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Kornai, J. (2016): The System Paradigm Revisited: Clarifications and Additions in the Light of Experiences in the Post-Socialist Region. Acta Oeconomica, 66(4): 547–596.
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Mihályi, P. – Szelényi, I. (2019): Rent-Seekers, Profits, Wages and Inequality (The Top 20%). Basingstoke: Palgrave – Macmillan.
Szelényi, I. – Mihályi, P. (2020b): Varieties of Post-Communist Capitalism. (A Comparative Analysis of Russia, Eastern Europe and China). Leiden-Boston: Brill.
Szelényi, I. – Mihályi, P. (2021a): Kornai on the Affinity of Systems: Is China Today an Illiberal Capitalist System or a Communist Dictatorship? Public Choice, Special Issue Honoring Janos Kornai, 187(1–2).
Szelényi, I. – Mihályi, P. (2021b): The Six Competing Types of Domination in the Early 21st Century – Towards a New Weberian Taxonomy. International Political Anthropology, 14(2, Issue 28): 175–183.
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The author of this study has dealt in detail with this part of János Kornai's work in several studies over the past decades. For a list of the most important works accessible in English, see the References.
In mathematical terms, the functions describing the state of the economy are mostly continuous, but never linear.
In his first writings Kornai used the expression “slack” interchangeably with “surplus”.
Throughout this paper I use the term “socialism” interchangeably with the word “communism”.
Ultimately, this is what the debate about whether it is possible to restore a market economy simply and quickly with shock therapy was about – and still is in many cases today.
See Szelényi – Mihályi (2020a) and other the materials of the Acta Oeconomica Special Issue dedicated to the changes in China under the title “2020 – The Year of China.”, Vol. 70.
Narrowing the search to the years 2022 and 2023 on the Scholar Google website, there are AE references of seven non-Hungarian authors. For a book published more than 50 years (!) ago, this is still an impressively high number.
This definition debate formed the theoretical starting point of the disequilibrium school.
As Kornai (1980) precisely quoted and referenced, outstanding and influential Soviet planning experts like Lev Kritsman (1925) and Viktor Novozhilov (1926) had already asserted after less than 10 years of experience (!) that in this regard, the Soviet economy was not reformable. “(I)n the commodity-capitalist economy there is a general slack, and in the proletarian-natural economy a general shortage.” “The existence of “general overproduction” in capitalism and “general shortage” in the socialist economy” are the normal states of markets (quoted from Kornai (1980: 29–30). Using the jargon of computer programming, we can half-jokingly say about both systems: “It's Not a Bug, It's a Feature.”
For a detailed analysis of the importance of rent-seeking during the time of post-communist transition, see Mihályi – Szelényi (2019).
The Bálványos Free Summer University and Student Camp in Tusnádfürdő (Baile Tusnad), in Romania – usually referred to as ‘Tusványos’ – is an annual large-scale intellectual workshop of Orban's own party, Fidesz. One of the most significant attractions of Tusványos is the annual keynote speech by Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, in which he talks often in philosophical depth about how he sees the state and future of the Hungarian and world politics, and where he frequently sets out the main political directions of his government and party.
Here is a direct quote from Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. “The new state that we are building in Hungary is an illiberal state, not a liberal state. It does not deny the basic values of liberalism, such as freedom, and I could add a few more, but it does not make this ideology the central element of the organization of the state, but contains a specific, national approach that differs from it”. See https://2015-2019.kormany.hu/hu/a-miniszterelnok/beszedek-publikaciok-interjuk/a-munkaalapu-allam-korszaka-kovetzekik.