View More View Less
  • 1 Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly u. 1, Hungary
  • 2 FKF Nonprofit Zrt, H-1081 Budapest, Alföldi u. 7, Hungary
  • 3 Szent István University, H-2100, Gödöllő, Páter Károly u. 1, Hungary
Open access

Few researches address the compatibility of organic mulching and entomopathogenic (EPN) and slug-parasitic (SPN) nematodes, although organic mulching may provide favourable conditions for these beneficial organisms. Our aim was to examine the effect of different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5%) of aqueous extracts of green waste compost, the dry leaf litters of the common walnut (Juglans regia) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) on EPN (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema kraussei) and SPN (Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita) species. Experiments were set up in 96-well, flat-bottom microplates. After a 24-hour exposure time, the number of dead animals was counted under a transmission microscope. Green waste compost extracts caused quite low or no mortality in case of all examined species. Mortality caused by the 5% Norway maple leaf litter extract was moderate (34.6%) in the case of S. carpocapsae juveniles, while 100% of juveniles of other species died. The highest (5%) concentration of the common walnut leaf litter extract caused 100% mortality in all species. As a conclusion, green waste compost mulch seems to be more compatible with EPN and SPN species than common walnut or Norway maple leaf litter mulch.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Anderson, O. R. (2005): Effects of aqueous extracts from leaves and leaf litter on the abundance and diversity of soil gymnamoebae in laboratory microcosm cultures. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52, 391395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Askary, T. H. and Abd-Elgawad, M. M. M. (2017): Beneficial nematodes in agroecosystems: a global perspective. In: M. M. M. Abd-Elgawad, T. H. Askary and J. Coupland (eds): Biocontrol Agents: Entomopathogenic and Slug Parasitic Nematodes. CAB International: Wallingford, UK, pp. 325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Askary, T. H., Khan, A. A., Waliullah, M. I. S., Banday, S. A., Iqbal, U. and Mir, M. M. (2012): Slug pest management through nematodes in agricultural and horticultural crops. In: F. Boeri and J. A. Chung (eds): Nematodes: Morphology, Functions and Management Strategies. Nova Publishers, New York, United States, pp. 197211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bond, W. and Grundy, A. C. (2001): Non-chemical weed management in organic farming systems. Weed Res. 41, 383405.

  • Ciancio, A. (1995): Observations on the nematicidal properties of some mycotoxins. Fundam. Appl. Nematol. 18, 451454.

  • Coder, K. D. (1983): Seasonal changes of juglone potential in leaves of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 9, 12031212.

  • de Waal, J. Y., Malan, A. P. and Addison, M. F. (2011): Evaluating mulches together with Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) for the control of diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 21, 255270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dix, N. J. (1974): Identification of a water-soluble fungal inhibitor in the leaves of Acer platanoides L. Ann. Bot. 38, 505514.

  • El Fels, L., Hafidi, M. and Ouhdouch, Y. (2016): Artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste. Waste Manag. 50, 194200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ercisli, S., Esitken, A., Turkkal, C. and Orhan, E. (2005): The allelopathic effects of juglone and walnut leaf extracts on yield, growth, chemical and PNE compositions of strawberry cv. Fern. Plant, Soil and Environ. 51, 283287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fekrat, F., Azami-Sardooei, Z., Salari, Kh. and Palashi, N. (2016): Effects of aqueous extract of walnut leaves against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato plant. Int. J. Adv. Biotechnol. Res. 7, 321326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Funt, R. C. and Martin, J. (2000): Black walnut toxicity to plants, humans and horses. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet HYG-1148-1193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glazer, I., Salame, L., Dvash, L., Muklada, H., Azaizeh, H., Mreny, R., Markovics, A. and Landau, S. Y. (2015): Effects of tannin-rich host plants on the infection and establishment of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 128, 3136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gregory, W. W. and Musick, G. J. (1976): Insect management in reduced tillage systems. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am., 22, 302304.

  • Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T. and Ryan, P. D. (2001): PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electronica 4, 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartz, T. K., Costa, F. J. and Schrader, W. L. (1996): Suitability of composted green waste for horticultural uses. HortScience 31, 961964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herren, G. L., Binnemans, I., Joos, L., Viaene, N., Ehlers, R.-U., Vandecasteele, B., Bert, W. and Steel, H. (2018): Compost as a carrier medium for entomopathogenic nematodes – the influence of compost maturity on their virulence and survival. Biol. Control 125, 2938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hofbrucker-MacKenzie, S. A., Sivaprakasam, I., Ji, Y., Kessels, M. M. and Qualmann, B. (2019): Neuronal stress and its hormetic aspects. In: S. I. S. Rattan and M. Kyriazis (eds): The Science of Hormesis in Health and Longevity. Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, San Diego, United States, pp. 171180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiss, L. V., Hrács, K., Nagy, P. I. and Seres, A. (2018): Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda) and Folsomia candida (Collembola) in various test media. Int. J. Environ. Res. 12, 233243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kokalis-Burelle, N. and Rodríguez-Kábana, R. (2006): Allelochemicals as biopesticides for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. In: K. G. Inderjit and Mukerji (eds): Allelochemicals: Biological Control of Plant Pathogens and Diseases. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. New York, NY, United States, pp. 1529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lacey, L. A. and Georgis, R. (2012): Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of insect pests above and below ground with comments on commercial production. J. Nematol. 44, 218225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lacey, L. A., Granatstein, D., Arthurs, S. P., Headrick, H. and Fritts, R. (2006): Use of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) in conjunction with mulches for control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 41, 107119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laznik, Ž., Vidrih, M. and Trdan, S. (2012): The effects of different fungicides on the viability of entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev), S. carpocapsae Weiser, and Heterorhabditis downesi Stock, Griffin and Burnell (Nematoda: Rhabditida) under laboratory conditions. Chil. J. Agric. Res. 72, 6267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leite, L. G., Schmidt, F. S., Harakava, R., Batista Filho, A., Giometti, F. H. C., Pietrobon, T. C. and Chacon-Orozco, J. (2015): The influence of mulch on the persistence of Steinernema brazilense (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) in sugarcane fields. Rev. Colomb. Entomol. 41, 176179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDaniels, L. H. and Pinnow, D. L. (1976): Walnut toxicity, an unsolved problem. Northern Nut Growers Association Annual Report 67, 114122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacMillan, K., Haukeland, S., Rae, R., Young, I., Crawford, J., Hapca, S. and Wilson, M. (2009): Dispersal patterns and behaviour of the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in mineral soils and organic media. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 41, 14831490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maleita, C., Esteves, I., Chim, R., Fonseca, L., Braga, M. E. M., Abrantes, I. and de Sousa, H. C. (2017): Naphthoquinones from walnut husk residues show strong nematicidal activities against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hispanica. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 5, 33903398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R.N. (1995): Effect of yard waste compost on plant-parasitic nematode densities in vegetable crops. J. Nematol. 27, 545549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millar, A. J. and Waite, S. (1999): Molluscs in coppice woodland. J. Conchol. 36, 2548.

