 Peptides : 227 -231.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pállinger, É., Csaba, G.: A hormone map of human immune cells showing the presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone, triiodothyronine and endorphin in immunophenotyped white blood cells. Immunology 123, 584–589 (2008).

    Csaba G , 'A hormone map of human immune cells showing the presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone, triiodothyronine and endorphin in immunophenotyped white blood cells ' (2008 ) 123 Immunology : 584 -589.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mousa, S.A., Shakibaei, M., Sitte, N., Schafer, M., Stein, C.: Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain. Endocrinology 145, 1331–1341 (2004).

    Stein C , 'Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain ' (2004 ) 145 Endocrinology : 1331 -1341.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fischer, E.G.: Opioid peptides modulate immune functions. A review. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 10, 265–326 (1988).

    Fischer EG , 'Opioid peptides modulate immune functions. A review ' (1988 ) 10 Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol : 265 -326.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Makman, M.H., Bilfinger, T.V., Stefano, G.B.: Human granulocytes contain an alkaloid-selective receptor mediating inhibition of cytokine-induced activation and chemotaxis. J Immunol 154, 1323–1330 (1995).

    Stefano GB , 'Human granulocytes contain an alkaloid-selective receptor mediating inhibition of cytokine-induced activation and chemotaxis ' (1995 ) 154 J Immunol : 1323 -1330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Simpkins, C.O., Dickey, C.A., Fink, M.P.: Human neutrophil migration is enhanced by beta-endorphin. Life Sci 34, 2251–2255 (1984).

    Fink MP , 'Human neutrophil migration is enhanced by beta-endorphin ' (1984 ) 34 Life Sci : 2251 -2255.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sulowska, Z., Majewska, E., Krawczyk, K., Klink, M., Thórzewski, H.: Influence of opioid peptides on human neutrophil apoptosis and activation in vitro. Mediators Inflamm 11, 245–250 (2002).

    Thórzewski H , 'Influence of opioid peptides on human neutrophil apoptosis and activation in vitro ' (2002 ) 11 Mediators Inflamm : 245 -250.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wybran, J.: Enkephalins and endorphins as modifiers of the immune system: Present and future. Fed Proc 44, 92–94 (1985).

    Wybran J , 'Enkephalins and endorphins as modifiers of the immune system: Present and future ' (1985 ) 44 Fed Proc : 92 -94.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • van Epps, D.E., Saland, L.: Beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell chemotaxis. J Immunol 132, 3046–3053 (1984).

    Saland L , 'Beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell chemotaxis ' (1984 ) 132 J Immunol : 3046 -3053.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Oleson, D.R., Johnson, D.R.: Regulation of human natural cytotoxicity by enkephalins and selective opiate agonists. Brain Behav Immun 2, 171–186 (1988).

    Johnson DR , 'Regulation of human natural cytotoxicity by enkephalins and selective opiate agonists ' (1988 ) 2 Brain Behav Immun : 171 -186.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maestroni, G.J., Conti, A.: Immuno-derived opioids as mediators of the immuno-enhancing and anti-stress action of melatonin. Acta Neurol 13, 356–360 (1991).

    Conti A , 'Immuno-derived opioids as mediators of the immuno-enhancing and anti-stress action of melatonin ' (1991 ) 13 Acta Neurol : 356 -360.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gatti, G., Masera, R.G., Pallavicini, L., Sartori, M.L., Staurenghi, A., Orladi, F., Angeli, A.: Interplay in vitro between ACTH, beta-endorphin, and glucocorticoids in the modulation of spontaneous and lymphokine-unducible human natural killer (NK) cell activity. Brain Behav Immun 7, 16–28 (1993).

    Angeli A , 'Interplay in vitro between ACTH, beta-endorphin, and glucocorticoids in the modulation of spontaneous and lymphokine-unducible human natural killer (NK) cell activity ' (1993 ) 7 Brain Behav Immun : 16 -28.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manfredi, B., Clementi, E., Sacerdote, P., Panerai, A.E.: Age-related changes in mitogen-induced beta-endorphin release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Peptides 16, 699–706 (1995).

    Panerai AE , 'Age-related changes in mitogen-induced beta-endorphin release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ' (1995 ) 16 Peptides : 699 -706.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sacerdote, P., Breda, M., Barcellini, W., Meroni, P.L., Panerai, A.E.: Age-related changes of beta-endorphin and cholecystokinin in human rat mononuclear cells. Peptides 12, 1353–1356 (1991).

    Panerai AE , 'Age-related changes of beta-endorphin and cholecystokinin in human rat mononuclear cells ' (1991 ) 12 Peptides : 1353 -1356.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rittner, H.L., Labuz, D., Schaefer, M., Mousa, S.A., Schulz, S., Schafer, M., Stein, C., Brack, A.: Pain control by CXCR2 through Ca2+-regulated release of opioid peptides from polymorphonuclear cells. FASEB J 20, 2627–2629 (2006).

    Brack A , 'Pain control by CXCR2 through Ca2+-regulated release of opioid peptides from polymorphonuclear cells ' (2006 ) 20 FASEB J : 2627 -2629.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mousa, S.A., Bopaiah, C.P., Stein, C., Schafer, M.: Involvement of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes 1 and in peripheral opioid-mediated inhibition of inflammatory pain. Pain 106, 297–307 (2003).

    Schafer M , 'Involvement of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes 1 and in peripheral opioid-mediated inhibition of inflammatory pain ' (2003 ) 106 Pain : 297 -307.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Theoharides, T.C., Donelan, J.M., Papadopoulou, N., Cao, J., Kempuraj, D., Conti, P.: Mast cells as targets of corticotropin-releasing factor and related peptides. Trends Pharm Sci 25, 563–568 (2004).

    Conti P , 'Mast cells as targets of corticotropin-releasing factor and related peptides ' (2004 ) 25 Trends Pharm Sci : 563 -568.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cao, J., Papadopoulou, N., Kempuraj, D., Boucher, W.S., Sugimoto, K., Cetrulo, C.L., Theoharides, T.C.: Human mast cells express corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors and CRH leads to selective secretion of vascular endothelial growth factors. J Immunol 174, 7665–7675 (2005).

