View More View Less
  • 1 Eszterházy Károly College Institute of Physical Education and Sport Sciences Leányka u. 6 H-3300 Eger Hungary
  • | 2 National Sports Health Institute Department of Scientific Research Alkotás u. 44 H-1123 Budapest Hungary
  • | 3 Semmelweis University Department of Biomechanics, Institute of Kinesiology and Sports Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences Alkotás u. 44 H-1123 Budapest Hungary
  • | 4 Leányka u. 6 H-3300 Eger Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

Cross Mark

The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation (CrS) could improve mechanical power output, and swimming performance in highly trained junior competitive fin swimmers. Sixteen male fin swimmers (age:15.9±1.6 years) were randomly and evenly assigned to either a creatine (CR, 4×5 g/day creatine monohydrate for 5 days) or placebo group (P, same dose of a dextrose-ascorbic acid placebo) in a double-blind research. Before and after CrS the average power output was determined by a Bosco-test and the swimming time was measured in two maximal 100 m fin swims. After five days of CrS the average power of one minute continuous rebound jumps increased by 20.2%. The lactate concentration was significantly less after 5 minutes restitution at the second measurement in both groups. The swimming time was significantly reduced in both first (pre: 50.69±1.41 s; post: 48.86±1.34 s) and second (pre: 50.39±1.38 s; post: 48.53±1.35 s) sessions of swimming in CR group, but remained almost unchanged in the P group.The results of this study indicate that five day Cr supplementation enhances the dynamic strength and may increase anaerobic metabolism in the lower extremity muscles, and improves performance in consecutive maximal swims in highly trained adolescent fin swimmers.

  • Anomasiri W, Sanguanrungsirikul S, Saichandee P: Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 87Suppl 2, S228–S232 (2004)

    Saichandee P. , 'Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance ' (2004 ) 87 J. Med. Assoc. Thai. : S228 -S232.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR: Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32, 654–658 (2000)

    Melrose D.R. , 'Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition ' (2000 ) 32 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 654 -658.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaff PL: The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 268–276 (1994)

    Greenhaff P.L. , 'The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man ' (1994 ) 69 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 268 -276.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaff PL: The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of submaximal exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 268–270 (1996)

    Greenhaff P.L. , 'The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of submaximal exercise ' (1996 ) 69 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 268 -270.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bosco C, Komi PV, Tihanyi J, Fekete G, Apor P: Mechanical power test and fiber composition of human leg extensor muscles. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 51, 129–135 (1983)

    Apor P. , 'Mechanical power test and fiber composition of human leg extensor muscles ' (1983 ) 51 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 129 -135.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucsok J, Kovacs I, Gabossy A, Colli R, Pulvirenti G, Tranquilli C, Foti C, Viru M, Viru A: Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int. J. Sports Med. 18, 369–372 (1997)

    Viru A. , 'Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance ' (1997 ) 18 Int. J. Sports Med. : 369 -372.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brose A, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA: Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 58, 11–19 (2003)

    Tarnopolsky M.A. , 'Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults ' (2003 ) 58 J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. : 11 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Burke LM, Pyne DB, Telford RD: Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 222–233 (1996)

    Telford R.D. , 'Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers ' (1996 ) 6 Int. J. Sport Nutr. : 222 -233.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Casey A, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Howell S, Hultman E, Greenhaff PL: Creatine ingestion favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 271 (Endocrinol. Metab. 34), E31–E37 (1996).

