View More View Less
  • 1 The University of Tokyo Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Tokyo Japan
  • 2 The University of Tokyo Department of Ischemic Circulatory Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine Tokyo Japan
  • 3 Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Department of Ischemic Circulatory Physiology 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-8655 Japan
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

To compare endocrine responses to low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) for upperlimb (UL) and lower-limb (LL) muscles, we measured blood lactate, plasma noradrenaline, and serum growth hormone (GH), testosterone, cortisol and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) before and after the UL (biceps curl and triceps press down) and LL (leg extension and leg curl) exercises with BFR in nine men (26.3 ± 3.1 yr). The load of 30% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) was used in all the exercises, in which the first set of 30 repetitions was followed by the second and third sets to failure. In each exercise program, the proximal portions of their upper arms (UL) or thighs (LL) were compressed bilaterally by elastic belts. Both the UL and LL caused significant increases in lactate, noradrenaline, GH, testosterone, cortisol, and IGF-I concentrations when compared to the pre-exercise values. A significant difference between the UL and LL was observed only in the area under the curve (AUC) of serum GH concentration, indicating that the LL induced greater GH response than did the UL. The greater GH secretion following the LL may be more advantageous for muscle hypertrophy induced by a long-term training period.

  • Abe T, Kearns CF, Sato Y: Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training. J. Appl. Physiol. 100, 1460–1466 (2006)

    Sato Y. , 'Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training ' (2006 ) 100 J. Appl. Physiol. : 1460 -1466.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Albers N: Overview of pulse actions in the human. Growth Horm. IGF. Res. 11(Suppl A), S39–S42 (2001)

    Albers N. , 'Overview of pulse actions in the human ' (2001 ) 11 Growth Horm. IGF. Res. : S39 -S42.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anakwe OO, Moger WH: Beta 2-adrenergic stimulation of androgen production by cultured mouse testicular interstitial cells. Life Sci. 35, 2041–2047 (1984)

    WH M. , 'Beta 2-adrenergic stimulation of androgen production by cultured mouse testicular interstitial cells ' (1984 ) 35 Life Sci. : 2041 -2047.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bell MP, White MJ: Cardiovascular responses to external compression of human calf muscle vary during graded metaboreflex stimulation. Exp. Physiol. 90, 383–391 (2005)

    White M.J. , 'Cardiovascular responses to external compression of human calf muscle vary during graded metaboreflex stimulation ' (2005 ) 90 Exp. Physiol. : 383 -391.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Burgomaster KA, Moore DR, Schofield LM, Phillips SM, Sale DG, Gibala MJ: Resistance training with vascular occlusion: metabolic adaptations in human muscle. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 35, 1203–1208 (2003)

    Gibala M.J. , 'Resistance training with vascular occlusion: metabolic adaptations in human muscle ' (2003 ) 35 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 1203 -1208.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chudalla R, Baerwalde S, Schneider G, Maassen N: Local and systemic effects on blood lactate concentration during exercise with small and large muscle groups. Pflügers Arch. 452, 690–697 (2006)

    Maassen N. , 'Local and systemic effects on blood lactate concentration during exercise with small and large muscle groups ' (2006 ) 452 Pflügers Arch. : 690 -697.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Crewther B, Keogh J, Cronin J, Cook C: Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation: acute hormonal responses. Sports Med. 36, 215–238 (2006)

    Cook C. , 'Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation: acute hormonal responses ' (2006 ) 36 Sports Med. : 215 -238.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fujita S, Abe T, Drummond MJ, Cadenas JG, Dreyer HC, Sato Y, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB: Blood flow restriction during low-intensity resistance exercise increases S6K1 phosphorylation and muscle protein synthesis. J. Appl. Physiol. 103, 903–910 (2007)

    Rasmussen B.B. , 'Blood flow restriction during low-intensity resistance exercise increases S6K1 phosphorylation and muscle protein synthesis ' (2007 ) 103 J. Appl. Physiol. : 903 -910.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Godfrey RJ, Madgwick Z, Whyte GP: The exercise-induced growth hormone response in athletes. Sports Med. 33, 599–613 (2003)

    Whyte G.P. , 'The exercise-induced growth hormone response in athletes ' (2003 ) 33 Sports Med. : 599 -613.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goto K, Takahashi K, Yamamoto M, Takamatsu K: Hormone and recovery responses to resistance exercise with slow movement. J. Physiol. Sci. 58, 7–14 (2008)

    Takamatsu K. , 'Hormone and recovery responses to resistance exercise with slow movement ' (2008 ) 58 J. Physiol. Sci. : 7 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A: Acute hormonal responses to two different fatiguing heavy-resistance protocols in male athletes. J. Appl. Physiol. 74, 882–887 (1993)

    Pakarinen A. , 'Acute hormonal responses to two different fatiguing heavy-resistance protocols in male athletes ' (1993 ) 74 J. Appl. Physiol. : 882 -887.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ, Callister R, Shealy M, Dudley GA, Maresh CM, Marchitelli L, Cruthirds C, Murray T, Falkel JE: Training responses of plasma beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 21, 146–153 (1989)

    Falkel J.E. , 'Training responses of plasma beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol ' (1989 ) 21 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 146 -153.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA: Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med. 35, 339–361 (2005)

    Ratamess N.A. , 'Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training ' (2005 ) 35 Sports Med. : 339 -361.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kubo K, Komuro T, Ishiguro N, Tsunoda N, Sato Y, Ishii N, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T: Effects of low-load resistance training with vascular occlusion on the mechanical properties of muscle and tendon. J. Appl. Biomech. 22, 112–119 (2006)

    Fukunaga T. , 'Effects of low-load resistance training with vascular occlusion on the mechanical properties of muscle and tendon ' (2006 ) 22 J. Appl. Biomech. : 112 -119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kumazawa T, Mizumura K: Thin-fibre receptors responding to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation in the skeletal muscle of the dog. J. Physiol. (Lond). 273, 179–194 (1977)

    Mizumura K. , 'Thin-fibre receptors responding to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation in the skeletal muscle of the dog ' (1977 ) 273 J. Physiol. (Lond). : 179 -194.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee PD, Durham SK, Martinez V, Vasconez O, Powell DR, Guevara-Aguirre J: Kinetics of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein responses to a single dose of growth hormone. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 2266–2274 (1997)

    Guevara-Aguirre J. , 'Kinetics of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein responses to a single dose of growth hormone ' (1997 ) 82 J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. : 2266 -2274.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lin H, Wang SW, Wang RY, Wang PS: Stimulatory effect of lactate on testosterone production by rat Leydig cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 83, 147–154 (2001)

    Wang P.S. , 'Stimulatory effect of lactate on testosterone production by rat Leydig cells ' (2001 ) 83 J. Cell. Biochem. : 147 -154.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lu SS, Lau CP, Tung YF, Huang SW, Chen YH, Shih HC, Tsai SC, Lu CC, Wang SW, Chen JJ, Chien EJ, Chien CH, Wang PS: Lactate and the effects of exercise on testosterone secretion: evidence for the involvement of a cAMP-mediated mechanism. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29, 1048–1054 (1997)

    Wang P.S. , 'Lactate and the effects of exercise on testosterone secretion: evidence for the involvement of a cAMP-mediated mechanism ' (1997 ) 29 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 1048 -1054.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Madarame H, Neya M, Ochi E, Nakazato K, Sato Y, Ishii N: Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 40, 258–263 (2008)

    Ishii N. , 'Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction ' (2008 ) 40 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. : 258 -263.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manini TM, Clark BC: Blood flow restricted exercise and skeletal muscle health. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 37, 78–85 (2009)

    Clark B.C. , 'Blood flow restricted exercise and skeletal muscle health ' (2009 ) 37 Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. : 78 -85.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McCall GE, Byrnes WC, Fleck SJ, Dickinson A, Kraemer WJ: Acute and chronic hormonal responses to resistance training designed to promote muscle hypertrophy. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 24, 96–107 (1999)

    Kraemer W.J. , 'Acute and chronic hormonal responses to resistance training designed to promote muscle hypertrophy ' (1999 ) 24 Can. J. Appl. Physiol. : 96 -107.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mense S: Nociception from skeletal muscle in relation to clinical muscle pain. Pain 54, 241–289 (1993)

    Mense S. , 'Nociception from skeletal muscle in relation to clinical muscle pain ' (1993 ) 54 Pain : 241 -289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moore DR, Burgomaster KA, Schofield LM, Gibala MJ, Sale DG, Phillips SM: Neuromuscular adaptations in human muscle following low intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 92, 399–406 (2004)

    Phillips S.M. , 'Neuromuscular adaptations in human muscle following low intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion ' (2004 ) 92 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 399 -406.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pierce JR, Clark BC, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Kanaley JA: Growth hormone and muscle function responses to skeletal muscle ischemia. J. Appl. Physiol. 101, 1588–1595 (2006)

    Kanaley J.A. , 'Growth hormone and muscle function responses to skeletal muscle ischemia ' (2006 ) 101 J. Appl. Physiol. : 1588 -1595.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Raastad T, Bjoro T, Hallen J: Hormonal responses to high- and moderate-intensity strength exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 82, 121–128 (2000)