    Theoharides TC , 'Human mast cells express corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors and CRH leads to selective secretion of vascular endothelial growth factors ' (2005 ) 174 J Immunol : 7665 -7675.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mastrokas, G., Karautsou, I., Mizamtsidi, M.: Corticotropin releasing hormone and the immune inflammatory response. Eur J Endocrinol 155, S77–S84 (2006).

    Mizamtsidi M , 'Corticotropin releasing hormone and the immune inflammatory response ' (2006 ) 155 Eur J Endocrinol : S77 -S84.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kalantaridou, S., Makrigiannakis, A., Chrousos, E.Z.: Peripheral cotricotropin-releasing hormone is produced in the immune system: Actions, potential roles and clinical implications. Front Biosci 12, 572–580 (2007).

    Chrousos EZ , 'Peripheral cotricotropin-releasing hormone is produced in the immune system: Actions, potential roles and clinical implications ' (2007 ) 12 Front Biosci : 572 -580.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cabot, P.J., Carter, L., Gaiddon, C., Zhang, Q., Schafer, M., Loeffler, J.P., Stein, C.: Immune cell-derived beta endorphin. Production, release, and control of inflammatory pain in rets. J Clin Invest 100, 142–148 (1997).

    Stein C , 'Immune cell-derived beta endorphin. Production, release, and control of inflammatory pain in rets ' (1997 ) 100 J Clin Invest : 142 -148.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mousa, S.A., Zhang, Q., Sirre, N., Ji, R., Stein, C.: Betaendorphin-containing memory-cells and mu-opioid receptors undergo transport to peripheral inflamed tissue. J Neuroimmunol 115, 71–78 (2001).

    Stein C , 'Betaendorphin-containing memory-cells and mu-opioid receptors undergo transport to peripheral inflamed tissue ' (2001 ) 115 J Neuroimmunol : 71 -78.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sitte, N., Busch, M., Mousa, S.A., Labuz, D., Rittner, H., Gore, C., Krause, H., Stein, C., Schafer, M.: Lymphocytes upregulate signal sequence-encoding proopiomelanocortin mRNA and beta-endorphin during painful inflammation in vivo. J Neuroimmunol 183, 133–145 (2007).

    Schafer M , 'Lymphocytes upregulate signal sequence-encoding proopiomelanocortin mRNA and beta-endorphin during painful inflammation in vivo ' (2007 ) 183 J Neuroimmunol : 133 -145.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Verma-Gandhu, M., Verdu, E.F., Cohen-Lyons, D., Collins, S.M.: Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of beta-endorphin in the myenteric plexus. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292, G344–G348 (2007).

    Collins SM , 'Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of beta-endorphin in the myenteric plexus ' (2007 ) 292 Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol : G344 -G348.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Machelska, H., Mousa, S.A., Brack, A., Schopohl, J.K., Rittner, H.L., Schafer, M., Stein, C.: Opioid control of inflammatory pain regulated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J Neurosci 22, 5588–5596 (2002).

    Stein C , 'Opioid control of inflammatory pain regulated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ' (2002 ) 22 J Neurosci : 5588 -5596.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hermanussen, S., Do, M., Cabot, P.J.: Reduction of beta-endorphin containing immune cells in inflamed paw tissue corresponds with a reduction in immune-derived antinociception: reversible by donor activated lymphocytes. Anesth Analg 98, 723–729 (2004).

    Cabot PJ , 'Reduction of beta-endorphin containing immune cells in inflamed paw tissue corresponds with a reduction in immune-derived antinociception: reversible by donor activated lymphocytes ' (2004 ) 98 Anesth Analg : 723 -729.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Iwaszkiewicz, K.S., Schneider, J.J., Hua, S.: Targeting peripheral opioid receptors to promote analgetic and anti-inflammatory actions. Front Pharmacol 4, 132 (2013).

    Hua S , 'Targeting peripheral opioid receptors to promote analgetic and anti-inflammatory actions ' (2013 ) 4 Front Pharmacol : 132 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kapitzke, D., Vetter, I., Cabot, P.J.: Endogenous opoiod analgesia in peripheral tissues and the clinical implications for pain control. Ther Clin Risk Manag 1, 279–297 (2005).

    Cabot PJ , 'Endogenous opoiod analgesia in peripheral tissues and the clinical implications for pain control ' (2005 ) 1 Ther Clin Risk Manag : 279 -297.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schafer, M., Mousa, S.A., Stein, C.: Corticotropin-releasing factor in antinociception and inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol 26, 1–10 (1997).

    Stein C , 'Corticotropin-releasing factor in antinociception and inflammation ' (1997 ) 26 Eur J Pharmacol : 1 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cabot, P.J.: Immune-derived opioids and peripheral antinociception. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 28, 230–232 (2001).

    Cabot PJ , 'Immune-derived opioids and peripheral antinociception ' (2001 ) 28 Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol : 230 -232.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kavelaars, A., Baillieux, R.E., Heijnen, C.J.: Beta-endorphin secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Regulation by glucocorticoids. Life Sci 46, 1233–1240 (1990).

    Heijnen CJ , 'Beta-endorphin secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Regulation by glucocorticoids ' (1990 ) 46 Life Sci : 1233 -1240.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Pállinger, É.: In vitro effect of hormones on the hormone content of rat peritoneal and thymic cells. Is there an endocrine network inside the immune system? Inflamm Res 56, 447–451 (2007).

    Pállinger , 'In vitro effect of hormones on the hormone content of rat peritoneal and thymic cells. Is there an endocrine network inside the immune system? ' (2007 ) 56 Inflamm Res : 447 -451.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Kovács, P., Pállinger, É.: Influence of in vitro and in vivo insulin treatment on the hormone (histamine, serotonin, endorphin and triodothyronine) content of thymus and spleen cells. Life Sci 78, 1034–1037 (2006).

