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Appendix 2 Implementation of selected projects under the Belt and Road Initiative in Eurasia (as of March 2018)
|Hungary||FIN||Huawei Logistics Center||1.5 mln||FIN|
|Iran||FIN||Dam and hydro-power plant Rudbar Lorestan||578 mln||FIN|
|Kazakhstan||FIN||Horgos – railway junction and transhipment point at the border, where there is a change in the width of the railway track||245 mln||FIN|
|Pakistan||FIN||Gwadar – expansion of the seaport – stage I (breakwater)||123 mln||FIN (a planned key transport hub connecting Pakistan with Afghanistan and Central Asia; also planned: special zones for the development of trade and industry related to export development. (Potential military significance is of concern in some countries, but local authorities only confirm the commercial profile of the project.)|
|Sri Lanka||FIN||Expansion of Hambantota seaport, stages I and II||1.3 mln||FIN|
|Cambodia||FIN||Modernization of National Road No. 214; Treng-Mekong Bridge||117 mln||FIN|
|Indonesia||FIN||Sumsel-5 Power Plant||318 mln||FIN|
|North Korea||FIN||New Yalu Bridge||350 mln||FIN|
|Bangladesh||UC||Payra Power Plant||1.7 mln|
|Bangladesh||PREP||Dhaka – Jessore railway line||4.4 mln|
|Bangladesh||PREP||The Karnaphuli Tunnel||?|
|Laos||UC||China – Laos Rail Link||5.8 mln|
|Laos||UC||Hydro-project Nam Ou (phase II)||2.8 mln|
|Laos||?||Road connection Phongsaly – Yunnan||910 mln|
|Israel||START||Port of Haifa Bay||1.2 mln|
|Mongolia||NEG||Tavan – Tolgoi railway line||1 mln|
|Turkey||NEG||3. nuclear power plant||25 mln|
|Ukraine||NEG||4th Metro line in Kiev||1.3 mln|
|Indonesia||PREP||Jakarta high-speed railway line – Bandung||6 mln||Significant delays in the implementation of the project, increase in costs due to the increase of inland prices.|
|Indonesia||START||Monado – Bitung a toll highway||370 mln|
|Pakistan||NEG||Kohala Hydro-Power Plant||2.4 mln|
|Pakistan||START||Aurostrada Peshawar – Karachi (Multan – Sukkur section)||2.8 mln|
|Sri Lanka||START||Matara – Kataragama railway line (phase I: Matara section – Beliatta)||?|
Basic forecast results (purchasing power parity) 2010–2030
|Population||GDP||Share (the world)||GDP/cap||Population||GDP||Share (the world)||GDP/cap||Growth rate (%)|
Source: Petri – Zhai (2013).
Notes: Population in million; GDP: billions of 2009 dollar; GDP/cap in 2009 dollar.
ACI rates of growth – selected countries/regions of the world (historical and in five-year ranges, since 2010)
Source: Petri – Zhai (2013).
A Special Report by The Economist, Beware the Borg, December 2019, reflects prevailing opinions.
The Economist, January 26, 2019.
The Economist, May 18, 2019 and November 30, 2019.
For 27 member states after February 1, 2020.
Though already very complex, the resulting image remains still simplified when verified with the real life. In fact, the official political and economic attitude of the country in question, vis-à-vis its partners although seemingly uniform outside, also has its own complex and time-changing internal structure.
Compare the remarks on the evolution of globalization processes by Z. Madej (Kolejna korekta, czy koniec globalizacji? – Next correction of the course, or the end of globalization?) unpublished manuscript for the Economic Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), January 2020.
Though for some, reminiscent of the ideas of the post-war Marshall Plan – even with fierce protests for such a comparison by the Chinese side.
See, e.g. studies by the Chinese government for the 2019 Boao Forum for Asia.
A major weapon in combating the current crisis should be the package of 750 bn Euro of grants and loans announced by the Head of the EU Commission, Ursula von d. Leyen, on May 27, 2020, often compared to, and labelled as the European Marshall Plan.
E.g. The Quarterly Technology Supplement to The Economist, January 4, 2020.
On the sidelines of big discussions and large disputes about fundamental issues – such as on the basic economic model, along the lines of the market economy vs. centrally planned – the old questions and dilemmas are put under new light. Until now, the nebula of individual and detailed economic decisions, despite their many flaws (many of which could be now avoided) was ultimately more efficient and gave better results than the centrally decided ones, based on poor information, rigid and often delayed. It was a historic triumph of the market economy and a failure of the hopes of great economists-mathematicians such as Leonid Kantorovich in the Soviet Union or Oskar Lange in Poland. Their historical discussions with Mises and von Hayek are recalled now yet again. The use of linear programming and dual prices proved once to be a theoretical construction without a practical application, but what about the new era of AI and completely new systems for collecting and processing information?
Usually unpredictable, or very difficult to predict, factors such as major natural disasters could dramatically change the path of growth of national economies, their components or even whole regions – all proportionately to the scope of interrelation and interdependence in the segment of the world concerned.
The outburst of the pandemic – according to the Chinese Government version – can be traced down to December 27, 2019, when Dr. Zhang Jixian, the Head of the Respiratory Diseases and Intensive Care Department of the Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital in Hubei Province, reported three cases of pneumonia of unknown cause, immediately after examining the patients. This was the first report by the Chinese local authorities on suspicion of the emergence of a new disease.
Recently published data by the China's National Bureau of Statistics (initial estimates as of July 16, 2020) indicate that in the first half of 2020, China's economy has indeed gradually moved from the slowing down to recovery and moderate growth. At comparable prices, country's GDP fell by 6.8 percent (year-on-year) in the first quarter, however already grew by 3.2 percent in the second quarter of the year.
Such as a billionaire Cao Dewang, of Fuyao Glass Industry – reported by Bloomberg TV in March 2020.
In August 2020 they managed however to largely make up for the previous losses, which shows how the new reality of the pandemic-shaped world economy became full of new reactions and will require a further reflection and analysis.
The Chinese side notices that the fact that Wuhan was the first to report the problem of the epidemic does not mean that it is its source. The Chinese side stresses until now that the origin of the new coronavirus has not been confirmed.
Potentially, according to Lee, this could be, for example, a new type of the so-called ‘deep learning.’
“Do It Yourself” type.
Even without immediate, direct and practical application, such as the research in the so-called Dark Matter.