  • Nermut, J. (2012): The persistence of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) in different substrates. Russ. J. Nematol. 20, 6164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nébih (2019): Termésnövelők adatbázisa. [Crop enhancers database]. Available on: https://termesnovelo.nebih.gov.hu/Engedelykereso/DocumentHandler.ashx?documentId=T343&documentName=Szelekt%c3%advkomposzt2015.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pardon, P., Mertens, J., Reubens, B., Reheul, D., Coussement, T., Elsen, A., Nelissen, V. and Verheyen, K. (2019): Juglans regia (walnut) in temperate arable agroforestry systems: effects on soil characteristics, arthropod diversity and crop yield. Renew. Agr. Food Syst. 117. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170519000176

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petrikovszki, R., Körösi, K., Nagy, P., Simon, B., Zalai, M. and Tóth, F. (2016): Effect of leaf litter mulching on the pests of tomato. Columella – J. Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 3, 3546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pivato, A., Raga, R., Lavagnolo, M. C., Vanin, S., Barausse, A., Palmeri, L. and Cossu, R. (2016): Assessment of compost dosage in farmland through ecotoxicological tests. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 18, 303317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ponder, F. and Tadros, S. H. (1985): Juglone concentration in soil beneath black walnut interplanted with nitrogen-fixing species. J. Chem. Ecol. 11, 937942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sankaranarayanan, C. and Askary, T. H. (2017): Status of entomopathogenic nematodes in integrated pest management strategies in India. In: M. M. M. Abd-Elgawad, T. H. Askary and J. Coupland (eds): Biocontrol Agents: Entomopathogenic and Slug Parasitic Nematodes. CAB International: Wallingford, UK, pp. 362382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro, D. I., Obrycki, J. J., Lewis, L. C. and Jackson, J. J. (1999): Effects of crop residue on the persistence of Steinernema carpocapsae. J. Nematol. 31, 517519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro-Ilan, D. I., Gouge, D. H., Piggott, S. J. and Fife, J. P. (2006): Application technology and environmental considerations for use of entomopathogenic nematodes in biological control. Biol. Control 38, 124133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro-Ilan, D. I., Han, R. and Dolinksi, C. (2012): Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology. J. Nematol. 44, 206217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shi, H., Wang, Y., Hu, T., Chen, H. and Liu, Y. (2017): Effects of decomposing walnut leaf litter on growth of wheat and counteracting effect of N fertilization. Chin. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. 23, 818825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinkevičienė, A., Jodaugienė, D., Pupalienė, R. and Urbonienė, M. (2009): The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield. Agron. Res. 7, 485491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soltys, D., Krasuska, U., Bogatek, R. and Gniazdowska, A. (2013): Allelochemicals as bioherbicides – present and perspective. In: A. J. Price and J. A. Kelton (eds): Herbicides – Current Research and Case Studies in Use. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 517542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Summers. D. A. and Lussenhop, J. (1976): The response of soil arthropods to canopies of black walnut. Pedobiologia 16, 389395.

  • Tirczka, I., Hayes, M. and Prokaj, E. (2015): Evaluation of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaf compost as growing media. Hung. Agric. Res. 24, 2730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Q., Xu, Z., Hu, T., ur Rehman, H., Chen, H., Li, Z., Ding, B. and Hu, H. (2014): Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut–winter vegetable agroforestry system. Nat. Prod. Res. 28, 20172020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., Zeng, G., Huang, X., Wang, Z. and Tan, N. (2017): 1,4-Naphthoquinone triggers nematode lethality by inducing oxidative stress and activating insulin/IGF signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Molecules 22, 798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wei, Y. and Liu, Y. (2005): Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study. Chemosphere 59, 12571265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, M. J., Glen, D. M. and George, S. K. (1993): The rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita as a potential biological control agent for slugs. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 3, 503511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X., Liu, Z., Tian, N., Luc, N. T., Zhu, B. and Bing, Y. (2015): Allelopathic effects of decomposed leaf litter from intercropped trees on rape. Turk. J. Agric. For. 39, 898908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., Hu, H., Hu, T., Yang, L., Shu, L. and Ruan, R. (2016): Effects of decomposing walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter on growth, photosynthesis and resistance physiology of three recipient plants. J. Ecology and Rural Environment 32, 595602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation