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  • 1 Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
  • | 2 Dental Center, Indonesia
  • | 3 Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
  • | 4 Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
  • | 5 Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Open access

This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats’ tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29th day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.

Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats’ tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29th day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.

Introduction

Dental caries is an infectious disease with a high estimated prevalence in Indonesia. According to Indonesian Basic Health Research conducted in 2007 by the Department of Health in Indonesia, the active caries prevalence of the population aged 12 years and older reached 46.50%, and 27.90% of subjects were caries free [1]. Caries involves many factors other than Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans); these include plaque accumulation, carbohydrate intake, acidic diet, and conditioning saliva [2–5]. The immune system plays a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, along with other components that impede bacterial growth [6, 7]. Common caries prevention involves the use of fluoride and chlorhexidine. Another caries prevention method is passive immunization by inhibiting biofilm formation without eliminating the associated micro-organisms from the oral cavity [8]. This immunological approach that protects teeth from caries acts by preventing bacterial interaction with dental surfaces. Antibodies can block the interactions between S. mutans adhesions with receptors involved in dental surface colonization or accumulation (glucan binding) or impede the activation of the glucosyltransferase (GTF) [9]. The passive immunization method is considered to be safer and has gained more attention from experts than the active immunization method [10–12]. Various studies have shown the effectiveness of passive immunization in caries prevention both in animals and in humans. IgY antibody, in the form of monoclonal antibody, has been used in passive immunization as well, and it is obtained from egg yolk, colostrum, or cow milk concentrate [11, 13, 14]. Shimazaki et al. [10] have successfully used bovine milk containing antibody against the fusion protein antigen A of the S. mutans serotype c and glucan-binding (GB) domain of GTF-I (PAc-GB) as a source of passive immunization to prevent the recolonization of S. mutans.

The applied technology of IgY has proven to be more beneficial than conventional antibody products obtained from rabbits or other mammals. Chicken eggs produce more antibodies than do mammals. One chicken produces antibodies equal to that produced by 10–20 rabbits. Moreover, it is easier to collect eggs than to obtain blood from 10 rabbits. Each egg yolk can also be purified to produce 50–100 mg of IgY. Generally, IgY production is cheaper, and collecting eggs is non-invasive; furthermore, IgY isolation is fast and easy. Another benefit is that fewer antigens are required to titre IgY over time [15–18]. IgY as an anti-cariogenic agent that has also been examined in the form of toothpaste [19]. Research conducted by Hatta et al. [20] showed a decrease in S. mutans levels in saliva from a volunteer group that received mouthwash containing anti-S. mutans whole-cell IgY. Research conducted by Paau and Rong-Jiang [21] in 2006 showed that the IgY-anti-S. mutans toothpaste decreased the percentage of S. mutans among the total anaerobic bacteria found in both saliva and plaque samples. Similar to previous research, Otake et al. [22] used anti-S. mutans whole-cell IgY in the form of frozen egg yolk in the rat diet. However, the colony count of S. mutans was not significantly different after this intervention. This might have been caused by the shortened contact time of IgY in the mouth. IgY application in the form of gel as a protective and curative strategy against dental caries, however, has not yet been studied.

Materials and methods

Preparation of IgY gel

Anti-S. mutans IgY gel was produced by the Pharmacy Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia. It consisted of a water-based CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose) gel that was mixed with water-soluble fraction (WSF) IgY powder. WSF powder was prepared by the Institute of Agriculture in Bogor using the egg yolks of immunized hens and was purified using the EGGSTRACT purification kit. The specificity of the IgY antibody was examined using the Ouchterlony test with rabbit antiserum against the chicken serum IgG and mouse IgG. Specific binding was only observed with the anti-chicken serum IgG. The confirmation test of the stability of gel production involved the immunoreactivity of IgY, which was checked after storage for 30 days. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to determine the lowest concentrations of anti-S. mutans IgY that still showed immunoreactivity against S. mutans[23].