    Pállinger , 'Influence of in vitro and in vivo insulin treatment on the hormone (histamine, serotonin, endorphin and triodothyronine) content of thymus and spleen cells ' (2006 ) 78 Life Sci : 1034 -1037.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Kovács, P., Pállinger, É.: In vitro effect of biogenic amines on a hormonal network inside the immune system? Cell Biol Int 31, 224–228 (2007).

    Pállinger , 'In vitro effect of biogenic amines on a hormonal network inside the immune system? ' (2007 ) 31 Cell Biol Int : 224 -228.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sacerdote, P., Panerai, A.E.: Pharmacological modulation of beta-endorphin in rat peritoneal macrophages. J Clin Lab Anal 3, 337–339 (1989).

    Panerai AE , 'Pharmacological modulation of beta-endorphin in rat peritoneal macrophages ' (1989 ) 3 J Clin Lab Anal : 337 -339.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dixit, V.D., Marahrens, M., Parvizi, N.: Transport stress modulates adrenocorticotropin secretion from peripheral bovine lymphocytes. J Anim Sct 79, 729–734 (2001).

    Parvizi N , 'Transport stress modulates adrenocorticotropin secretion from peripheral bovine lymphocytes ' (2001 ) 79 J Anim Sct : 729 -734.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, E.M., Galin, F.S., LeBoeuf, R.D., Coppenhaver, D.H., Harbour, D.V., Blalock, J.E.: Nucleotid and amino acid sequence of lymphocyte-derived corticotropin: endotoxin induction of a truncated peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87, 1057–1060 (1990).

    Blalock JE , 'Nucleotid and amino acid sequence of lymphocyte-derived corticotropin: endotoxin induction of a truncated peptide ' (1990 ) 87 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 1057 -1060.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pállinger, É., Kovács, G., Horváth, Z., Müller, J., Csaba, G.: Changes in the hormone (ACTH, insulin, epinephrine) content of immune cells in children having acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 60, 423–431 (2013).

    Csaba G , 'Changes in the hormone (ACTH, insulin, epinephrine) content of immune cells in children having acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) ' (2013 ) 60 Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung : 423 -431.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brooks, K.H.: Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) functions as a late-acting B cell growth factor and synergizes with interleukin 5. J Mol Cell Immunol 4, 327–335 (1990).

    Brooks KH , 'Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) functions as a late-acting B cell growth factor and synergizes with interleukin 5 ' (1990 ) 4 J Mol Cell Immunol : 327 -335.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lyons, P.D., Blalock, J.E.: The kinetics of ACTH expession in rat lymphocyte subpopulations. J Neuroimmunol 63, 103–112 (1995).

    Blalock JE , 'The kinetics of ACTH expession in rat lymphocyte subpopulations ' (1995 ) 63 J Neuroimmunol : 103 -112.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dixit, V.D., Parvizi, N.: Pregnancy stimulates secretrion of adrenocorticotropin and nitric oxide from peripheral bovine lymphocytes. Biol Reprod 64, 242–248 (2001).

    Parvizi N , 'Pregnancy stimulates secretrion of adrenocorticotropin and nitric oxide from peripheral bovine lymphocytes ' (2001 ) 64 Biol Reprod : 242 -248.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Pállinger, É.: Gender dependence in the hormone content of the immune cells. Acta Physiol Hung 96, 45–50 (2009).

    Pállinger , 'Gender dependence in the hormone content of the immune cells ' (2009 ) 96 Acta Physiol Hung : 45 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Tekes, K., Pállinger, É.: Influence of perinatal stress on the hormone content in immune cells of adult rats: dominance of ACTH. Horm Metab Res 41, 617–620 (2009).

    Pállinger , 'Influence of perinatal stress on the hormone content in immune cells of adult rats: dominance of ACTH ' (2009 ) 41 Horm Metab Res : 617 -620.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Kovács, P., Buzás, E., Mazán, M., Pállinger, É.: Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) knock out mouse immune cells have altered expression of ACTH, triiodothyronine and endorphin. Inflamm Res 56, 428–431 (2007).

    Pállinger , 'Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) knock out mouse immune cells have altered expression of ACTH, triiodothyronine and endorphin ' (2007 ) 56 Inflamm Res : 428 -431.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bost, K.L., Smith, E.M., Wear, L.B., Blalock, J.E.: Presence of ACTH and its receptor on a B lymphocyte cell line: A possible autocrine function for a neuroendocrine hormone. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 1, 23–27 (1987).

    Blalock JE , 'Presence of ACTH and its receptor on a B lymphocyte cell line: A possible autocrine function for a neuroendocrine hormone ' (1987 ) 1 J Biol Regul Homeost Agents : 23 -27.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hendricks, G.L., Mashaly, M.M.: Effects of corticotropine releasing factor on the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by leukocyte populations. Br Poult Sci 39, 123–127 (1998).

    Mashaly MM , 'Effects of corticotropine releasing factor on the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by leukocyte populations ' (1998 ) 39 Br Poult Sci : 123 -127.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Olsen, N.J., Nicholson, W.E., DeBold, C.R., Orth, D.N.: Lymphocyte-derived adrenocorticotropin is insufficient to stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis in hypophysectomised rats. Endocrinology 130, 2113–2119 (1992).

    Orth DN , 'Lymphocyte-derived adrenocorticotropin is insufficient to stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis in hypophysectomised rats ' (1992 ) 130 Endocrinology : 2113 -2119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Clarke, B.l., Gebhardt, B.M., Blalock, J.E.: Mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes release biologically active corticotropin. Endocrinology 132, 983–988 (1993).

    Blalock JE , 'Mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes release biologically active corticotropin ' (1993 ) 132 Endocrinology : 983 -988.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peele, M.E., Carr, F.E., Baker, J.R. jr, Wartofsky, L., Burman, K.D.: TSH beta subunit gene expression in human lymphocytes. Am J Med Sci 305, 1–7 (1993).

    Burman KD , 'TSH beta subunit gene expression in human lymphocytes ' (1993 ) 305 Am J Med Sci : 1 -7.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Kovács, P., Pállinger, É.: Immunologically demonstrable hormones and hormone- like molecules in rat white blood cells and mast cells. Cell Biol Int 28, 487–490 (2004).