    Greenhaff P.L. , 'Creatine ingestion favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans ' (1996 ) 271 Am. J. Physiol. : E31 -E37.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chrusch MJ, Chilibeck PD, Chad KE, Davison KS, Burke DG: Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 33, 2111–2117 (2001)

    Burke D.G. , 'Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men ' (2001 ) 33 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 2111 -2117.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dawson B, Vladich T, Blanksby BA: Effects of 4 weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 16, 485–490 (2002)

    Blanksby B.A. , 'Effects of 4 weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance ' (2002 ) 16 J. Strength Cond. Res. : 485 -490.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Earnest C, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol. Scand. 153, 207–209 (1995)

    Mitchell T.L. , 'The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition ' (1995 ) 153 Acta Physiol. Scand. : 207 -209.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goldberg PG, Bechtel PJ: Effect of low dose creatine supplementation on strength, speed and power events by male athletes [abstract]. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29, S251 (1997)

    Bechtel P.J. , 'Effect of low dose creatine supplementation on strength, speed and power events by male athletes [abstract] ' (1997 ) 29 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : S251 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gotshalk LA, Volek JS, Staron RS, Denegar CR, Hagerman FC, Kraemer WJ: Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 34, 537–543 (2002)

    Kraemer W.J. , 'Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men ' (2002 ) 34 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 537 -543.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Green JM, McLester JR, Smith JF, Mansfield ER: The effects of creatine supplementation on repeated upper- and lower-body Wingate performance. J. Strength Condit. Res. 15, 36–41 (2001)

    Mansfield E.R. , 'The effects of creatine supplementation on repeated upper- and lower-body Wingate performance ' (2001 ) 15 J. Strength Condit. Res. : 36 -41.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, Hultman E: Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am. J. Physiol. 266, 725–730 (1994)

    Hultman E. , 'Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis ' (1994 ) 266 Am. J. Physiol. : 725 -730.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grindstaff P, Kreider R, Bishop R, Wilson M, Wood L, Alexander C, Almada A: Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 7, 330–346 (1997)

    Almada A. , 'Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers ' (1997 ) 7 Int. J. Sport Nutr. : 330 -346.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Izquierdo M, Ibánez J, González-Badillo JJ, Gorostiaga EM: Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 34, 332–343 (2002)

    Gorostiaga E.M. , 'Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance ' (2002 ) 34 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 332 -343.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kinugasa R, Akima H, Ota A, Ohta A, Sugiura K, Kuno SY: Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 230–237 (2004)

    Kuno S.Y. , 'Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans ' (2004 ) 91 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 230 -237.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength and sprint performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 30, 73–82 (1998)

    Almada A.L. , 'Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength and sprint performance ' (1998 ) 30 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 73 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE: Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 9, 251–262 (1999)

    Nelson T.E. , 'Creatine supplementation and swimming performance ' (1999 ) 9 Int. J. Sport Nutr. : 251 -262.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maganaris CN, Maughan RJ: Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance in trained men. Acta Physiol. Scand. 163, 279–287 (1998)

    Maughan R.J. , 'Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance in trained men ' (1998 ) 163 Acta Physiol. Scand. : 279 -287.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McKenna MJ, Morton J, Selig SE, Snow RJ: Creatine supplementation increases muscle total creatine but not maximal intermittent exercise performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 2244–2252 (1999)

    Snow R.J. , 'Creatine supplementation increases muscle total creatine but not maximal intermittent exercise performance ' (1999 ) 87 J. Appl. Physiol. : 2244 -2252.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mendes RR, Pires I, Oliveira A, Tirapegui J: Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers. J. Nutr. Biochem. 15, 473–478 (2004)

    Oliveira A. , 'Tirapegui J: Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers ' (2004 ) 15 J. Nutr. Biochem. : 473 -478.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mero AA, Keskinen KL, Malvela MT, Sallinen JM: Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming. J. Strength Condit. Res. 18, 306–310 (2004)

    Sallinen J.M. , 'Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming ' (2004 ) 18 J. Strength Condit. Res. : 306 -310.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Metzl JD: Strength training and nutritional supplement use in adolescents. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 11, 292–296 (1999)

    Metzl J.D. , 'Strength training and nutritional supplement use in adolescents ' (1999 ) 11 Curr. Opin. Pediatr. : 292 -296.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Metzl JD, Small E, Levine SR, Gershel JC: Creatine use among young athletes. Pediatrics 108, 421–425 (2001)

    Gershel J.C. , 'Creatine use among young athletes ' (2001 ) 108 Pediatrics : 421 -425.

