Authors:
Benigna Balázs Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Search for other papers by Benigna Balázs in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ákos Boros Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Search for other papers by Ákos Boros in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Péter Pankovics Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Search for other papers by Péter Pankovics in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Gábor Reuter Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Search for other papers by Gábor Reuter in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5857-4934
Open access

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasingly recognized etiological agent of acute, chronic and extrahepatic human infections with primarily zoonotic origin in Europe. Limited numbers of comprehensive population-based studies are available related to HEV seroepidemiology, especially from Central Europe.

The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence and trends of total and IgM antibodies against HEV in different age groups in the population of South Transdanubia, Hungary, within a thirteen years long period between the years 2010 and 2022.

We retrospectively analysed the serological test results of HEV total and HEV IgM antibodies carried out by ELISA technique using Dia.Pro (Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy) kit from serum samples collected from patients with or without hepatitis between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2022.

The number of tested samples (∑6,996 for total antibody and ∑6,582 for IgM) increased during the study period. The average HEV total and the IgM antibody seropositivities were 33% (2,307/6,996 samples) and 9.6% (642/6,582 samples), respectively, in the study population. The HEV total antibody seropositivity varied in different age groups between 3.9% (age group 1–5 years) and 58.6% (86–90 years) and showed an increasing positivity by age. At the age groups >50 years, nearly half (43%) of the population had antibodies against HEV. The HEV IgM positivity had an increasing trend of up to 13.9% in the age group 81–85 years.

High HEV total and IgM antibody seroprevalence were detected in South Transdanubia, Hungary, confirming that this region is highly endemic for HEV infections in Europe.

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasingly recognized etiological agent of acute, chronic and extrahepatic human infections with primarily zoonotic origin in Europe. Limited numbers of comprehensive population-based studies are available related to HEV seroepidemiology, especially from Central Europe.

The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence and trends of total and IgM antibodies against HEV in different age groups in the population of South Transdanubia, Hungary, within a thirteen years long period between the years 2010 and 2022.

We retrospectively analysed the serological test results of HEV total and HEV IgM antibodies carried out by ELISA technique using Dia.Pro (Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy) kit from serum samples collected from patients with or without hepatitis between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2022.

The number of tested samples (∑6,996 for total antibody and ∑6,582 for IgM) increased during the study period. The average HEV total and the IgM antibody seropositivities were 33% (2,307/6,996 samples) and 9.6% (642/6,582 samples), respectively, in the study population. The HEV total antibody seropositivity varied in different age groups between 3.9% (age group 1–5 years) and 58.6% (86–90 years) and showed an increasing positivity by age. At the age groups >50 years, nearly half (43%) of the population had antibodies against HEV. The HEV IgM positivity had an increasing trend of up to 13.9% in the age group 81–85 years.

High HEV total and IgM antibody seroprevalence were detected in South Transdanubia, Hungary, confirming that this region is highly endemic for HEV infections in Europe.

Introduction

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute viral hepatitis and belongs to the genus Orthohepevirus, family Hepeviridae [1]. Human pathogen HEVs have been classified into 6 genotypes in two species (Paslahepevirus balayani and Rocahepevirus ratti formerly known as Orthohepevirus A and Orthohepevirus C, respectively) [1]. Genotypes 1 and 2 in species Paslahepevirus balayani circulate in tropical/subtropical countries where faecal-oral and waterborne infections are the main modes of transmission [2, 3]. Genotypes 3 and 4 are dominant in Europe, the USA and Asia and are associated with zoonotic infection from animals (swine, wild boar, roe deer and rabbit) to humans [3]. Human cases of genotype 7 from camels have been also reported [4, 5]. Recently, rat HEV belonging to the species Rocahepevirus ratti also poses a risk of zoonotic infections in humans [6, 7]. Transmission of HEV by blood and blood products and from mother to foetus is also possible [8, 9].

Recent studies confirmed that HEV is associated with a wide range of diseases in humans. HEV not only cause acute hepatitis but also play a role in chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients [10, 11] and is related to extrahepatic, like neurological (neuralgic amyotrophy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis etc.), renal (glomerulonephritis, nephropathy, cryoglobulinemia) and other immune-mediated manifestations [1214].

HEV infections have worldwide distribution. Seroprevalence studies demonstrate various levels of anti-HEV total antibodies in populations in different countries and different locations within countries [15, 16]. In Europe, there were HEV seroprevalence studies among healthy blood donors [17], organ transplant recipients and other immunocompromised patients, patients with inflammatory bowel disease [18], refugees [19] and patients with liver symptoms [20] but there is a limited number of a comprehensive study about the prevalence of HEV in the general populations. In studies from Albania, the Czech Republic and Greece [2123] reported the lowest (<10%) and France, the Netherlands and Poland [16, 17, 24–26] reported the highest (>20% and reaching 86.4% in Ariége in Southwest France) average HEV seroprevalence in Europe. These studies found that HEV seroprevalence is increasing with age [15–17, 23, 27].