    Pállinger , 'Immunologically demonstrable hormones and hormone- like molecules in rat white blood cells and mast cells ' (2004 ) 28 Cell Biol Int : 487 -490.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pállinger, É., Horváth, Z., Csóka, M., Kovács, G.T., Csaba, G.: Decreased hormone content of immune cells in children during acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) — effect of treatment. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 58, 41–50 (2011).

    Csaba G , 'Decreased hormone content of immune cells in children during acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) — effect of treatment ' (2011 ) 58 Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung : 41 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pállinger, É., Kovács, P., Csaba, G.: Presence of hormones (triiodothyronine, serotonin and histamine) in the immune cells of newborn rats. Cell Biol Int 29, 826–830 (2005).

    Csaba G , 'Presence of hormones (triiodothyronine, serotonin and histamine) in the immune cells of newborn rats ' (2005 ) 29 Cell Biol Int : 826 -830.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Kovács, P., Pállinger, É.: Effect of inhibition of triiodothyronine (T3) production by thiamazole on the T3 and serotonin content of immune cells. Life Sci 76, 2043–2052 (2005).

    Pállinger , 'Effect of inhibition of triiodothyronine (T3) production by thiamazole on the T3 and serotonin content of immune cells ' (2005 ) 76 Life Sci : 2043 -2052.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smekens, L., Golstein, J., Vanhaelst, L.: Measurement of thyroxine conversion to triiodothyronine using human lymphocytes. A useful simple laboratory technique. J Endocrinol Invest 6, 113–117 (1983).

    Vanhaelst L , 'Measurement of thyroxine conversion to triiodothyronine using human lymphocytes. A useful simple laboratory technique ' (1983 ) 6 J Endocrinol Invest : 113 -117.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nakanishi, K., Taniguchi, Y., Onji, M.: Triiodothyronine enhances expression of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain. Endocr J 46, 437–442 (1999).

    Onji M , 'Triiodothyronine enhances expression of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain ' (1999 ) 46 Endocr J : 437 -442.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yao, C., Zhang, J., Wang, L., Guo, Y., Tian, Z.: Inhibitory effects of thyroxine on cytokine production by T cells in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 7, 1747–1754 (2007).

    Tian Z , 'Inhibitory effects of thyroxine on cytokine production by T cells in mice ' (2007 ) 7 Int Immunopharmacol : 1747 -1754.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mascanfroni, I., Montesinos, Mdel M., Susperreguy, S., Cervi, L., Illarreguy, J.M., Ramseyer, V.D., Masini-Repiso, A.M., Targovnik, H.M., Rabinovich, G.A., Pellizas, C.G.: Control of dendritic cell maturation and function by triiodothyronine. FASEB J 22, 1032–1042 (2008).

    Pellizas CG , 'Control of dendritic cell maturation and function by triiodothyronine ' (2008 ) 22 FASEB J : 1032 -1042.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Pállinger, É.: Thyrotropic hormone (TSH) regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) concentration in immune cells. Inflamm Res 58, 151–154 (2009).

    Pállinger , 'Thyrotropic hormone (TSH) regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) concentration in immune cells ' (2009 ) 58 Inflamm Res : 151 -154.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kruger, T.E., Smith, L.R., Harbour, D.V., Blalock, J.E.: Thyrotropin: An endogenous regulator of the in vitro immune response. J Immunol 142, 744–747 (1989).

    Blalock JE , 'Thyrotropin: An endogenous regulator of the in vitro immune response ' (1989 ) 142 J Immunol : 744 -747.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harbour, D.V., Kruger, T.E., Coppenhaver, D., Smith, E.M., Meyer, W.D.: Differential expression and regulation, of thyrotropin (TSH) in T cell lines. Mol Cell Endocrinol 64, 229–241 (1989).

    Meyer WD , 'Differential expression and regulation, of thyrotropin (TSH) in T cell lines ' (1989 ) 64 Mol Cell Endocrinol : 229 -241.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grasso, G., Massai, L., De Leo, V., Muscettola, M.: The effect of LHRH and TRH on human interferon-gamma production in vivo and in vitro. Life Sci 62, 2005–2014 (1998).

    Muscettola M , 'The effect of LHRH and TRH on human interferon-gamma production in vivo and in vitro ' (1998 ) 62 Life Sci : 2005 -2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montesinos, M.M., Alamino, V.A., Mascanfroni, I.D., Susperreguy, S., Gigena, N., Masini-Repiso, A.M., Rabinovich, G.A., Pellizas, C.G.: Dexamethasone counteracts the immunostimulatory effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on dendritic cells. Steroids 77, 67–76 (2012).

    Pellizas CG , 'Dexamethasone counteracts the immunostimulatory effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on dendritic cells ' (2012 ) 77 Steroids : 67 -76.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pállinger, É., Csaba, G.: Influence of acute stress on the triiodothyronine (T3) and serotonin content of rat’s immune cells. Acta Physiol Hung 92, 47–52 (2005).

    Csaba G , 'Influence of acute stress on the triiodothyronine (T3) and serotonin content of rat’s immune cells ' (2005 ) 92 Acta Physiol Hung : 47 -52.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frick, L.R., Rapanelli, M., Bussmann, U.A., Klecha, A.J., Arcos, M.L., Genaro, A.M., Cremaschi, G.A.: Involvement of thyroid hormones in the alteration of T-cell immunity and tumor progression induced by chronic stress. Biol Psych 65, 935–942 (2009).

    Cremaschi GA , 'Involvement of thyroid hormones in the alteration of T-cell immunity and tumor progression induced by chronic stress ' (2009 ) 65 Biol Psych : 935 -942.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Kovács, P., Tóthfalusi, L., Pállinger, É.: Prolonged effect of stress (water and food deprivation) at weaning or in adult age, on the triiodothyronine and histamine content of immune cells. Horm Metab Res 37, 711–715 (2005).

