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  • 1 Mindong Hospital, Fuan, Ningde, China
  • | 2 The Affiliated Mindong Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuan, Ningde, China
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Abstract

It may take time to obtain a vaccine for the current COVID-19, and the virus genome may keep an evolution and mutations, so a universal and effective vaccine for the coronavirus may not be possible. Epidemiological studies reveal the infection of SARS and COVID-19 in children is less frequent and less severe than in adults. Childhood vaccine-mediated cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation might provide protection against the infections of COVID-19. These data suggest that herd immunization with children vaccines in adults may improve the adult cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation and improve their clinical presentation and prognosis. This can be also useful to cope with future pandemics.

Abstract

It may take time to obtain a vaccine for the current COVID-19, and the virus genome may keep an evolution and mutations, so a universal and effective vaccine for the coronavirus may not be possible. Epidemiological studies reveal the infection of SARS and COVID-19 in children is less frequent and less severe than in adults. Childhood vaccine-mediated cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation might provide protection against the infections of COVID-19. These data suggest that herd immunization with children vaccines in adults may improve the adult cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation and improve their clinical presentation and prognosis. This can be also useful to cope with future pandemics.

From Dec, 2019, an infection of a novel human coronavirus, named COVID-19 has been devastating the world [1–3]. Children are usually more susceptible to viral infection than adults do [4, 5], however, the incidence of COVID-19-infection and fatalities in children is very low. In the age group of 0–9 years old, the incidence of infections is between 0.5% and 0.9% with no fatalities; in the age group of 10–19 years old, the infection rate is between 0.7% and 1.2% with the fatality rate of 0.2% or lower than 0.2%. The infection symptoms in children are usually less severe than that in adults, children are rarely recovered in the intensive care unit [6, 7].

Coincidently, during the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, people between 20 and 40 years old were the most susceptible to the infection of SARS [8–10], persons below the age of 20 were less susceptible, and the lowest incidence of morbidity and mortality were among the individuals between 0 and 9 years old [11–14]. In contrast to adult patients, the patients below 20 years of age usually experienced relatively mild symptoms and had a shorter duration of infection [11, 12, 15, 16].

Both children and adults were exposed to the same virulence of SARS/COVID-19, the specific immunological features of children might be the keystone to play a different interaction between the host immune system and SARS/COVID-19 resulting in different clinical outcomes between children and adults. The specific immunological features of children might be the vaccine-mediated trained immunity [17] and the immunomodulation which may benefit pediatric patients to mild their clinical presentation of SARS and COVID-19.

The innate immune cells (such as monocytes/macrophages) become memory cells after pathogen/vaccine exposure, the memory cells can produce either an enhanced or attenuated immune responses to the afterward exposure of the same or unrelated pathogens, which is defined as trained immunity and immunomodulation [18]. Attenuated immune responses is a kind of immunomodulation which can prevent the immune system from over-reacting against the invading pathogens, because an over-reacting immune response cannot make a distinction between self and non-self tissue leading to the unwanted damage to host tissues [19–22].

Vaccine-mediated enhanced trained-immunity is composed of the humoral (B–cells/antibodies) and cellular immunity (T-cells). Natural killer (NK) cells can be from the B–cell and T-cell lineages, but NK cells are only involved in innate immune responses [23–25]. With the binding of the vaccine-antigen to the B–cell receptor and secondary signaling from cytokines, the stimulated B–cells begin to mature into a plasma cells and then produce of the particular antibody with the best corresponding fit to the vaccine-antigen [23, 24]. The particular antibody can provide protection against the specific reinfection of the vaccine-related pathogen. At the same time vaccine-mediated cellular-immunity (NK cells) and immunomodulation can confer non-specific cross protection to other invading pathogens [26–28].

For example, measles-vaccination cannot only reduce measles-associated fatality, but also very likely to decrease other infection-related mortality [29]. Influenza vaccine can confer the protection against flu, at the same time the vaccine is immune-modulator inducing NK cytotoxic response, one month after the vaccination of influenza the level of NK activity is still significantly higher than that before vaccination, in addition to provide immunity against flu infection, the elevated NK activity can prevent other viral infection [30].

In older children frequent vaccinations can stimulate the humoral immunity to generate antibodies providing effective protection to eliminate the reinfection of vaccine-related pathogens; and the vaccinations can activate the cellular immunity and modulate the immune system, protecting the host from other pathogen-associated infections, and preventing the over-reaction of immune system [29]. However in infants a state of partial immunization can induce a relatively immature trained immunity and low level of cross immunity, thus the clinical presentation of the infants infected with COVID-19 are more severe compared to that of the older children patients [31].

About 75–80% of the viral genome of the COVID-19 is identical to that of the SARS [32]. Genetic resemblance suggests that COVID-19 and SARS may share similar pathogenetic mechanisms [33, 34]. It is a reasonable to speculate that the lower infectivity and fatality of SARS and COVID-19 in children is related to the cross-immunity elicited in children as a response to one or more of their childhood vaccines.

The effect of children vaccine-mediated humoral immunity on SARS had been investigated. The following vaccines had been tested, group A meningococcal polysaccharide, measles, rubella, Bacille Calmette-Guérin, mumps, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Japanese encephalitis, varicella, hepatitis B virus, oral poliovirus vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Results showed these vaccines did not induce cross reactive antibodies against SARS [35]. However the authors did not investigate other possible cross-protective mechanisms: vaccine mediated cross protection of cellular immunity and immunomodulation.

Rotavirus vaccine was not tested in above study. The rotavirus vaccine helps protect people against diarrhea and vomiting caused by rotavirus, an interesting finding in the infection of COVID-19 is that, only 13% of pediatric patients of COVID-19 experience the symptoms of diarrhea, meanwhile 31% of adult patients of COVID-19 have the symptoms of diarrhea [36], in another report 48.5% of adult patients of COVID-19 have the symptoms of diarrhea [37]. The patients of COVID-19 with digestive symptoms, such as anorexia or loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, have a worse clinical outcome and higher risk of mortality compared to those without digestive symptoms [37]. On the other hand, patients without digestive issues are more likely to be cured and discharged from the hospital [38]. The mild clinical presentations and the less frequent symptom of diarrhea in pediatric patients might be secondary to the cross cellular immunity and immunomodulation induced by children vaccination. In fact, it has been reported that vaccination can activate cellular immunity and immunomodulation [26–28].

It may take time to obtain a vaccine for the current COVID-19, and the virus genome may keep an evolution and mutations, so a universal and effective vaccine for the coronavirus may not be possible. My suggestion is herd immunization with children vaccines. We might try to vaccinate adults with children vaccines, we can assign the participants into various groups, such as the group of rotavirus vaccine, the group of measles vaccines, the group of flu vaccines, and the group of multiple vaccine combination, we can compare the effectiveness of different groups and optimize our vaccination design. The goal one is to increase cross cellular immunity, the goal two is to modulate adult immune system preventing it from over-reacting with COVID-19 infection. Vaccinating adults with children vaccine may not eradicate the infection of COVID-19 immediately, but the clinical presentation and patient prognosis might be improved, and the potential benefit far outweigh the risk.

Conflict of interest

We declare that there is no competing financial interest in relation to the work described. There is no conflict of interests at all.

References

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    Cao Q, Chen Y-C. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children: Transmission dynamics and clinical characteristics. J Formos Med Assoc 2020; 119: 670673.

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    Long GH, Chan BHK, Allen JE, Read AF, Graham AL. Experimental manipulation of immune-mediated disease and its fitness costs for rodent malaria parasites. BMC Evol Biol 2008; 8: 128.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    Sorci G, Faivre B. Inflammation and oxidative stress in vertebrate host-parasite systems. Phil Trans R Soc B 2009; 364: 7183.

  • [21]

    Chaplin DD. Overview of the immune response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010 Feb; 125(2 Suppl. 2): S323.