In Hungary, limited and controversial data is available on HEV seroprevalence in humans. In 2007, HEV IgG seroprevalence of 6.1% was reported among 264 patients with acute hepatitis in Southwest Hungary [28]. In 2018, a European study classified Hungary as a country with low (under 5%) HEV seroprevalence [29]; however, a recent report shows 31% HEV seropositivity among patients with acute hepatitis in Southeast Hungary [30]. At the same time, based on molecular epidemiological studies HEV is thought to be endemic, food-borne zoonosis in this country [11, 31].

In this study, the age-specific rates and trends of HEV immunity in Southwest Hungary (South Transdanubia) were reviewed between 2010 and 2022.

Materials and methods

Collection of specimens

The seroepidemiological analysis is based on a retrospective analyses of the serological laboratory results of the HEV total antibodies and HEV IgM antibody tests, respectively, between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2022. Blood samples were originally sent by physicians (university/county hospitals and general practitioners) from patients with a history of hepatitis or without hepatitis for routine clinical HEV serological testing to the Laboratory of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Pécs (Pécs, Hungary) covering a population of ∑894,000 persons (9.1% of the total population of Hungary in 2017) in three counties (Baranya, Somogy and Tolna) in the region South Transdanubia, Southwest Hungary (Fig. 1). South Transdanubia represents one of the seven regions in Hungary. The study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki. The health data collection authorisation number is: KK/208-1/2023 (University of Pécs).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic map of Hungary with counties (N = 19) and the capital Budapest. The study area (South Transdanubia) is indicated with a dark coloured background and the names of the three counties

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 70, 2; 10.1556/030.2023.02010

Serological methods

Serum samples were tested by ELISA method using the HEV Ab (version Ultra, Dia.Pro Diagnostic Bioprobes, Sesto San Giovanni, Italy) and HEV IgM (Dia.Pro Diagnostic Bioprobes, Sesto San Giovanni, Italy) test kits according to the manufacturer's instructions. Based on the available information the HEV Ab (HEV total antibody) and HEV IgM ELISA test plates are coated with specific synthetic HEV-ORF2 capsid protein antigen encoding conservative and immunodominant determinant of genotypes 1–4 HEVs. These assays are allowing the qualitative detection of total anti-HEV antibodies (IgG, IgM, and IgA together) and IgM separately (in case of IgM assay) in human serum and plasma samples [https://www.diapro.it/products/hev-ab-version-ultra-elisa/, 32]. According to the manufacturer's validation criteria the sample is positive for HEV total and HEV IgM antibodies if the optical density (OD) was equal or higher than 1.1 compared to the OD/cut-off ratio. A positive test result for HEV IgM may indicate an acute (recent) HEV infection, while a positive result for HEV total antibody may indicate a previous infection [33].

Statistical analyses

The selection of the 5-year age groups was made using MedBakter program (Prolab Kft.). Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics software V024 (Chicago, IL, US) and Microsoft Excel 2013 (Redmon, WA, US). We used regression analysis. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Age group 91–95 years was excluded from statistical analyses because of the low sample size (N = ∑8).

Results

A total of 6,996 and 6,582 serum samples were tested for HEV total and HEV IgM antibodies, respectively, between 2010 and 2022. The yearly distribution of the samples had an increasing trend; however, there was a decline in 2020 and 2021. Figure 2 represents the total numbers of HEV total antibody and IgM antibody tests and the positive test results per years (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A) Yearly distribution of serum samples (N = 6,996) tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) total antibodies in South Transdanubia, Hungary, between 2010 and 2022. Grey and black columns represent the total numbers of the tested and HEV antibody-positive specimens, respectively. B) Yearly distribution of serum samples (N = 6,582) tested for HEV IgM in South Transdanubia, Hungary, between 2010 and 2022. Grey and black columns represent the total numbers of the tested and HEV IgM antibody-positive specimens, respectively

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 70, 2; 10.1556/030.2023.02010

Most of the specimens (54.7% tested for HEV total antibody and 54.3% tested for HEV IgM antibody) was originated from age groups between 40 and 70 years (Fig. 2). The fewest samples collected from the age groups under 10 (less than 2% by age groups) and over 80 (less than 2% by age groups). The highest percentage (9.9% for both HEV total and for HEV IgM antibodies) of samples were collected from the age group 61–65 years. Figure 3 shows the distribution of specimens tested for HEV total and HEV IgM antibodies by age groups (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A) Distribution of specimens (N = 6,996) tested for HEV antibody in percentage by age groups in years. B) Distribution of specimens (N = 6,582) tested for HEV IgM in percentage by age groups in years

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 70, 2; 10.1556/030.2023.02010