Experimental rat caries model

The experiment used a caries model in Sprague Dawley rats which were inoculated with S. mutans Xc (the S. mutans serotype c kindly provided by Yamashita, Niigata University, Japan). The coating method was conducted once per day in the labial buccal part of the rats’ teeth (Figure 1). A plaque swab sample was taken from the anterior teeth for the colony forming unit (CFU) test [22]. To test the anti-cariogenic activity of IgY antibodies in vivo, the experimental rat caries model was used. Specific pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats (aged 20 days) were treated with ampicillin and chloramphenicol for 3 days to eliminate the microbial flora. Rat chow was pulverized and mixed with 1 g of each individual antibiotic per 1 kg of diet. This treatment reduced the number of oral micro-organisms when the oral swabs were obtained from the individual rats and examined on plates containing TSB agar. S. mutans was not detected in the oral cavity. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were selected from the initial group of rats. The rats were then randomly separated into several experimental groups, with each group containing six rats (Figure 1). All rats were fed a modified diet 2000 (M2000) consisting of 56% sucrose [24]. The rats were then infected with S. mutans Xc (c) strains (1 mg/ml) by pipette (50 μl of 1 × 1011 CFU/ml) at 24 days of age (Figure 1). Each day, two groups of rats were given coated gels containing 2% IgY anti-S. mutans Xc, which was started on the first day for group A and on the 29th day for group C. Among the control group animals, group B received no gel coating, while group D rats were coated daily with plain gel. All rats were sacrificed at 78 days of age or on day 56 of the experimental protocol, and oral swabs were taken to confirm the colonization of the inoculum on days 11 and 34. Approval for the in vivo rat research project was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were then selected from the initial group of rats.

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Summary of in vivo experiment protocol in Sprague Dawley rat

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 63, 2; 10.1556/030.63.2016.2.2

Determination of immunoreactivity of rat saliva

To determine the immunoreactivity of the non-stimulated saliva, samples were collected from each rat after daily IgY gel coating and were subsequently evaluated by ELISA. The rat saliva volume measurement was conducted while the rats were still unconscious. Saliva was obtained using pipettes with 3 suctions over 3 min. The collected material was then placed in properly labeled sterile tubes containing 50 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The samples were stored at −20 °C before further examination and later processed at the Oral Biology Laboratory of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia. The time course of the antibody levels in the egg yolk against S. mutans (c) was evaluated using the ELISA method as described by Bachtiar et al. [25]. S. mutans antigen was suspended in 0.1 mol/l carbonate buffer (pH 9.6). This antigen suspension at 100 μl/well was used to coat the ELISA plate. Skim milk was used for blocking. Each well was washed three times with 200 μl of PBS containing 0.05% Tween 20 (PBS-Tween). Rat saliva was diluted 200-fold with PBS-Tween; 100 μl per well in triplicate was reacted with the antigen for 2 h at 37 °C. After each well was washed again with PBS-Tween (as mentioned above), alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated rabbit IgG anti-chicken IgG (Abcam Laboratories, Inc.), diluted 2000-fold with PBS-Tween (100 μl), was added to each well, and the plate was incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Each well was washed with PBS-Tween, and 100 μl of the substrate solution (p-nitrophenyl phosphate, 1 mg/ml diethanolamine buffer, pH 9.8, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) was added. The enzyme reaction (30 min at room temperature) was stopped by adding 5 mol/l NaOH (50 μl/well), and the color that developed was read at 450 nm with a plate reader (Model 2550, Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA). As a control, saliva samples obtained from non-IgY or plain gel were used.

Results

Immunoreactivity of the IgY gel

Comparisons of immunoreactivity between anti-S. mutans IgY gel and pure IgY WSF powder in water were determined using ELISA. The stability of IgY gel after this study still displayed ELISA reactivity (OD 0.6) after storage for 30 days. Anti-S. mutans IgY gel reached the same antibody level as that of pure IgY WSF powder, even after mixing with additional gel materials (Figure 2).