  • Mujika I, Chatard JC, Lacoste L, Barale F, Geyssant A: Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 28, 1435–1441 (1996)

    Geyssant A. , 'Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers ' (1996 ) 28 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 1435 -1441.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, Izquierdo M, Gorostiaga E: Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32, 518–525 (2000)

    Gorostiaga E. , 'Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players ' (2000 ) 32 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 518 -525.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, Coutts AJ, Richards DA: Effects of creatine supplementation on aerobic power and cardiovascular structure and function. J. Sci. Med. Sport. 8, 305–313 (2005)

    Richards D.A. , 'Effects of creatine supplementation on aerobic power and cardiovascular structure and function ' (2005 ) 8 J. Sci. Med. Sport. : 305 -313.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Odland ML, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Elorriaga A, Borgmann A: Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short-term maximum power output. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29, 216–219 (1997)

    Borgmann A. , 'Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short-term maximum power output ' (1997 ) 29 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 216 -219.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ostojic SM: Creatine supplementation in young soccer players. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 14, 95–103 (2004)

    Ostojic S.M. , 'Creatine supplementation in young soccer players ' (2004 ) 14 Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. : 95 -103.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peyrebrune MC, Nevill ME, Donaldson FJ, Cosford DJ: The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming. J. Sports Sci. 16, 271–279 (1998)

    Cosford D.J. , 'The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming ' (1998 ) 16 J. Sports Sci. : 271 -279.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, Lawrence S, Beilby J, Ching S: Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 33, 814–821 (2001)

    Ching S. , 'Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism ' (2001 ) 33 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 814 -821.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Selsby JT, Beckett KD, Kern M, Devor ST: Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. J. Strength Condit. Res. 17, 421–424 (2003)

    Devor S.T. , 'Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes ' (2003 ) 17 J. Strength Condit. Res. : 421 -424.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Skare OC, Skadberg BT, Wisnes AR: Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 96–102 (2001)

    Wisnes A.R. , 'Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters ' (2001 ) 11 Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports : 96 -102.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Snow RJ, McKenna MJ, Selig SE, Kemp J, Stathis CG, Zhao S: Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 84, 1667–1673 (1998)

    Zhao S. , 'Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism ' (1998 ) 84 J. Appl. Physiol. : 1667 -1673.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stout JR, Eckerson J, Noonan D, Moore G, Cullen D: The effects of a supplement designed to augment creatine uptake on exercise performance and fat-free mass in football players [abstract]. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29, S251 (1997)

    Cullen D. , 'The effects of a supplement designed to augment creatine uptake on exercise performance and fat-free mass in football players [abstract] ' (1997 ) 29 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : S251 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Theodorou AS, Cooke CB, King RF, Denison T, Wainwright BG, Havenetidis K: The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J. Sports Sci. 17, 853–859 (1999)

    Havenetidis K. , 'The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading ' (1999 ) 17 J. Sports Sci. : 853 -859.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vandenberghe KM, Goris P, Van Hecke M, Van Leemputte L, Vangerven L, Hespel P: Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J. Appl. Physiol. 83, 2055–2063 (1997)

    Hespel P. , 'Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training ' (1997 ) 83 J. Appl. Physiol. : 2055 -2063.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, Boetes M, Incledon T, Clark KL, Lynch JM: Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 97, 765–770 (1997)

    Lynch J.M. , 'Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise ' (1997 ) 97 J. Am. Diet. Assoc. : 765 -770.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, Mullins N, Mendel R, Antonio J, Lemon P: Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 18, 397–402 (2002)

    Lemon P. , 'Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes ' (2002 ) 18 Nutrition : 397 -402.

    • Search Google Scholar
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 485 485 44
Full Text Views 47 31 0
PDF Downloads 48 31 0