Over the study period, the seropositivity of HEV total antibody increased significantly between 2010 and 2015 (p < 0.001) reaching 36.3% (Fig. 4). Between 2015 and 2022 it varied between 31.4% (2017) and 37.2% (2019) without further significant increase (p > 0.05). The average seropositivity rate was 33% (2,307 HEV total antibody positive specimens from 6,996 tests). Figure 4A shows the yearly distribution of HEV total antibody seropositivity in percentage in detailed (Fig. 4A).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A) Percentage (%) of HEV total antibody positivity (HEV Ab +) of tested samples by year between 2010 and 2022. B) Percentage (%) of HEV IgM positivity (HEV IgM +) of tested samples by year between 2010 and 2022

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 70, 2; 10.1556/030.2023.02010

The HEV total antibody seropositivities varied in the different age groups between 3.9% in the age group 1–5 years and 58.6% in the age group 86–90 years (Fig. 5). Seropositivity increases continuously with age (p < 0.001). It varies between 40% and 50% between the age group 51–55 and the age group 81–85, respectively. The average HEV total antibody seropositivity (33%) was crossed by the age group 46–50 years. Figure 5A represents the percentages of HEV total antibody seropositivity by age groups in detailed (Fig. 5A).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A) Percentage (%) of HEV total antibody positive results by age groups in years. B) Percentage (%) of HEV IgM positive results by age groups in years. Each age group covers 5 years from 1 to 90 years. The sample size was low (N = ∑8) in age-groups 91–95, therefore, this data is not included in the figure

Citation: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 70, 2; 10.1556/030.2023.02010

The yearly distribution of HEV IgM positive specimens varied between 6.1% (2013) and 16% (2015) with an average of 9.6% (642 HEV IgM antibody positive specimens from 6,582 tests) during the study period. The trend increased between 2010 and 2012 (from 6.5% to 12.2%) followed by a decrease in 2013 to 6.1% which was the lowest percentage. There was a peak (16%) in 2015. The change of trend was not significant during the whole study period (p > 0.05); however, there was a significant decrease from 12.9% to 6.5% between 2017 and 2022 (p < 0.001). Figure 4B represents the HEV IgM seropositivities by years in detailed (Fig. 4B).

The HEV IgM seropositivity varied between 0% in the age groups less than 5 years and 13.9% in the age group 81–85 years and increases with age (p < 0.001) (Fig. 5B). The average HEV IgM seropositivity was 9.6%. Between age groups 51–55 and 81–85 the HEV IgM seropositivities were more than 10% in all age groups. Figure 5B shows the percentages of HEV IgM positivities by age groups in detailed (Fig. 5B).

Discussion

The number of currently available HEV seroprevalence studies in the general population is not sufficient for a comprehensive and comparative analysis to draw further conclusions in Europe, furthermore, limited and controversial data is available on HEV seroprevalence in Hungary, too. In this study, the seroprevalence of human HEV infections was investigated using total antibody and IgM ELISA assays in more than 6,500 specimens collected from the population of South Transdanubia, Hungary, between the years of 2010 and 2022. The difference in the numbers of total and IgM antibody tests can be explained by the test requests of clinicians. The number of HEV specimens were continuously increased from the start of our study until 2019, interrupted by a sharp decline in 2020/2021 because of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Following the end of emergency, the upward trend has reversed by 2022. The overall increasing trend in testing suggests that more and more clinicians are recognising the importance of HEV and requests more tests.

The seroprevalence of HEV total antibodies increases with age similar as found in other studies [15–17, 23, 26]. The lowest seroprevalence was observed in children similar as found in other studies [26]. The relatively high HEV total antibody seroprevalence (29.3%) in age group <1 year could be explained partially by the presence of maternal antibodies in the tested samples. The seroprevalence of HEV antibodies did not disappear completely in any age group and remains higher in children, adolescents and young adults than in similar age groups in other studies [26]. The observed 33% average HEV total antibody seropositivity of the overall population and the 40–50% seropositivity in the population over age of 50 in South Transdanubia could be considered as very high values compared to the international data [26, 29]. Based on these observations the investigated regions and therefore Hungary could belong to countries with high HEV seroprevalence such as Poland, Netherlands and France [1724, 25]. According to an international study [29], comparing European countries, Hungary estimated as low HEV seroprevalence. However, our study in concordance with the study from the Southern Great Plain region, Southeast Hungary [30] – two of the seven regions in Hungary with available HEV seroprevalence data – debates this.