    Pállinger , 'Prolonged effect of stress (water and food deprivation) at weaning or in adult age, on the triiodothyronine and histamine content of immune cells ' (2005 ) 37 Horm Metab Res : 711 -715.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, H.T., Schuler, L.A., Schultz, R.D.: Growth hormone and Pit-1 expression in bovine fetal lymphoid cells. Domest Anim Endocrinol 14, 399–407 (1997).

    Schultz RD , 'Growth hormone and Pit-1 expression in bovine fetal lymphoid cells ' (1997 ) 14 Domest Anim Endocrinol : 399 -407.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weigent, D.A., Baxter, J.B., Wear, W.E., Smith, L.R., Bost, K.L., Blalock, J.E.: Production of immunoreactive growth hormone by mononuclear leukocytes. FASEB J 2, 2812–2818 (1988).

    Blalock JE , 'Production of immunoreactive growth hormone by mononuclear leukocytes ' (1988 ) 2 FASEB J : 2812 -2818.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kao, T-L., Supowit, S.C., Thompson, E.A., Meyer, W.J.: Immunoreactive growth hormone production by human lymphocyte cell lines. Cell Mol Neurobiol 12, 483–488 (1992).

    Meyer WJ , 'Immunoreactive growth hormone production by human lymphocyte cell lines ' (1992 ) 12 Cell Mol Neurobiol : 483 -488.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weigent, D.A.: High molecular weight isoforms of growth hormone in cells of the immune system. Cell Immunol 27, 44–52 (2011).

    Weigent DA , 'High molecular weight isoforms of growth hormone in cells of the immune system ' (2011 ) 27 Cell Immunol : 44 -52.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dixit, V.D., Mielenz, M., Taub, D.D., Parvizi, N.: Leptin induces growth hormone secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via protein kinase C and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Endocrinology 144, 5595–5603 (2003).

    Parvizi N , 'Leptin induces growth hormone secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via protein kinase C and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism ' (2003 ) 144 Endocrinology : 5595 -5603.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weigent, D.A.: Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity. Cell Immunol 285, 118–132 (2013).

    Weigent DA , 'Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity ' (2013 ) 285 Cell Immunol : 118 -132.

  • Stephanou, A., Knight, R.A., Lightman, S.L.: Production of growth hormone-releasing hormone-like peptide and its mRNA by human lymphocytes. Neuroendocrinology 53, 628–633 (1991).

    Lightman SL , 'Production of growth hormone-releasing hormone-like peptide and its mRNA by human lymphocytes ' (1991 ) 53 Neuroendocrinology : 628 -633.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Khorram, O., Garthwaite, M., Golos, T.: The influence of aging and sex hormones on expression of growth hormone-relasing hormone in the human immune system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 3157–3161 (2001).

    Golos T , 'The influence of aging and sex hormones on expression of growth hormone-relasing hormone in the human immune system ' (2001 ) 86 J Clin Endocrinol Metab : 3157 -3161.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weigent, D.A.: Expression of lymphocyte-derived growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone receptors in aging rats. Cell Immunol 282, 71–78 (2013).

    Weigent DA , 'Expression of lymphocyte-derived growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone receptors in aging rats ' (2013 ) 282 Cell Immunol : 71 -78.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Malarkey, W.B., Wu, H., Cacioppo, J.T., Malarkey, K.L., Poehlmann, K.M., Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K.: Chronic stress down-regulates growth hormone gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of older adults. Endocrine 5, 33–39 (1996).

    Kiecolt-Glaser JK , 'Chronic stress down-regulates growth hormone gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of older adults ' (1996 ) 5 Endocrine : 33 -39.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Auerhammern, C.J., Strasburger, C.J.: Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on the immune system. Eur J Endocrinol 133, 635–645 (1995).

    Strasburger CJ , 'Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on the immune system ' (1995 ) 133 Eur J Endocrinol : 635 -645.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Welniak, L.A., Sun, R., Murphy, W.J.: The role of growth hormone in T-cell development and reconstitution. J Leukocyte Biol 71, 381–387 (2002).

    Murphy WJ , 'The role of growth hormone in T-cell development and reconstitution ' (2002 ) 71 J Leukocyte Biol : 381 -387.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kao, T.L., Meyer, W.J.: Stimulatory effects of immunoreactive growth hormone on proliferation of a human lymphocyte cell line. Cancer Lett 81, 13–18 (1994).

    Meyer WJ , 'Stimulatory effects of immunoreactive growth hormone on proliferation of a human lymphocyte cell line ' (1994 ) 81 Cancer Lett : 13 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sabharwal, P., Glaser, R., Lafuse, W., Varma, S., Arkins, S., Liu, Q., Kooijman, R., Kutz, L., Kelley, K.W., Malarkey, W.B.: Prolactin synthesized and secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells: An autocrine growth factor for lymphoproliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 7713–7716 (1992).

    Malarkey WB , 'Prolactin synthesized and secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells: An autocrine growth factor for lymphoproliferation ' (1992 ) 89 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 7713 -7716.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dogusan, Z., Book, M.L., Verdood, L.Y., Yu-Lee, L.Y., Hoghe-Peters, E.L.: Prolactin activates interferon regulatory factor-I expression in normal lympho-hemopoietic cells. Eur Cytokine Network 11, 435–442 (2000).

    Hoghe-Peters EL , 'Prolactin activates interferon regulatory factor-I expression in normal lympho-hemopoietic cells ' (2000 ) 11 Eur Cytokine Network : 435 -442.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Holaday, J.W.: Neuroendocrine-immune interactions and their relevance to the pharmacology of critical care medicine. Klin Wochenschr 69, S26, 13–19 (1991).

    Holaday JW , 'Neuroendocrine-immune interactions and their relevance to the pharmacology of critical care medicine ' (1991 ) 69 Klin Wochenschr : 13 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Costanza, M., Musio, S., Abou-Hamdan, M., Binart, N., Pedotti, R.: Prolactin is not required for the development of severe experimental encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol 191, 2082–2088 (2013).

    Pedotti R , 'Prolactin is not required for the development of severe experimental encephalomyelitis ' (2013 ) 191 J. Immunol : 2082 -2088.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chavez-Rueda, K., Legorreda-Haquet, M.V., Cervera-Castillo, H., Sanchez, L., Jara, L.J., Zenteno, E., Blanc-Favela, F.: Prolactin effect on CD69 and CD154 expression by CD4+ cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 23, 769–777 (2005).