    Hallen J. , 'Hormonal responses to high- and moderate-intensity strength exercise ' (2000 ) 82 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 121 -128.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Vanheest JL, Sharman MJ, Rubin MR, French DN, Vescovi JD, Silvestre R, Hatfield DL, Fleck SJ, Deschenes MR: Androgen receptor content following heavy resistance exercise in men. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 93, 35–42 (2005)

    Deschenes M.R. , 'Androgen receptor content following heavy resistance exercise in men ' (2005 ) 93 J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. : 35 -42.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reeves GV, Kraemer RR, Hollander DB, Clavier J, Thomas C, Francois M, Castracane VD: Comparison of hormone responses following light resistance exercise with partial vascular occlusion and moderately difficult resistance exercise without occlusion. J. Appl. Physiol. 101, 1616–1622 (2006)

    Castracane V.D. , 'Comparison of hormone responses following light resistance exercise with partial vascular occlusion and moderately difficult resistance exercise without occlusion ' (2006 ) 101 J. Appl. Physiol. : 1616 -1622.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rennie MJ: Claims for the anabolic effects of growth hormone: a case of the emperor’s new clothes? Br. J. Sports Med. 37, 100–105 (2003)

    Rennie M.J. , 'Claims for the anabolic effects of growth hormone: a case of the emperor’s new clothes? ' (2003 ) 37 Br. J. Sports Med. : 100 -105.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sato Y, Yoshitomi A, Abe T: Acute growth hormone response to low-intensity KAATSU resistance exercise: Comparison between arm and leg. Int. J. KAATSU Training Res. 1, 45–50 (2005)

    Abe T. , 'Acute growth hormone response to low-intensity KAATSU resistance exercise: Comparison between arm and leg ' (2005 ) 1 Int. J. KAATSU Training Res. : 45 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Scott CD, Martin JL, Baxter RC: Rat hepatocyte insulin-like growth factor I and binding protein: effect of growth hormone in vitro and in vivo . Endocrinology 116, 1102–1107 (1985)

    Baxter R.C. , 'Rat hepatocyte insulin-like growth factor I and binding protein: effect of growth hormone in vitro and in vivo ' (1985 ) 116 Endocrinology : 1102 -1107.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shinohara M, Kouzaki M, Yoshihisa T, Fukunaga T: Efficacy of tourniquet ischemia for strength training with low resistance. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 77, 189–191 (1998)

    Fukunaga T. , 'Efficacy of tourniquet ischemia for strength training with low resistance ' (1998 ) 77 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. : 189 -191.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stacey MJ: Free nerve endings in skeletal muscle of the cat. J. Anat. 105, 231–254 (1969)

    Stacey M.J. , 'Free nerve endings in skeletal muscle of the cat ' (1969 ) 105 J. Anat. : 231 -254.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stokes KA, Nevill ME, Hall GM, Lakomy HK: The time course of the human growth hormone response to a 6 s and a 30 s cycle ergometer sprint. J. Sports Sci. 20, 487–494 (2002)

    Lakomy H.K. , 'The time course of the human growth hormone response to a 6 s and a 30 s cycle ergometer sprint ' (2002 ) 20 J. Sports Sci. : 487 -494.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stokes KA, Nevill ME, Lakomy HK, Hall GM: Reproducibility of the growth hormone response to sprint exercise. Growth Horm. IGF. Res. 13, 336–340 (2003)

    Hall G.M. , 'Reproducibility of the growth hormone response to sprint exercise ' (2003 ) 13 Growth Horm. IGF. Res. : 336 -340.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sumide T, Sakuraba K, Sawaki K, Ohmura H, Tamura Y: Effect of resistance exercise training combined with relatively low vascular occlusion. J. Sci. Med. Sport 12, 107–112 (2009)

    Tamura Y. , 'Effect of resistance exercise training combined with relatively low vascular occlusion ' (2009 ) 12 J. Sci. Med. Sport : 107 -112.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Takano H, Morita T, Iida H, Asada K, Kato M, Uno K, Hirose K, Matsumoto A, Takenaka K, Hirata Y, Eto F, Nagai R, Sato Y, Nakajima T: Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 65–73 (2005)

    Nakajima T. , 'Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow ' (2005 ) 95 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 65 -73.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Takarada Y, Sato Y, Ishii N: Effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscle function in athletes. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 308–314 (2002)

    Ishii N. , 'Effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscle function in athletes ' (2002 ) 86 Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. : 308 -314.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Takarada Y, Takazawa H, Sato Y, Takebayashi S, Tanaka Y, Ishii N: Effects of resistance exercise combined with moderate vascular occlusion on muscular function in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 88, 2097–2106 (2000)