The average HEV IgM seropositivity was found to be 9.6% in the investigated population and growing with age. The HEV IgM seropositivity sharply increased near to 10% in age group 36–40 years, and consistently above 10% from 50 years of age reaching the peak of 13.9% in age group 81–85 years. This finding could be a result of more testing because of symptomatic acute HEV infection may manifest more frequently in older population [3, 13] leading to better diagnosis in these groups than others. In addition, the higher total HEV antibody prevalence among older age groups together with IgM antibody prevalence also suggest, that majority of acute infection actually occur in elderlies. On the other hand, HEV IgM positivity shows a decreasing trend in the last five years almost halved by 2022 compared to 2017 including the years of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We should notice, that our results about HEV total antibodies were similar as in Southeast Hungary [30] but we found nearly twofold (9.6% versus 5.1%) IgM seropositivity. This can be explained by different study designs (only symptomatic acute hepatitis versus all cases of HEV-positive tests). The high total antibody seroprevalence of HEV including the high HEV IgM seroprevalence in the population in South Transdanubia means a common circulation and endemic infection of HEV.

Seroprevalence of HEV total antibody in the study area shows increasing trend while HEV IgM shows a slowly decreasing trend following a peak in 2015 during the study period. Increasing HEV total antibody prevalence can be related to the combination of wider recognition of HEV infections among clinicians, the increasing and specific testing requests and improved laboratory capacity of HEV [11, 30]. In addition, previous studies confirmed the high RT-PCR positivity of genotype 3 HEV strains in domestic pigs (30.8%–39%), and wild animals such as roe deer (34.4%) and wild boar (12.2%) in Hungary [31, 34]. These domestic and wild animals and the Hungarian pork-related traditions (e.g. backyard pig farming, homemade pork butchering) and (e.g. pork based) dietary habits could be the main, food-borne source of the genotype 3, subgenotypes 3 a/c/e/f/i human HEV infections in Hungary [11, 30, 31]. While the frequent HEV infections among pigs and other frequently consumed animals can explain the higher seroprevalence among humans, further studies are needed to investigate (confirm or exclude) the full spectrum of causes of the high HEV seroprevalence and transmission modes (e.g. risk of blood transfusion) in the country.

This study has some limitations: The study represents only a regional situation of HEV seroepidemiology and not covered the whole country which probably differs from region to region. Dia.Pro ELISA kit used in this study might be less sensitive compared to other ELISAs [15]. While it could detect antibodies against HEV genotypes 1–4 of species Paslahepevirus balayani the whole spectrum of HEV variants (genotypes, subgenotypes and serotypes) covered by the kit is unknown [https://www.diapro.it/products/hev-ab-version-ultra-elisa/, 32]. False negative results and – in consequence - a possible higher HEV seropositivity are just as possible [15] as false positive ELISA results, the latter are not investigated in all cases by further confirmatory tests (see strengths below).

This study also has some strengths: High number of persons (N > 6,500) were tested and analysed who were in contact with the healthcare system without exclusions on symptoms, underlying conditions or age which can better represent the general population and the disease spectrum (asymptomatic infection, acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, extrahepatic infection etc.) of HEV. This seroepidemiological study partially covered the molecular epidemiological (confirmatory) study conducted on the same cases and specimens from 2014 to 2017 [11]. This study fills a gap about HEV seroprevalence in a barely studied European area in Central Europe that put South Transdanubia into the high HEV seroprevalence area.

During the completion of the study we recognized that there is no easy-to-use, simple and informative international classification scheme for the endemicity levels of HEV seroprevalence. Horn et al. [29] categorised HEV seroprevalence as low (<5%), intermediate (5–10%) and high (>10%). Capai et al. [26] established simple three categories: high, intermediate and low risk for industrialized countries. Other studies made free ranges of HEV seroprevalence for comparison of countries without exact definitions [15, 16]. In comparison, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is well classified based on IgG seroprevalence in different age groups. Countries have been classified as high, intermediate, and low HAV endemicity, defined as ≥90% of the population being immune by age of 10 years, ≥50% by the age of 15 years, and ≥50% by the age of 30 years, respectively [35]. Similar age-related classification scheme of HEV is considerable to better comparing the HEV seroprevalence in different geographical locations. Taking into account the worldwide HEV seroprevalence in children, adults and the elderly, we recommend the following three categories: Countries/regions have been classified as high, intermediate, and low HEV endemicity, defined as ≥10% or ≥40% of the population immune by ages of <30 or >60 years, 5–10% or 25–40% by the ages of <30 or >60 years, and <5% or <25% by the age of <30 or >60 years (Table 1.), respectively. However, further comprehensive age cohorts in different geographic locations can refine the HEV seroepidemiological categories.

Table 1.

Proposed classification scheme for the endemicity levels for HEV seroprevalence in different populations. Countries/regions/populations have been classified as high, intermediate, and low HEV endemicity, defined as the population HEV antibody immunity level in percentage (%) by two age groups (<30 years and >60 years)

HEV endemicity level based on the HEV antibody positivity in percentage (%)
Age of yearsHighIntermediateLow
<30≥10%5–10%<5%
>60≥40%25–40%<25%

In summary, according to our 13-year-long study high average and age-related seroprevalence of HEV infection was detected increasing with age. South Transdanubia in Hungary has one of the highest HEV seroprevalence rates in Europe.