    Blanc-Favela F , 'Prolactin effect on CD69 and CD154 expression by CD4+ cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients ' (2005 ) 23 Clin Exp Rheumatol : 769 -777.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Larrea, F., Martinez-Castillo, A., Cabrera, V., Alcocer-Varela, J., Queipo, G., Carino, C., Alarcon-Segovia, D.: A bioactive 60-kilodalton prolactin species is preferentially secreted in cultures of mitogen-stimulated and nonstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 3664–3669 (1997).

    Alarcon-Segovia D , 'A bioactive 60-kilodalton prolactin species is preferentially secreted in cultures of mitogen-stimulated and nonstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus ' (1997 ) 82 J Clin Endocrinol Metab : 3664 -3669.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montgomery, D.W.: Prolactin production by immune cells. Lupus 10, 665–675 (2001).

    Montgomery DW , 'Prolactin production by immune cells ' (2001 ) 10 Lupus : 665 -675.

  • Peeva, E., Verkatesch, J., Michael, D., Diamond, B.: Prolactin as a modulator of B cell function: implications for SLE. Biomed Pharmacother 58, 310–319 (2004).

    Diamond B , 'Prolactin as a modulator of B cell function: implications for SLE ' (2004 ) 58 Biomed Pharmacother : 310 -319.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Méndez, I., Alcocer-Varela, J., Parra, A., Lava-Zavala, A., de la Cruz, D.A., Alarcon-Segovia, D., Larrea, E.: Neuroendocrine dopaminergic regulation of prolactin release in systemic lupus erythematosus: a possible role of lymphocyte-derived prolactin. Lupus 13, 45–53 (2004).

    Larrea E , 'Neuroendocrine dopaminergic regulation of prolactin release in systemic lupus erythematosus: a possible role of lymphocyte-derived prolactin ' (2004 ) 13 Lupus : 45 -53.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Russell, D.H.: New aspects of prolactin and immunity: Alymphocyte-derived prolactin-like product and nuclear protein kinase C Activation. Trends Pharmacol Sci 10, 40–44 (1989).

    Russell DH , 'New aspects of prolactin and immunity: Alymphocyte-derived prolactin-like product and nuclear protein kinase C Activation ' (1989 ) 10 Trends Pharmacol Sci : 40 -44.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Baráth, P.: Morphological changes of thymus and the thyroid gland after postnatal extirpation of pineal body. Endocrinol Exp 9, 59–67 (1975).

    Baráth P , 'Morphological changes of thymus and the thyroid gland after postnatal extirpation of pineal body ' (1975 ) 9 Endocrinol Exp : 59 -67.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G.: The pineal regulation of the immune system: 40 years since the discovery. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 60, 77–91 (2013).

    Csaba G , 'The pineal regulation of the immune system: 40 years since the discovery ' (2013 ) 60 Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung : 77 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Finocchiaro, L.M., Arzt, E.S., Fernandez-Castelo, S., Criscuolo, M., Finkielman, S., Nahmod, V.E.: Serotonin and melatonin synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Stimulation by interferon-gamma as part of an immunomodulatory pathway. J Interferon Res 8, 705–716 (1988).

    Nahmod VE , 'Serotonin and melatonin synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Stimulation by interferon-gamma as part of an immunomodulatory pathway ' (1988 ) 8 J Interferon Res : 705 -716.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Finocchiaro, L.M., Nahmod, V.E., Launay, J.M.: Melatonin biosynthesis and metabolism in peripheral mononuclear leucocytes. Biochem J 280, 727–731 (1991).

    Launay JM , 'Melatonin biosynthesis and metabolism in peripheral mononuclear leucocytes ' (1991 ) 280 Biochem J : 727 -731.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carrillo-Vico, A., Calvo, J.R., Abreu, P., Lardone, P.J., Garcia-Maurino, S., Reiter, R.J., Guerrero, J.M.: Evidence of melatonin synthesis by human lymphocytes and its physiological significance: Possible role as intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine substance. FASEB J 18, 537–539 (2004).

    Guerrero JM , 'Evidence of melatonin synthesis by human lymphocytes and its physiological significance: Possible role as intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine substance ' (2004 ) 18 FASEB J : 537 -539.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carrillo-Vico, A., Garcia-Parganeda, A., Naji, L., Calvo, J.R., Romero, M.P., Gurerrero, J.M.: Expression of membrane and nuclear melatonin receptor mRNA and protein in the mouse immune system. Cell Mol Life Sci 60, 2272–2278 (2003).

    Gurerrero JM , 'Expression of membrane and nuclear melatonin receptor mRNA and protein in the mouse immune system ' (2003 ) 60 Cell Mol Life Sci : 2272 -2278.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carrillo-Vico, A., Guerrero, J.M., Lardone, P.J., Reiter, R.J.: A review of the multiple actions of melatonin on the immune system. Endocrine 27, 189–200 (2005).

    Reiter RJ , 'A review of the multiple actions of melatonin on the immune system ' (2005 ) 27 Endocrine : 189 -200.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Calvo, J.R., González-Janes, C., Maldonado, M.D.: The role of melatonin in the cells of innate immunity: A review. J Pineal Res 55, 103–120 (2013).

    Maldonado MD , 'The role of melatonin in the cells of innate immunity: A review ' (2013 ) 55 J Pineal Res : 103 -120.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shaji, A.V., Kulkarni, S.K., Agrewala, J.N.: Regulation of secretion of IL4 and IgG1 isotype by melatonin-stimulated ovalbumin-specific T cells. Clin Exp Immunol 111, 181–185 (1998).

    Agrewala JN , 'Regulation of secretion of IL4 and IgG1 isotype by melatonin-stimulated ovalbumin-specific T cells ' (1998 ) 111 Clin Exp Immunol : 181 -185.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cardinali, D.P., Esquifino, A.I., Srinivasan, V., Pandi-Perumal, S.S.: Melatonin and the immune system in aging. Neuroimmunomodulation 15, 272–278 (2008).