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    Sorci G, Cornet S, Faivre B. Immune evasion, immunopathology and the regulation of the immune system. Pathogens 2013 Mar; 2(1): 7191.

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    Goldsby RA, Kindt TJ, Osborne BA, Kuby J. New York: Freeman; 2003 [Google Scholar].

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Angela SC. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology. J Glob Infect Dis 2011 Jan–Mar; 3(1): 738.

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    Desselberger U, Huppertz HI. Immune responses to rotavirus infection and vaccination and associated correlates of protection. J Infect Dis 2011 Jan 15; 203(2): 18895.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [27]

    Kaufhold RM, Field JA, Caulfield MJ, Wang S, Joseph H, Wooters MA, et al. Memory T-cell response to rotavirus detected with a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay. J Virol 2005; 79(9): 568494.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Sestak, K, McNeal, MM, Choi A, Cole MJ, Ramesh G, Alvarez X, et al. Defining T-cell-mediated immune responses in rotavirus-infected juvenile rhesus macaques. J Virol 2004; 78(19): 1025864.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Christine SB, Mihai GN. A small jab – a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends Immunol 2013; 34: 4319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2013.04.004[PubMed: 23680130] [CrossRef: 10.1016/j.it.2013.04.004].

    • Crossref
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    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z. Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China. Pediatrics 2020: e20200702. [PubMed: 32179660].

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin, Nature 2020; 579: 270273.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Prompetchara E, Ketloy C, Palaga T. Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2020; 38: 19. https://doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0772[PubMed: 32105090] [CrossRef: 10.12932/AP-200220-0772].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Newton AH, Cardani A, Braciale TJ. The host immune response in respiratory virus infection: balancing virus clearance and immunopathology. Semin Immunopathol 2016; 38: 47182.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Yu, Y, Jin HJ, Chen Z, Nenna R, Pierangeli A, Scagnolari C, et al. Children's vaccines do not induce cross reactivity against SARS‐CoV. J Clin Pathol 2007 Feb; 60(2): 20811.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    Pan L, Mu M, Yang P, Sun Y, Wang R, Yan J, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study, Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Mar 26; 115(5): 766773.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [1]

    www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19–11 March 2020.

  • [2]

    WHO www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200324-sitrep-64-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=703b2c40_2Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 64. Date last updated: March 24, 2020.

  • [3]

    Istituto Superiore di Sanità Sorveglianza Integrata COVID-19 in Italia www.epicentro.iss.it/coronavirus/bollettino/Infografica_24marzo%20ITA.pdf. Date last updated: March 24, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    Lee P, Hu YL, Chen PY, Huang YC, Hsueh PR. Are children less susceptible to COVID-19? J Microbiol Immunol Infec 2020: S1684-1182(20)30039-6.

  • [5]

    Monto AS, Ullman BM. Acute respiratory illness in an American community. The Tecumseh Study. JAMA 1974; 227: 1649. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1974.03230150016004[PubMed: 4357298].

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team [The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020; 41: 145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    Istituto Superiore di Sanità www.epicentro.iss.it/coronavirus/bollettino/Bollettino-sorveglianza-integrata-COVID-19_23-marzo%202020.pdf Epidemia COVID-19 Aggiornamento Nazionale. Date last updated March 23, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    You Z, Xin S. Clinical analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Med J Chin PLA 2003; 28: 1126.

  • [9]

    Li Z, Shen K, Wei X. Clinical analysis of pediatric SARS case in Beijing. Chin J Pediatr 2003; 41: 574.

  • [10]

    Li A, Chan C, Chan D. Long-term sequelace of SARS in Children. Paediatr Respir. Rev 2004; 5: 2969.

  • [11]

    Bitnun A, Allen U, Heurter H, King SM, Opavsky MA, Ford-Jones EL, et al.. Children hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related illness in Toronto. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 261.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    Wallace S. Studies indicate disease was mild in children: SARS baffles researchers. AAP News 2003; 23: 145.

  • [13]

    Leung C-W, Kwan Y-W, Ko P-W, Chiu SS, Loung P-Y, Fong N-C, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome among children. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 535.