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the virology laboratory workers (Gertrúd Domonkos, Zsoltné Garamvölgyi, Éva Lovas and Csilla Wéber) for accurately conducting HEV serological tests related to this study. The study was supported by a grant from National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFI, FK134311).

References

  • 1.

    Purdy MA, Drexler JF, Xiang JM, Norder H, Okamoto H, Wim H, et al. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol 2022; 103(9): 001778.

  • 2.

    Balayan MS, Andjaparidze AG, Savin SS, Ketiladze ES, Braginsky DM, Suvinov AP, et al. Evidence for a virus in Non-A, Non-B hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Intervirology 1983; 20(1): 2331.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS. Hepatitis E: an emerging global disease - from discovery towards control and cure. J Viral Hepat 2016; 23(2): 6879.

  • 4.

    Woo PC, Lau SK, Teng JL, Tsang AK, Joseph M, Wong EY, et al. New hepatitis E virus genotype in camels, the Middle East. Emerg Infect Dis 2014; 20(6): 10441048.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Woo PC, Lau SK, Teng JL, Cao KY, Wernery U, Schountz T, et al. New hepatitis E virus genotype in bactrian camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2016; 22(12): 22192221.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sridhar S, Yip CCY, Wu S, Chew NFS, Leung KH, Chan JFW, et al. Transmission of rat hepatitis E virus infection to humans in Hong Kong: a clinical and epidemiological analysis. Hepatology 2021; 73(1): 1022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Reuter G, Boros Á, Pankovics P. Review of hepatitis E virus in rats: evident risk of species Orthohepevirus C to human zoonotic infection and disease. Viruses 2020; 12(10): 1148.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Hewitt PE, Ijaz S, Brailsford SR, Brett R, Dicks S, Haywood B, et al. Hepatitis E virus in blood components: a prevalence and transmission study in southeast England. Lancet 2014; 384(9956): 17661773.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Khuroo MS. Clinical course and duration of viremia in vertically transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in babies born to HEV-infected mothers. J Viral Hepat 2009; 16(7): 519523.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, Ouezzani L, Péron JM, Guitard J, et al. Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(8): 811817.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Pankovics P, Némethy O, Boros Á, Pár G, Szakály P, Reuter G. Four-year long (2014–2017) clinical and laboratory surveillance of hepatitis E virus infections using combined antibody, molecular, antigen and avidity detection methods: increasing incidence and chronic HEV case in Hungary. J Clin Virol 2020; 124: 104284.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Pischke S, Hartl J, Pas SD, Lohse AW, Jacobs BC, Van der Eijk AA. Hepatitis E virus: infection beyond the liver? J Hepatol 2017; 66(5): 10821095.

  • 13.

    Aslan AT, Balaban HY. Hepatitis E virus: epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment. World J Gastroenterol 2020; 26(37): 55435560.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Fousekis FS, Mitselos IV, Christodolou JK. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus: an overview. Clin Mol Hepatol 2020; 26(1): 1623.

  • 15.

    Hartl J, Otto B, Madden RG, Webb G, Woolson KL, Kriston L, et al. Hepatitis E seroprevalence in Europe: a meta-analysis. Viruses 2016; 8(8): 211.

  • 16.

    Wilhelm B, Waddell L, Greig J, Young I. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in the general population across non-endemic countries. PLoS One 2019; 14(6): e0216826.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Grabarczyk P, Sulkowska E, Gdowska J, Kopacz A, Liszewski G, Kubicka-Russel D, et al. Molecular and serological infection marker screening in blood donors indicates high endemicity of hepatitis E virus in Poland. Transfusion 2018; 58(5): 12451253.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Grigas J, Montoya M, Simkute E, Buitkus M, Zagrabskaire R, Pautienius A, et al. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in inflammatory bowel disease patients and solid organ transplant recipients. Viruses 2021; 13(4): 670.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dalekos GN, Zervou E, Elisaf M, Germanos N, Galanakis E, Bourantas K, et al. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus among several populations in Greece: increased prevalence in an hemodialysis unit. Transfusion 1998; 38(6): 589595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bruni R, Villano U, Equestre M, Chionne P, Madonna E, Trandeva-Bankova D, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotypes and subgenotypes causing acute hepatitis, Bulgaria, 2013–2015. PLoS One 2018; 13: e0198045.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Adhami JE, Angoni R. Hepatitis E virus infection in Albania. Sante 2001; 11(1): 1315.

  • 22.

    Nemecek V, Butovicova P, Maly M, Dite P, Vertatova M, Vodickova I, et al. The prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus in the Czech Republic: serological survey. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2017; 66(1): 37 (Czech).

