This paper was supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Grant number GINOP-2.3.4-15-2016-00003) and the project titled “Centre for cooperation between higher education and the industries at Széchenyi István University (FIEK)”.
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)| false ( – Gubik, A. – Farkas, Sz. Kása, R. 2018): A tervezett magatartás elméletének alkalmazása a vállalkozói hajlandóság alakulásának magyarázatára (Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explaining the Evolution of Entrepreneurship). , 65( 1): 74– 101. 10.18414/KSZ.2018.1.74
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The basic ‘stage-gate’ model was developed by Cooper (1994), who studied several thousands of new product development projects. There are many variations of the original model. Tidd – Bessant (2013) for instance differentiate i) the concept outline, ii) detailed design, iii) testing and iv) launch phases of innovation processes.
Entrepreneurial innovation may also involve processes and practices of opportunity creation, which is out of the scope in this article.
Zhang et al. (2015) also confirm that ‘the inconsistency in the empirical results [in entrepreneurship research] indicates a necessity to model all determinants [of the theory of planned behaviour] in different contextual settings.’
A Web of Science search (downloading meta-data: 20 October 2017) had the following results. A total of 46 articles included the terms ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘innovation’ and ‘student’ and ‘survey’ in their topic description. Having read the abstracts, 8 articles were not innovation focused, 13 articles did not survey students. 2 articles were in Spanish. The methods in 2 articles did not rely on a questionnaire survey. One article had a non-random sampling of only 29 students. One article focused on a competition programme. One article had a narrow psychological science focus. The remaining 18 articles were carefully read if at least the personal level cause and effect relationships have been studied with a sufficiently detailed theoretical model. Buli – Yesuf (2015) applied a clear TPB approach. 4 relevant articles remained; these are cited in the main text.
The case was developed as an original gender-neutral idea with international measurement and comparison potential in 2017. In April 2018, however, the authors discovered a somewhat similar existing kit developed by a Hungarian entrepreneur.
Along with self-efficacy: the measurement of this construct is argued to be strongly related to the locus of control (Judge 2002), so to keep the questionnaire concise, it was decided not to be measured separately.
Four records were omitted because the responses were not reliable (same values were indicated throughout the questionnaire). Probably these four respondents did not want to engage in the story.
Figures show the CFA and SEM results in a common format. Single arrows: standardised regression coefficients, double arrows: correlation, boxes bottom right: constants, above circles: variance of the error term.
We acknowledge that there are cases, when not opportunities drive entrepreneurship.