    Pandi-Perumal SS , 'Melatonin and the immune system in aging ' (2008 ) 15 Neuroimmunomodulation : 272 -278.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Srinivasan, V., Maestroni, G.J., Cardinali, D.P., Esquifino, A.I., Perumal, S.R., Miller, S.C.: Melatonin, immune function and aging. Immun Ageing 29, 17 (2005).

    Miller SC , 'Melatonin, immune function and aging ' (2005 ) 29 Immun Ageing : 17 -.

  • Reiter, R.J., Calvo, J.R., Karbownik, M., Qi, W., Tan, D.X.: Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci USA 917, 376–386 (2009).

    Tan DX , 'Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation ' (2009 ) 917 Ann N Y Acad Sci USA : 376 -386.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Alijotas-Reig, J., Llurba, E., Gris, J.M.: Potentiating maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy: A new challenging role for regulatory T cells. Placenta 2014 02, Epub ahead of print.

    Gris JM , '', in Placenta , (2014 ) -.

  • Szekeres-Bartho, J.: Immunological relationship between the mother and the fetus. Int Rev Immunol 21, 471–495 (2002).

    Szekeres-Bartho J , 'Immunological relationship between the mother and the fetus ' (2002 ) 21 Int Rev Immunol : 471 -495.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dosiou, C., Giudice, L.C.: Natural killer cells in pregnancy and recurrent pregnancy loss: Endocrine and immunologic perspectives. Endocr Rev 26, 44–62 (2005).

    Giudice LC , 'Natural killer cells in pregnancy and recurrent pregnancy loss: Endocrine and immunologic perspectives ' (2005 ) 26 Endocr Rev : 44 -62.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pállinger, É., Csaba, G.: Presence and distribution of biogenic amines (histamin, serotonin and epinephrine) in immunophenotyped human immune cells. Inflamm Res 57, 530–534 (2008).

    Csaba G , 'Presence and distribution of biogenic amines (histamin, serotonin and epinephrine) in immunophenotyped human immune cells ' (2008 ) 57 Inflamm Res : 530 -534.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G., Pállinger, É.: Is there a possibility of intrasystem regulation by hormones produced by the immune cells? Experiments with extremely low concentrations of histamine. Acta Physiol Hung 96, 369–374 (2009).

    Pállinger , 'Is there a possibility of intrasystem regulation by hormones produced by the immune cells? Experiments with extremely low concentrations of histamine ' (2009 ) 96 Acta Physiol Hung : 369 -374.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bergquist, J., Tarkowski, A., Ekman, R., Ewing, A.: Discovery of endogenous catecholamines in lymphocytes and evidence for catecholamine regulation of lymphocyte function via an autocrine loop. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 12912–12916 (1994).

    Ewing A , 'Discovery of endogenous catecholamines in lymphocytes and evidence for catecholamine regulation of lymphocyte function via an autocrine loop ' (1994 ) 91 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 12912 -12916.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ilani, T., Strous, R.D., Fuchs, S.: Dopaminergic regulation of immune cells via D3 dopamine receptor: Apathway mediated by activated T cells. FASEB J 18, 1600–1602 (2004).

    Fuchs S , 'Dopaminergic regulation of immune cells via D3 dopamine receptor: Apathway mediated by activated T cells ' (2004 ) 18 FASEB J : 1600 -1602.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nakano, K., Higashi, T., Takagi, R., Hashimoto, K., Tanaka, Y., Matsushita, S.: Dopamine released by dendritic cells polarizes Th2 differentiation. Int Immunol 21, 645–654 (2009).

    Matsushita S , 'Dopamine released by dendritic cells polarizes Th2 differentiation ' (2009 ) 21 Int Immunol : 645 -654.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harbour-McMenamin, D., Smith, E.M., Blalock, J.E.: Production of immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin during mixed lymphocyte reactions: A possible selective mechanism for genetic diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 6834–6838 (1986).

    Blalock JE , 'Production of immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin during mixed lymphocyte reactions: A possible selective mechanism for genetic diversity ' (1986 ) 83 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 6834 -6838.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Silverman, A.J., Millar, R.P., King, J.A., Zhuang, X., Silver, R.: Mast cells with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like immunoreactivity in the brain of doves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 3695–3699 (1994).

    Silver R , 'Mast cells with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like immunoreactivity in the brain of doves ' (1994 ) 91 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 3695 -3699.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Emanuele, N.V., Emanuele, M.A., Tentler, J., Kirsteins, L., Azad, N., Lawrence, A.M.: Rat spleen lymphocytes contain an immunoactive and bioactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 126, 2482–2486 (1990).

    Lawrence AM , 'Rat spleen lymphocytes contain an immunoactive and bioactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ' (1990 ) 126 Endocrinology : 2482 -2486.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maier, C.C., Marchetti, B., LeBoeuf, R.D., Blalock, J.E.: Thymocytes express a mRNA that is identical to hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone mRNA. Cell Mol Neurobiol 12, 447–454 (1992).

    Blalock JE , 'Thymocytes express a mRNA that is identical to hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone mRNA ' (1992 ) 12 Cell Mol Neurobiol : 447 -454.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mackins, C.J., Kano, S., Seyedi, N., Schafer, U., Reid, A.C., Machida, T., Silver, R.B., Levi, R.: Cardiac mast cell-derived renin promotes local angiotensin formation, norepinephrine release, arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion. J Clin Invest 116, 1063–1070 (2006).

    Levi R , 'Cardiac mast cell-derived renin promotes local angiotensin formation, norepinephrine release, arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion ' (2006 ) 116 J Clin Invest : 1063 -1070.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wershil, B.K., Turck, C.W., Sreedharan, S.P., Yang, J., An, S., Galli, S.J., Goetzl, E.J.: Variants of vasoactive intestinal peptide in mouse mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells. Cell Immunol 151, 369–378 (1993).