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Mrzljak A, Dinjar-Kujundzic P, Jemersic L, Prpic J, Barbic L, Savic V, et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis E in South-East Europe in the “One health” concept. World J Gastroenterol 2019; 25(25): 31683182.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Mansuy JM, Gallian P, Dimeglio C, Saune K, Arnaud C, Pelletier B, et al. A nationwide survey of hepatitis e viral infection in French blood donors. Hepatology 2016; 63(4): 11451154.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hogema BM, Molier M, Slot E, Zaaijer HL. Past and present of hepatitis E in The Netherlands. Transfusion 2014; 54(12): 30923096.

  • 26.

    Capai L, Falchi A, Charrel R. Meta-analysis of human IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence in industrialized countries and a review of literature. Viruses 2019; 11(1): 84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Faber M, Willrich N, Schemmerer M, Rauh C, Kuhnert R, Stark K, et al. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence, seroincidence and seroreversion in the German adult population. J Viral Hepat 2018; 25(6): 752758.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Haagsman A, Reuter G, Duizer E, Nagy Gy, Herremans T, Koopmans M, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis E virus in patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Hungary. J Med Virol 2007; 79(7): 927930.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Horn J, Hoodgarzadeh M, Klett-Tammen CJ, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Epidemiologic estimates of hepatitis E virus infection in European countries. J Infect 2018; 77(6): 544552.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ulbert ÁB, Bukva M, Magyari A, Túri Z, Hajdú E, Burián K, et al. Characteristics of hepatitis E viral infections in Hungary. J Clin Virol 2022; 155: 105250.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Reuter G, Fodor D, Forgách P, Kátai A, Szucs G. Characterization and zoonotic potential of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in humans and animals in Hungary. J Clin Virol 2009; 44(4): 277281.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Pas SD, Streefkerk RH, Pronk M, de Man RA, Beersma MF, Osterhaus AD, et al. Diagnostic performance of selected commercial HEV IgM and IgG ELISAs for immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. J Clin Virol 2013; 58(4): 629634.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Zhao Ch, Wang Y. Laboratory diagnosis of HEV infection Adv Exp Med Biol 2016; 948: 191209.

  • 34.

    Forgách P, Nowotny N, Erdélyi K, Boncz A, Zentai J, Szucs Gy, et al. Detection of hepatitis E virus in samples of animal origin collected in Hungary. Vet Microbiol 2010; 143(2–4): 106116.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Itani T, Jacobsen KH, Nguyen T, Wiktor SZ. A new method for imputing country-level estimates of hepatitis A virus endemicity levels in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Vaccine 2014; 32(46): 60676074.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1.

    Purdy MA, Drexler JF, Xiang JM, Norder H, Okamoto H, Wim H, et al. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol 2022; 103(9): 001778.

  • 2.

    Balayan MS, Andjaparidze AG, Savin SS, Ketiladze ES, Braginsky DM, Suvinov AP, et al. Evidence for a virus in Non-A, Non-B hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Intervirology 1983; 20(1): 2331.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS. Hepatitis E: an emerging global disease - from discovery towards control and cure. J Viral Hepat 2016; 23(2): 6879.

  • 4.

    Woo PC, Lau SK, Teng JL, Tsang AK, Joseph M, Wong EY, et al. New hepatitis E virus genotype in camels, the Middle East. Emerg Infect Dis 2014; 20(6): 10441048.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Woo PC, Lau SK, Teng JL, Cao KY, Wernery U, Schountz T, et al. New hepatitis E virus genotype in bactrian camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2016; 22(12): 22192221.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sridhar S, Yip CCY, Wu S, Chew NFS, Leung KH, Chan JFW, et al. Transmission of rat hepatitis E virus infection to humans in Hong Kong: a clinical and epidemiological analysis. Hepatology 2021; 73(1): 1022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Reuter G, Boros Á, Pankovics P. Review of hepatitis E virus in rats: evident risk of species Orthohepevirus C to human zoonotic infection and disease. Viruses 2020; 12(10): 1148.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Hewitt PE, Ijaz S, Brailsford SR, Brett R, Dicks S, Haywood B, et al. Hepatitis E virus in blood components: a prevalence and transmission study in southeast England. Lancet 2014; 384(9956): 17661773.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Khuroo MS. Clinical course and duration of viremia in vertically transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in babies born to HEV-infected mothers. J Viral Hepat 2009; 16(7): 519523.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, Ouezzani L, Péron JM, Guitard J, et al. Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(8): 811817.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Pankovics P, Némethy O, Boros Á, Pár G, Szakály P, Reuter G. Four-year long (2014–2017) clinical and laboratory surveillance of hepatitis E virus infections using combined antibody, molecular, antigen and avidity detection methods: increasing incidence and chronic HEV case in Hungary. J Clin Virol 2020; 124: 104284.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Pischke S, Hartl J, Pas SD, Lohse AW, Jacobs BC, Van der Eijk AA. Hepatitis E virus: infection beyond the liver? J Hepatol 2017; 66(5): 10821095.