    Ishii N. , 'Effects of resistance exercise combined with moderate vascular occlusion on muscular function in humans ' (2000 ) 88 J. Appl. Physiol. : 2097 -2106.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Takarada Y, Tsuruta T, Ishii N: Cooperative effects of exercise and occlusive stimuli on muscular function in low-intensity resistance exercise with moderate vascular occlusion. Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 585–592 (2004)

    Ishii N. , 'Cooperative effects of exercise and occlusive stimuli on muscular function in low-intensity resistance exercise with moderate vascular occlusion ' (2004 ) 54 Jpn. J. Physiol. : 585 -592.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tanimoto M, Madarame H, Ishii N: Muscle oxygenation and plasma growth hormone concentration during and after resistance exercise: Comparison between “KAATSU” and other types of regimen. Int. J. KAATSU Training Res. 1, 51–56 (2005)

    Ishii N. , 'Muscle oxygenation and plasma growth hormone concentration during and after resistance exercise: Comparison between “KAATSU” and other types of regimen ' (2005 ) 1 Int. J. KAATSU Training Res. : 51 -56.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wernbom M, Augustsson J, Raastad T: Ischemic strength training: a low-load alternative to heavy resistance exercise? Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 18, 401–416 (2008)

    Raastad T. , 'Ischemic strength training: a low-load alternative to heavy resistance exercise? ' (2008 ) 18 Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports : 401 -416.

    • Search Google Scholar

The author instruction is available in PDF.

Please, download the file from HERE

  • Impact Factor (2016): 0.571
  • 5-year Impact Factor (2016): 0.675
  • Physiology (Medical) Quartile score (2016): Q4
  • SJR Indicator (2016): 0.276
  • H-Index (2016): H-Index (2016): 23

Language: English

Founded in 1950
Publication: One volume of four issues annually
Publication Programme: 2016: Vol. 103
Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • Global Health
  • Index Copernicus
  • Index Medicus
  • Medline
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal
  • Science Citation Index Expanded
  • SCOPUS

 

Subscribers can access the electronic version of every printed article.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Rosivall, László

Honorary Editor(s)-in-Chief): Monos, Emil

Managing Editor(s): Bartha, Jenő; Berhidi, Anna

Co-editor(s): Koller, Ákos; Lénárd, László; Szénási, Gábor

Assistant Editor(s): G. Dörnyei (Budapest), Zs. Miklós (Budapest), Gy. Nádasy (Budapest)

Hungarian Editorial Board

      Benedek, György (Szeged)
      Benyó, Zoltán (Budapest)
      Boros, Mihály (Szeged)
      Chernoch, László (Debrecen)
      Détári, László (Budapest)
      Hamar, János (Budapest)
      Hantos, Zoltán (Szeged)
      Hunyady, László (Budapest)
      Imre, Sándor (Debrecen)
      Jancsó, Gábor (Szeged)
      Karádi, Zoltán (Pécs)
      Kovács, László (Debrecen)
      Palkovits, Miklós (Budapest)
      Papp, Gyula (Szeged)
      Pavlik, Gábor (Budapest)
      Spät, András (Budapest)
      Szabó, Gyula (Szeged)
      Szelényi, Zoltán (Pécs)
      Szolcsányi, János (Pécs)
      Szollár, Lajos (Budapest)
      Szücs, Géza (Debrecen)
      Telegdy, Gyula (Szeged)
      Toldi, József (Szeged)
      Tósaki, Árpád (Debrecen)

International Editorial Board

      R. Bauer (Jena)
      W. Benjelloun (Rabat)
      A. W. Cowley Jr. (Milwaukee)
      D. Djuric (Belgrade)
      C. Fry (London)
      S. Greenwald (London)
      O. Hänninen (Kuopio)
      H. G. Hinghofer-Szalkay (Graz)
      Th. Kenner (Graz)
      Gy. Kunos (Richmond)
      M. Mahmoudian (Tehran)
      T. Mano (Seki, Gifu)
      G. Navar (New Orleans)
      H. Nishino (Nagoya)
      O. Petersen (Liverpool)
      U. Pohl (Münich)
      R. S. Reneman (Maastricht)
      A. Romanovsky (Phoenix)
      G. M. Rubanyi (Richmond)
      T. Sakata (Oita)
      A. Siddiqui (Karachi)
      Cs. Szabo (Beverly)
      E. Vicaut (Paris)
      N. Westerhof (Amsterdam)
      L. F. Zhang (Xi'an)

Editorial Office:
Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt.
Prielle Kornélia u. 21–35, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary

Editorial Correspondence:
Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine Institute of Pathophysiology
Nagyvárad tér 4, H-1089 Budapest, Hungary
Phone/Fax: +36-1-2100-100
E-mail: aph@semmelweis-univ.hu