  • [14]

    Van Bever H, Hia C, Chye Q. Childhood SARS in Singapore. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: 742.

  • [15]

    Liu L, Zheng H, Lu H. Clinical presentation and outcomes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome in children. Pediatr Emerg Med 2003; 10: 188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    Liu JH, Ma SX, Ouyang XL, Wang HB, Yu Y, Li XJ, et al. Determination and comparison of anti-SARS antibody in children and adults, Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2004; 12(2): 217219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    Cristiani L, Mancino E, Matera L, Nenna R, Pierangeli A, Scagnolari C, et al. Will children reveal their secret? The coronavirus dilemma. J Expl Haematol 2004; 12: 217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    Cao Q, Chen Y-C. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children: Transmission dynamics and clinical characteristics. J Formos Med Assoc 2020; 119: 670673.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    Long GH, Chan BHK, Allen JE, Read AF, Graham AL. Experimental manipulation of immune-mediated disease and its fitness costs for rodent malaria parasites. BMC Evol Biol 2008; 8: 128.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    Sorci G, Faivre B. Inflammation and oxidative stress in vertebrate host-parasite systems. Phil Trans R Soc B 2009; 364: 7183.

  • [21]

    Chaplin DD. Overview of the immune response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010 Feb; 125(2 Suppl. 2): S323.

  • [22]

    Sorci G, Cornet S, Faivre B. Immune evasion, immunopathology and the regulation of the immune system. Pathogens 2013 Mar; 2(1): 7191.

  • [23]

    Goldsby RA, Kindt TJ, Osborne BA, Kuby J. New York: Freeman; 2003 [Google Scholar].

  • [24]

    The merck manuals online medical library; 2008. Components of the Immune System. [Last cited on 2009 Nov 26]. Available from: http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec13/ch163/ch163b.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [25]

    Angela SC. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology. J Glob Infect Dis 2011 Jan–Mar; 3(1): 738.

  • [26]

    Desselberger U, Huppertz HI. Immune responses to rotavirus infection and vaccination and associated correlates of protection. J Infect Dis 2011 Jan 15; 203(2): 18895.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [27]

    Kaufhold RM, Field JA, Caulfield MJ, Wang S, Joseph H, Wooters MA, et al. Memory T-cell response to rotavirus detected with a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay. J Virol 2005; 79(9): 568494.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [28]

    Sestak, K, McNeal, MM, Choi A, Cole MJ, Ramesh G, Alvarez X, et al. Defining T-cell-mediated immune responses in rotavirus-infected juvenile rhesus macaques. J Virol 2004; 78(19): 1025864.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [29]

    Christine SB, Mihai GN. A small jab – a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends Immunol 2013; 34: 4319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2013.04.004[PubMed: 23680130] [CrossRef: 10.1016/j.it.2013.04.004].

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [30]

    Myśliwska J, Trzonkowski P, Szmit E, Brydak LB, Machała M, Myśliwski A. Immunomodulating effect of influenza vaccination in the elderly differing in health status. Exp Gerontol 2004; 39: 144758.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [31]

    Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z. Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China. Pediatrics 2020: e20200702. [PubMed: 32179660].

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [32]

    Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin, Nature 2020; 579: 270273.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [33]

    Prompetchara E, Ketloy C, Palaga T. Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2020; 38: 19. https://doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0772[PubMed: 32105090] [CrossRef: 10.12932/AP-200220-0772].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [34]

    Newton AH, Cardani A, Braciale TJ. The host immune response in respiratory virus infection: balancing virus clearance and immunopathology. Semin Immunopathol 2016; 38: 47182.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [35]

    Yu, Y, Jin HJ, Chen Z, Nenna R, Pierangeli A, Scagnolari C, et al. Children's vaccines do not induce cross reactivity against SARS‐CoV. J Clin Pathol 2007 Feb; 60(2): 20811.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [36]

    CDC COVID-19 Response Team, US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children – United States, February 12–April 2, 2020. April 10, 2020/Vol. 69/No. 14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [37]