  • 13.

    Aslan AT, Balaban HY. Hepatitis E virus: epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment. World J Gastroenterol 2020; 26(37): 55435560.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Fousekis FS, Mitselos IV, Christodolou JK. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus: an overview. Clin Mol Hepatol 2020; 26(1): 1623.

  • 15.

    Hartl J, Otto B, Madden RG, Webb G, Woolson KL, Kriston L, et al. Hepatitis E seroprevalence in Europe: a meta-analysis. Viruses 2016; 8(8): 211.

  • 16.

    Wilhelm B, Waddell L, Greig J, Young I. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in the general population across non-endemic countries. PLoS One 2019; 14(6): e0216826.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Grabarczyk P, Sulkowska E, Gdowska J, Kopacz A, Liszewski G, Kubicka-Russel D, et al. Molecular and serological infection marker screening in blood donors indicates high endemicity of hepatitis E virus in Poland. Transfusion 2018; 58(5): 12451253.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Grigas J, Montoya M, Simkute E, Buitkus M, Zagrabskaire R, Pautienius A, et al. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in inflammatory bowel disease patients and solid organ transplant recipients. Viruses 2021; 13(4): 670.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dalekos GN, Zervou E, Elisaf M, Germanos N, Galanakis E, Bourantas K, et al. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus among several populations in Greece: increased prevalence in an hemodialysis unit. Transfusion 1998; 38(6): 589595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bruni R, Villano U, Equestre M, Chionne P, Madonna E, Trandeva-Bankova D, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotypes and subgenotypes causing acute hepatitis, Bulgaria, 2013–2015. PLoS One 2018; 13: e0198045.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Adhami JE, Angoni R. Hepatitis E virus infection in Albania. Sante 2001; 11(1): 1315.

  • 22.

    Nemecek V, Butovicova P, Maly M, Dite P, Vertatova M, Vodickova I, et al. The prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus in the Czech Republic: serological survey. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2017; 66(1): 37 (Czech).

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Mrzljak A, Dinjar-Kujundzic P, Jemersic L, Prpic J, Barbic L, Savic V, et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis E in South-East Europe in the “One health” concept. World J Gastroenterol 2019; 25(25): 31683182.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Mansuy JM, Gallian P, Dimeglio C, Saune K, Arnaud C, Pelletier B, et al. A nationwide survey of hepatitis e viral infection in French blood donors. Hepatology 2016; 63(4): 11451154.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hogema BM, Molier M, Slot E, Zaaijer HL. Past and present of hepatitis E in The Netherlands. Transfusion 2014; 54(12): 30923096.

  • 26.

    Capai L, Falchi A, Charrel R. Meta-analysis of human IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence in industrialized countries and a review of literature. Viruses 2019; 11(1): 84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Faber M, Willrich N, Schemmerer M, Rauh C, Kuhnert R, Stark K, et al. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence, seroincidence and seroreversion in the German adult population. J Viral Hepat 2018; 25(6): 752758.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Haagsman A, Reuter G, Duizer E, Nagy Gy, Herremans T, Koopmans M, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis E virus in patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Hungary. J Med Virol 2007; 79(7): 927930.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Horn J, Hoodgarzadeh M, Klett-Tammen CJ, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Epidemiologic estimates of hepatitis E virus infection in European countries. J Infect 2018; 77(6): 544552.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ulbert ÁB, Bukva M, Magyari A, Túri Z, Hajdú E, Burián K, et al. Characteristics of hepatitis E viral infections in Hungary. J Clin Virol 2022; 155: 105250.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Reuter G, Fodor D, Forgách P, Kátai A, Szucs G. Characterization and zoonotic potential of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in humans and animals in Hungary. J Clin Virol 2009; 44(4): 277281.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Pas SD, Streefkerk RH, Pronk M, de Man RA, Beersma MF, Osterhaus AD, et al. Diagnostic performance of selected commercial HEV IgM and IgG ELISAs for immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. J Clin Virol 2013; 58(4): 629634.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Zhao Ch, Wang Y. Laboratory diagnosis of HEV infection Adv Exp Med Biol 2016; 948: 191209.

  • 34.