    Goetzl EJ , 'Variants of vasoactive intestinal peptide in mouse mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells ' (1993 ) 151 Cell Immunol : 369 -378.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Martinez, C., Delgado, M., Abad, C., Gomariz, R.P., Ganea, D., Leceta, J.: Regulation of VIP production and secretion by murine lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 93, 126–138 (1999).

    Leceta J , 'Regulation of VIP production and secretion by murine lymphocytes ' (1999 ) 93 J Neuroimmunol : 126 -138.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jankowski, V., Vanholder, R., van der Giet, M., Henning, L., Tölle, M., Schönfelder, G., Krakow, A., Karadogan, S., Gustavsson, N., Gobom, J., Webb, J., Lehrach, H., Giebing, G., Schlüter, H., Hilgers, K.F., Zidek, W., Jankowski, J.: Detection pf angiotensin II in supernatans of stimulated mononuclear leukocytes by matrix.assisted desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass analysis. Hypertension 46, 591–597 (2005).

    Jankowski J , 'Detection pf angiotensin II in supernatans of stimulated mononuclear leukocytes by matrix.assisted desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass analysis ' (2005 ) 46 Hypertension : 591 -597.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goodman, D.W., Isakson, P.C.: Mitogen activation of resting lymphocytes exposes cryptic insulin receptors. J Biol Chem 268, 4207–4215 (1993).

    Isakson PC , 'Mitogen activation of resting lymphocytes exposes cryptic insulin receptors ' (1993 ) 268 J Biol Chem : 4207 -4215.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G.: The hormonal system of the unicellular Tetrahymena: A review with evolutionary aspects. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 59, 131–156 (2012).

    Csaba G , 'The hormonal system of the unicellular Tetrahymena: A review with evolutionary aspects ' (2012 ) 59 Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung : 131 -156.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G.: Hormonal imprinting in the unicellular Tetrahymena: The protomodel of epigenetics. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 59, 310 (2012).

    Csaba G , 'Hormonal imprinting in the unicellular Tetrahymena: The protomodel of epigenetics ' (2012 ) 59 Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung : 310 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G.: Hormonal imprinting: Phylogeny, ontogeny, diseases and possible role in present day human evolution. Cell Biochem Funct 26, 1–10 (2008).

    Csaba G , 'Hormonal imprinting: Phylogeny, ontogeny, diseases and possible role in present day human evolution ' (2008 ) 26 Cell Biochem Funct : 1 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murakami-Kawaguchi, S., Takasawa, S., Onogawa, T., Nata, K., Itaya-Hironaka, A., Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, S., Yamanuchi, A., Ota, H., Takeda, M., Kato, M., Okamoto, H.: Expression of Ins 1 and Ins 2 genes in mouse fetal liver. Cell Tissue Res 355, 303–314 (2014).

    Okamoto H , 'Expression of Ins 1 and Ins 2 genes in mouse fetal liver ' (2014 ) 355 Cell Tissue Res : 303 -314.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wolfe-Coote, S.A., Louw, J., Poerstammer, H.M., DuToit, D.F.: Do the pancreatic primordial buds in embryogenesis have the potential to produce all pancreatic endocrine cells? Med Hypothesis 31, 313–317 (1990).

    DuToit DF , 'Do the pancreatic primordial buds in embryogenesis have the potential to produce all pancreatic endocrine cells? ' (1990 ) 31 Med Hypothesis : 313 -317.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G.: Insulin at a unicellular eukaryote level. Cell Biol Int 28, 267–275 (2013).

    Csaba G , 'Insulin at a unicellular eukaryote level ' (2013 ) 28 Cell Biol Int : 267 -275.

  • Lajkó, E., Pállinger, É., Csaba, G.: Effect of glucose on the insulin production and insulin binding of Tetrahymena. Acta Microbiol immunol Hung 59, 461–468 (2012).

    Csaba G , 'Effect of glucose on the insulin production and insulin binding of Tetrahymena ' (2012 ) 59 Acta Microbiol immunol Hung : 461 -468.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csaba, G.: The immuno-endocrine system: Hormones, receptors and endocrine function of immune cells: The packed transport theory. Adv Neuroimm Biol 1, 71–85 (2011).

    Csaba G , 'The immuno-endocrine system: Hormones, receptors and endocrine function of immune cells: The packed transport theory ' (2011 ) 1 Adv Neuroimm Biol : 71 -85.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Acuna-Castroviejo, D., Escames, G., Venegas, C., Diaz-Casado, M.E., Lima-Cabello, E., López, L.C., Losales-Carral, S., Tan, D.X., Reiter, R.J.: Extrapineal melatonin: sources, regulation and potential functions. Cell Mol Life Sci 2014 Epub ahead of print.

    Reiter RJ , '', in Cell Mol Life Sci , (2014 ) -.

  • Rose, M.K., Parvizi, N.: Up-regulation of lymphocytic growth hormone secretion during the luteal phase of cycle and early pregnancy. Regul Pept 167, 1–4 (2011).

    Parvizi N , 'Up-regulation of lymphocytic growth hormone secretion during the luteal phase of cycle and early pregnancy ' (2011 ) 167 Regul Pept : 1 -4.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Alexander, H., Zimmermann, G., Lehmann, M., Pfeiffer, R., Schöne, E., Leiblein, S., Ziegert, M.: HCG secretion by peritoneal mononuclear cells during pregnancy. Domest Anim Endocrinol 15, 377–382 (1998).

    Ziegert M , 'HCG secretion by peritoneal mononuclear cells during pregnancy ' (1998 ) 15 Domest Anim Endocrinol : 377 -382.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harbour-McMenamin, D., Smith, E.M., Blalock, J.E.: Production of immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin during mixed lymphocyte reactions: A possible selective mechanism for genetic diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 6834–6838 (1986).

    Blalock JE , 'Production of immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin during mixed lymphocyte reactions: A possible selective mechanism for genetic diversity ' (1986 ) 83 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 6834 -6838.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jan 2021 18 0 0
Feb 2021 31 1 2
Mar 2021 63 0 0
Apr 2021 52 0 0
May 2021 56 0 0
Jun 2021 62 0 0
Jul 2021 0 0 0