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Immunoreactivity of IgY in gel (gel IgY), IgY in water (IgY), gel without IgY (gel), and blank control (blank) against S. mutans antigen. There is no significant difference in immunogenicity between IgY in the form of gel and without gel (water-soluble fraction). Gel IgY and IgY are immunoreactive against S. mutans antigen compared to the controls (gel and blank) (p < 0.05). NS: ANOVA post hoc Bonferroni was not significantly different (p = 0.51). *: post hoc test was significantly different (p < 0.05)

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 63, 2; 10.1556/030.63.2016.2.2

The effect of the anti-S. mutans IgY gel on the S. mutans colony counts is shown in Figure 3. S. mutans colony counts in group A decreased after coating the rats’ tooth surfaces with anti-S. mutans IgY gel. Similar results showing a significant difference from the control group were obtained in groups C and D, which both received gel coating. Interestingly, the most significant reduction in S. mutans count was observed in group A, which had the longest period of gel application. In contrast, without the coating as a control, S. mutans colony counts increased significantly in group B. These results showed that gel application on the tooth surfaces provided biofilm protection by reducing S. mutans colony formation.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

S. mutans colony counts in the tooth surface of Sprague Dawley rats. Group A: rats coated with IgY gel; group B: control group without coating; group C: rats coated with IgY gel on the 29th day; group D: rats coated with gel without IgY. *: significant difference was seen (p < 0.05) using ANOVA post hoc Bonferroni test

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 63, 2; 10.1556/030.63.2016.2.2

The immunoreactivity of anti-S. mutans IgY gel in the rat saliva was evaluated using ELISA. There was no significant difference among the groups (Figure 4). These results showed that even longer gel application on the tooth surfaces resulted in an OD below 0.3, and there was no immunoreactivity in the saliva in all groups.

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Immunoreactivity of IgY in saliva of the Sprague Dawley rats after 29 days. Control: medium PBS; group A: rats coated with IgY gel; group B: control animals without coating; group C: coating with IgY gel on the 29th day; group D: coating with gel without IgY. NS: ANOVA was not significantly different (p > 0.05)

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 63, 2; 10.1556/030.63.2016.2.2

Oral examination of group C rats displayed the curative effect of the IgY gel. This group was coated with gel when white spots started to appear on one of the rat’s teeth; on the 29th day, two of the rats were observed to have early carious lesions (data not shown).

Discussion

Our study showed that there were no differences in the antibody levels between anti-S. mutans IgY gel and pure IgY WSF powder in water. The mean values of S. mutans colony counts on the tooth surface of Sprague Dawley rats showed significant differences between the rats coated with IgY gel and the other groups, whereas no difference was observed in saliva immunoreactivity among the groups. Previous research has proved that IgY also affects bacterial colonization. The coating of gel indicated a remineralization process occurring on the teeth [26]. Wen et al. [27] reported that IgY was capable of impeding glucan synthesis by S. mutans and S. sobrinus. However, several of these studies did not use gel as a clinical application medium, instead relying on mouthwash or food and toothpaste [2122]. Compared with mouthwash, pure IgY is dissolved in 10 ml of water [20]. This study showed that one gargling requires 2 g or 2% of 10 ml mouthwash, whereas media in the form of gel requires only 0.2 g or 2% of 1 g of the IgY gel for a single use. As such, less IgY is required to impede the activity of S. mutans when gels are used.

The selection of IgY gel was also supported by in vitro research needed to evaluate the biological stability of IgY through an immunoreactivity capability test of the IgY gel. The IgY gel was stored for 30 days at room temperature [28]. Then, its immunoreactivity was compared to that of pure IgY in water using ELISA. The result of this in vitro research showed that the immunoreactivity of the IgY gel was as stable as that of the IgY without gel. Therefore, the effect of the anti-caries IgY gel was not lower than that of pure IgY. Similarly, Larsson and Sjoquist [29] studied pure IgY and confirmed that it can be stored for more than 10 years in 40 °C without any change in antibody activity. Such stability was sustained for as long as 6 months at room temperature or for 1 month at 37 °C [28]. The stability of IgY gel after this study still displayed ELISA reactivity (OD 0.6) after storage for 30 days. This was promising data, as the biological properties of IgY gel without any preservatives persisted. In addition, it was significantly different compared with the control group. The immunoreactivity properties might have been enhanced if protein preservatives had been added.

We inoculated S. mutans serotype c in the oral cavities of rats that were previously administered ampicillin and chloramphenicol for three days to eliminate microbial flora [22] and to prevent the possible impact of infections from other bacteria. In Figure 3, the group that received the IgY gel coat from the first day had lower levels of S. mutans bacterial colonies than did the group that received IgY starting on day 29. However, their colony counts were still lower than those of the group that received the gel without any treatment. S. mutans colony quantification showed the capability of the IgY gel in impeding biofilm formation at levels that were 100 times higher than those observed in samples without a gel coating.

Group D, in which plain gel was administered as a control group, showed surprising data of a significant inhibition of S. mutans colonization. The small number of S. mutans colonies in group D might be due to the role of the increased volume from rat saliva in all experimental groups which received a gel (data not shown). A thickening agent such as CMC could stimulate saliva production. The role of increased saliva production between groups A and D, which received 54 days of gel application, showed almost similar colony count (p = 0.206). Results of groups A and C, which received IgY gel for 54 days and 27 days, respectively, showed no significant difference (p = 0.96). Duration of using IgY gel did not strongly influence the inhibition effect.

We found an increase in saliva volume in all experimental groups when saliva samples were collected three times without stimulation for 3 min and immunoreactivity by ELISA was observed. As shown in Figure 4, ELISA showed that the immunoreactivity of the IgY gel in the rat’s saliva in all experimental groups was not significantly different (OD 0.2–0.3). This means that IgY was not detected in the saliva after the end of the experiment. Undetected immunoreactivity of the IgY gel after mixing with saliva was possibly due to enzymes in the rat’s saliva that were able to destroy proteins. However, the immunoreactivity reduction of the IgY gel that was without preservatives still showed an ability to block S. mutans.

According to Chang’s research, the addition of maltose, sucrose, glycine, and glycerol increased IgY stability [30]. On the other hand, protein destruction by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin could also be prevented by adding gum arabic [16]. By adding various agents, the effectiveness of the IgY gel might be optimized, and further research should be conducted to enhance future IgY gel formulations.

During saliva collection, higher saliva volumes were found in the IgY gel- and plain gel-coated group. It is possible that the gel increased saliva production, as well as played a role in reducing the caries risk. To our best knowledge, other observations of rat saliva volumes have not been conducted to date [14, 22]. The increase in saliva volume could have neutralized acidic conditions, which are a cause of white spot lesions. In this study, the white spot lesions disappeared one week after application of the IgY gel.

It has been proven by numerous experts in cariology that saliva is an agent for caries prevention. According to Edgar [31], saliva contains, among other things, various immunoglobulin and non-globulin anti-bacterial agents such as amylase, lysosomes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, apolactoferrin, and histatins. Saliva prevents the formation of biofilms that can cause caries. IgY gel could inhibit the growth of S. mutans. Our research revealed the impact of anti-S. mutans IgY gel and its prevention of dental caries in vitro, as well as in vivo, in Sprague Dawley rats. Anti-S. mutans IgY gel still displayed reactivity levels similar to that of pure IgY solution after being stored for 30 days at room temperature. The use of additional media in the form of gels would not affect the content of pure IgY nor change its biological properties. Given the various roles of IgY gel, it is expected that this research could serve as a foundation for further investigation in humans. Last, our results could be implemented in cariology experiments in the community. The safety of anti-S. mutans IgY gel is adequate, given its lack of side effects, and it is approved for use according to the FDA’s food-grade materials’ standards [32].

Conclusion

Topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by RISBIN IPTEKDOK, Universitas Indonesia research grant 2012, and Competence-based Reseach Grant from The Directorate Higher Education RI 2012. We acknowledge the expert technical assistance of Oral Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia and Immunology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinarian Institute of Agriculture Bogor. The authors have no commercial interest in any existing company with regard to the products investigated in this paper.

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  • 1.

    Departemen Kesehatan, Republik Indonesia: Riset kesehatan dasar (RISKESDAS) 2007. Jakarta Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    de Souza, P. M., Mello Proenca, M. A., Franco, M. M., Rodrigues, V. P., Costa, J. F., Costa, E. L.: Association between early childhood caries and maternal caries status: A cross-section study in Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil. Eur J Dent 9, 122126 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Metz, I., Rothmaier, K., Pitchika, V., Crispin, A., Hickel, R., Garcia-Godoy, F., Bucher, K., Kuhnisch, J.: Risk factors for secondary caries in direct composite restorations in primary teeth. Int J Paediatr Dent 25, 451461 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Opal, S., Garg, S., Jain, J., Walia, I.: Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk. Aust Dent J 60, 211 (2015).

  • 5.

    Winter, J., Glaser, M., Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M., Pieper, K.: Association of caries increment in preschool children with nutritional and preventive variables. Clin Oral Investig 19, 19131919 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sahanggamu, D., Dillon, D., Bachtiar, E. W.: Associations amongst nutritional status, salivary immunoglobulin a response to Streptococcus mutans and primary dentition caries among Indonesian preschoolers. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. Karger, Switzerland, 2009, p. 321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Parisotto, T. M., King, W. F., Duque, C., Mattos-Graner, R. O., Steiner-Oliveira, C., Nobre-Dos-Santos, M., Smith, D. J.: Immunological and microbiologic changes during caries development in young children. Caries Res 45, 377385 (2011).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Scheie, A. A., Petersen, F. C.: The biofilm concept: Consequences for future prophylaxis of oral diseases? Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 15, 412 (2004).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Ray, C. A., Gfell, L. E., Buller, T. L., Gregory, R. L.: Interactions of Streptococcus mutans fimbria-associated surface proteins with salivary components. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6, 400404 (1999).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dóra Szabó (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor: Dr. Béla Kocsis (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Co-editor: Dr. Andrea Horváth (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board

  • Prof. Éva ÁDÁM (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Sebastian AMYES (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.)
  • Dr. Katalin BURIÁN (Institute of Clinical Microbiology University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.)
  • Dr. Orsolya DOBAY (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Ildikó Rita DUNAY (Institute of Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Magdeburg, Germany)
  • Prof. Levente EMŐDY(Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Anna ERDEI (Department of Immunology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary, MTA-ELTE Immunology Research Group, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Éva Mária FENYŐ (Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden)
  • Prof. László FODOR (Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. József KÓNYA (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Prof. Yvette MÁNDI (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Károly MÁRIALIGETI (Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. János MINÁROVITS (Department of Oral Biology and Experimental Dental Research, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Béla NAGY (Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. István NÁSZ (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Kristóf NÉKÁM (Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers in Buda, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Dr. Eszter OSTORHÁZI (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Rozália PUSZTAI (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Peter L. RÁDY (Department of Dermatology, University of Texas, Houston, Texas, USA)
  • Prof. Éva RAJNAVÖLGYI (Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Prof. Ferenc ROZGONYI (Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Zsuzsanna SCHAFF (2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Joseph G. SINKOVICS (The Cancer Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital, Tampa, Florida, USA)
  • Prof. Júlia SZEKERES (Department of Medical Biology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Mária TAKÁCS (National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses, National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Edit URBÁN (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)

 

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Editorial Correspondence:
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Institute of Medical Microbiology
Semmelweis University
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  • Science Citation Index Expanded
2020  
Total Cites 662
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
2,048
Rank by Immunology 145/162(Q4)
Impact Factor Microbiology 118/137 (Q4)
Impact Factor 1,904
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 0,671
Impact Factor
Journal  0,38
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Immunology 146/174 (Q4)
Citation Indicator  Microbiology 120/142 (Q4)
Citable 42
Items
Total 40
Articles
Total 2
Reviews
Scimago 28
H-index
Scimago 0,439
Journal Rank
Scimago Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous) Q4
Quartile Score Medicine (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus 438/167=2,6
Scite Score  
Scopus General Immunology and Microbiology 31/45 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank  
Scopus 0,760
SNIP
Days from  225
sumbission
to acceptance
Days from  118
acceptance
to publication
Acceptance 19%
Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
485
Impact Factor 1,086
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,864
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,233
Immediacy
Index
0,286
Citable
Items
42
Total
Articles
40
Total
Reviews
2
Cited
Half-Life
5,8
Citing
Half-Life
7,7
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00059
Article Influence
Score
0,246
% Articles
in
Citable Items
95,24
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,07317
Average
IF
Percentile
7,690
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,352
Scopus
Scite Score
320/161=2
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
General Immunology and Microbiology 35/45 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,492
Acceptance
Rate
16%

 

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1954
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 68
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1217-8950 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2640 (Online)

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