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Editor's note: The same method is applied in the paper of Dinca et al. “The efficiency of the health care systems in EU countries – A DEA analysis” in the present issue of Acta Oeconomica.
For details, see Tone (2001).
The research sample covers: 12 Bismarck-style healthcare systems (Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, France, Germany, Austria, the Netherlands and Japan) and 13 Beveridge-style ones (the United Kingdom, Finland, Denmark, South Korea, Israel, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Iceland, Portugal, Greece, Spain, Italy). For various reasons 10 OECD member countries were left out from the sample.
Since 2010 the Hungarian healthcare system has been undergoing fundamental changes. The pre-1990 system of tax-financing and centralised decision-making has been restored. After the liberal-minded, market oriented reforms in the early 1990s, and in the period of 2006–2008, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán reversed these developments and reintroduced the healthcare system similar to the Semashko model of centrally planned economies (Mihályi 2017).