    Groth L. Is diarrhea a symptom of Covid-19? | Health.com https://www.health.com/condition/infectious-diseases/coronavirus/is-diarrhea-a-symptom-of-covid-19 1/3. 4/10/2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • [38]

    Pan L, Mu M, Yang P, Sun Y, Wang R, Yan J, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study, Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Mar 26; 115(5): 766773.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

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Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dóra Szabó (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor: Dr. Béla Kocsis (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Co-editor: Dr. Andrea Horváth (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board

  • Prof. Éva ÁDÁM (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Sebastian AMYES (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.)
  • Dr. Katalin BURIÁN (Institute of Clinical Microbiology University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.)
  • Dr. Orsolya DOBAY (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Ildikó Rita DUNAY (Institute of Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Magdeburg, Germany)
  • Prof. Levente EMŐDY(Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Anna ERDEI (Department of Immunology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary, MTA-ELTE Immunology Research Group, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Éva Mária FENYŐ (Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden)
  • Prof. László FODOR (Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. József KÓNYA (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Prof. Yvette MÁNDI (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Károly MÁRIALIGETI (Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. János MINÁROVITS (Department of Oral Biology and Experimental Dental Research, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Béla NAGY (Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. István NÁSZ (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Kristóf NÉKÁM (Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers in Buda, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Dr. Eszter OSTORHÁZI (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Rozália PUSZTAI (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Peter L. RÁDY (Department of Dermatology, University of Texas, Houston, Texas, USA)
  • Prof. Éva RAJNAVÖLGYI (Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Prof. Ferenc ROZGONYI (Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Zsuzsanna SCHAFF (2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Joseph G. SINKOVICS (The Cancer Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital, Tampa, Florida, USA)
  • Prof. Júlia SZEKERES (Department of Medical Biology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Mária TAKÁCS (National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses, National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Edit URBÁN (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)

 

Editorial Office:
Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt.
Budafoki út 187-187, A/3, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary

Editorial Correspondence:
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Institute of Medical Microbiology
Semmelweis University
P.O. Box 370
H-1445 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: + 36 1 459 1500 ext. 56101
Fax: (36 1) 210 2959
E-mail: amih@med.semmelweis-univ.hu

 Indexing and Abstracting Services:

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  • Science Citation Index Expanded
2020  
Total Cites 662
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
2,048
Rank by Immunology 145/162(Q4)
Impact Factor Microbiology 118/137 (Q4)
Impact Factor 1,904
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 0,671
Impact Factor
Journal  0,38
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Immunology 146/174 (Q4)
Citation Indicator  Microbiology 120/142 (Q4)
Citable 42
Items
Total 40
Articles
Total 2
Reviews
Scimago 28
H-index
Scimago 0,439
Journal Rank
Scimago Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous) Q4
Quartile Score Medicine (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus 438/167=2,6
Scite Score  
Scopus General Immunology and Microbiology 31/45 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank  
Scopus 0,760
SNIP
Days from  225
sumbission
to acceptance
Days from  118
acceptance
to publication
Acceptance 19%
Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
485
Impact Factor 1,086
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,864
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,233
Immediacy
Index
0,286
Citable
Items
42
Total
Articles
40
Total
Reviews
2
Cited
Half-Life
5,8
Citing
Half-Life
7,7
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00059
Article Influence
Score
0,246
% Articles
in
Citable Items
95,24
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,07317
Average
IF
Percentile
7,690
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,352
Scopus
Scite Score
320/161=2
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
General Immunology and Microbiology 35/45 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,492
Acceptance
Rate
16%

 

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Publication Model Online only Hybrid
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Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
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Subscription fee 2021 Online subsscription: 652 EUR / 812 USD
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 662 EUR / 832 USD
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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1954
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 68
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1217-8950 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2640 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
May 2021 109 1 1
Jun 2021 83 3 4
Jul 2021 119 0 0
Aug 2021 144 0 0
Sep 2021 58 81 38
Oct 2021 0 45 52
Nov 2021 0 0 0