    Forgách P, Nowotny N, Erdélyi K, Boncz A, Zentai J, Szucs Gy, et al. Detection of hepatitis E virus in samples of animal origin collected in Hungary. Vet Microbiol 2010; 143(2–4): 106116.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Itani T, Jacobsen KH, Nguyen T, Wiktor SZ. A new method for imputing country-level estimates of hepatitis A virus endemicity levels in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Vaccine 2014; 32(46): 60676074.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collapse
  • Expand

 

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dóra Szabó (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Managing Editor: Dr. Béla Kocsis (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Co-editor: Dr. Andrea Horváth (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)

Editorial Board

  • Prof. Éva ÁDÁM (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Sebastian AMYES (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.)
  • Dr. Katalin BURIÁN (Institute of Clinical Microbiology University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.)
  • Dr. Orsolya DOBAY (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Ildikó Rita DUNAY (Institute of Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Magdeburg, Germany)
  • Prof. Levente EMŐDY(Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Anna ERDEI (Department of Immunology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary, MTA-ELTE Immunology Research Group, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Éva Mária FENYŐ (Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden)
  • Prof. László FODOR (Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. József KÓNYA (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Prof. Yvette MÁNDI (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Károly MÁRIALIGETI (Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. János MINÁROVITS (Department of Oral Biology and Experimental Dental Research, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Béla NAGY (Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. István NÁSZ (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Kristóf NÉKÁM (Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers in Buda, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Dr. Eszter OSTORHÁZI (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Rozália PUSZTAI (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • Prof. Peter L. RÁDY (Department of Dermatology, University of Texas, Houston, Texas, USA)
  • Prof. Éva RAJNAVÖLGYI (Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary)
  • Prof. Ferenc ROZGONYI (Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Prof. Joseph G. SINKOVICS (The Cancer Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital, Tampa, Florida, USA)
  • Prof. Júlia SZEKERES (Department of Medical Biology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Mária TAKÁCS (National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses, National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary.)
  • Prof. Edit URBÁN (Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.)

 

Editorial Office:
Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt.
Budafoki út 187-187, A/3, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary

Editorial Correspondence:
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Institute of Medical Microbiology
Semmelweis University
P.O. Box 370
H-1445 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: + 36 1 459 1500 ext. 56101
Fax: (36 1) 210 2959
E-mail: amih@med.semmelweis-univ.hu

 Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • CABELLS Journalytics
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Global Health
  • Index Medicus
  • Index Veterinarius
  • Medline
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal
  • SCOPUS
  • Science Citation Index Expanded

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
689
Journal Impact Factor 1.5
Rank by Impact Factor

Immunology (Q4)
Microbiology (Q4)

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
1.3
5 Year
Impact Factor
1.7
Journal Citation Indicator 0.34
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Immunology (Q4)
Microbiology (Q4)

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
31
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.333
Scimago Quartile Score

Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Infectious Diseases (Q3)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Microbiology (medical) (Q3)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
2.8
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Immunology and Microbiology 29/53 (46th PCTL)
Infectious Diseases 186/304 (38th PCTL)
Microbiology 85/124 (31st PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.484

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
696
Journal Impact Factor 2,298
Rank by Impact Factor Immunology 141/161
Microbiology 118/136
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
2,143
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,925
Journal Citation Indicator 0,39
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Immunology 146/177
Microbiology 129/157
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
29
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,362
Scimago Quartile Score Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Medicine (miscellaneous) (Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
3,6
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Immunology and Microbiology 26/56 (Q2)
Infectious Diseases 149/295 (Q3)
Microbiology (medical) 66/118 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,598

2020  
Total Cites 662
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
2,048
Rank by Immunology 145/162(Q4)
Impact Factor Microbiology 118/137 (Q4)
Impact Factor 1,904
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 0,671
Impact Factor
Journal  0,38
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Immunology 146/174 (Q4)
Citation Indicator  Microbiology 120/142 (Q4)
Citable 42
Items
Total 40
Articles
Total 2
Reviews
Scimago 28
H-index
Scimago 0,439
Journal Rank
Scimago Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous) Q4
Quartile Score Medicine (miscellaneous) Q3
Scopus 438/167=2,6
Scite Score  
Scopus General Immunology and Microbiology 31/45 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank  
Scopus 0,760
SNIP
Days from  225
submission
to acceptance
Days from  118
acceptance
to publication
Acceptance 19%
Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
485
Impact Factor 1,086
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,864
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,233
Immediacy
Index
0,286
Citable
Items
42
Total
Articles
40
Total
Reviews
2
Cited
Half-Life
5,8
Citing
Half-Life
7,7
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00059
Article Influence
Score
0,246
% Articles
in
Citable Items
95,24
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,07317
Average
IF
Percentile
7,690
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,352
Scopus
Scite Score
320/161=2
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
General Immunology and Microbiology 35/45 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,492
Acceptance
Rate
16%

 

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Publication Model Online only Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 680 EUR / 832 USD
Print + online subscription: 760 EUR / 930 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1954
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1217-8950 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2640 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Dec 2023 0 71 18
Jan 2024 0 69 28
Feb 2024 0 38 27
Mar 2024 0 66 27
Apr 2024 0 102 20
May 2024 0 23 9
Jun 2024 0 0 0