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Dóra Szabó Food and Wine Research Institute, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary

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Nikolett Molnár Food and Wine Research Institute, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary

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Adrienn Geiger Food and Wine Research Institute, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary

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Zoltán Karácsony Food and Wine Research Institute, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary

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Kálmán Zoltán Váczy Food and Wine Research Institute, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary

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Abstract

One of the major and yet unsolved threats for viticulture is the group of vascular fungal infections, the so-called grapevine trunk diseases. Besides their latent nature and the enormous number of associated pathogens, their control is also hampered by the lack of effective fungicides, directing growing attention toward the use of biocontrol agents. In the present study the isolation, identification, and characterization of a bacterial strain are presented, showing biocontrol potential against some main causal agents of grapevine trunk diseases. The strain was isolated from the wood of an asymptomatic grapevine and selected for the fungicidal activity against the pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. According to 16S rDNA, gyrA, and gyrB sequences, the isolate belongs to Bacillus velezensis species. Confrontation tests with the bacterium or with its fermentation broth further revealed growth inhibition and fungicide activity against Botryosphaeria dothidea, Eutypa lata and Diaporthe ampelina pathogens. Fractionation of the bacterial culture filtrate suggests that the antifungal agents secreted by the B. velezenzis isolate are mainly lipoproteins. Phytotoxicity tests were also carried out with the isolate, showing no harmful effects on grapevine foliar disks.

Abstract

One of the major and yet unsolved threats for viticulture is the group of vascular fungal infections, the so-called grapevine trunk diseases. Besides their latent nature and the enormous number of associated pathogens, their control is also hampered by the lack of effective fungicides, directing growing attention toward the use of biocontrol agents. In the present study the isolation, identification, and characterization of a bacterial strain are presented, showing biocontrol potential against some main causal agents of grapevine trunk diseases. The strain was isolated from the wood of an asymptomatic grapevine and selected for the fungicidal activity against the pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. According to 16S rDNA, gyrA, and gyrB sequences, the isolate belongs to Bacillus velezensis species. Confrontation tests with the bacterium or with its fermentation broth further revealed growth inhibition and fungicide activity against Botryosphaeria dothidea, Eutypa lata and Diaporthe ampelina pathogens. Fractionation of the bacterial culture filtrate suggests that the antifungal agents secreted by the B. velezenzis isolate are mainly lipoproteins. Phytotoxicity tests were also carried out with the isolate, showing no harmful effects on grapevine foliar disks.

Introduction

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an especially spray-demanding crop, mostly because of some well-known fungal diseases like powdery-, or downy-mildew, black rot, and bunch rot. Contrary to the above diseases, there is no efficient chemical control method for grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs). This group of fungal infections consists of five different syndromes as Botryosphaeria dieback (main causal agents: Diplodia spp., Neofusicoccum parvum), black foot disease (Ilyonectria spp., Campylocarpon spp., Cylindrocarpon spp.) Eutypa dieback (Eutypa lata, Eutypella spp.), Esca complex (Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium minimum, Fomitiporia mediterranea), and Phomopsis disease (Diaporthe spp.). The necrotrophic pathogens of these syndromes infect and colonize the woody tissues of the trunk, therefore they are protected from sprayed fungicides (Bertsch et al., 2013). The only known practical method for the prevention of the development of GTDs is the treatment of plants with sodium arsenite (Fussler et al., 2008). However, its use is prohibited in the European Union since the early 2000s, because of its harmful effects on the environment and human health. Therefore, GTDs have a great negative impact on the grapevine and wine industry with an estimated annual economical loss of more than a billion dollars worldwide (Fussler et al., 2008; De la Fuente et al., 2016). The lack of effective control methods against GTDs, led to increasing attention toward the use of biocontrol agents (Mondello et al., 2018), with a special emphasis on endophytic microorganisms isolated from grapevine tissues (Silva-Valderrama et al., 2021). Several studies examined the potential use of well-known biocontrol species like the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (Trotel-Aziz et al., 2019; Leal et al., 2023), or fungal species like Clonostachys rosea (Billar de Almeida et al., 2020; Silva-Valderrama et al., 2021; Geiger et al., 2022), and members of the genus Trichoderma (Fourie et al., 2001; Berbegal et al., 2020; Pollard-Flamand et al., 2022) against GTDs. Another promising biocontrol organism is Bacillus velezensis, which is extensively investigated in this context during the latest years (Blundell et al., 2021; Bustamante et al., 2022; Langa-Lomba et al., 2023). In the present study, the characterization of the biocontrol potential of a B. velenzensis isolate is presented.

Material and methods

Isolation of endophytic bacteria from grapevine wood

Xylem samples were obtained as described previously (Adejoro et al., 2023) with minor modifications. Fifteen asymptomatic grapevines (Cabernet sauvignon) were sampled in the vineyard of the Eszterházy Károly Catholic University in August of 2022 by drilling. The bark was removed from the trunks at an approximately 2 cm2 surface and disinfected with 70 %v/v ethanol. The drill was also disinfected in the same way between samplings to avoid cross-contamination. Obtained wood flakes were collected in sterile test tubes. Small portions of the samples were inoculated into 5 mL of Luria Bertani liquid medium (LB; 1 %m/v tryptone; 1 %m/v sodium chloride; 0.5 %m/v yeast extract) and incubated on a rotary shaker for 48 h (25 °C, 120 rpm). Dilutions of the cultures at rates of × 10−4,  × 10−5,  × 10−6, and × 10−7 were prepared in sterile distilled water and 50 µL portions were streaked on the surface of solid LB media and incubated at 25 °C for 3 days. Colonies with different morphology were picked from the plates and subjected to two rounds of streaking to prepare pure cultures. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and preserved in 50 %v/v glycerol at −80 °C.

DNA was isolated from 2 days old liquid cultures (LB, 25 °C, 120 rpm) according to a method described previously (Dashti et al., 2009). For the identification of bacterial isolates partial 16S rDNA, gyrA, and gyrB genes were amplified in polymerase chain reactions according to Wang et al. (2022).

Screening of bacterial strains for antifungal activity

Bacterial isolates were screened for antifungal activity by a plate method previously developed for the study of yeasts killer activity (Woods and Bevan, 1968). Plates containing solid yeast extract-glucose medium (YG, 1 %m/v yeast extract, 2 %m/v glucose, 2 %m/v agar) amended with 0.003 %m/v methylene blue were massively inoculated with a 106 cell/mL conidial suspension of P. chlamydospora strain P46 (Table 1) and dried. Subsequently, bacterial isolates were inoculated on the surface of the plates as ∼1 cm long streaks and cultures were incubated at 25 °C for 5 days. Dead cells take up the methylene blue in a higher amount and oppositely to the living cells they are unable to convert it to colorless leucomethylene blue. As a result, dead fungal cells stained dark blue around bacterial colonies with fungicidal activity.

Table 1.

Fungal isolates used in the present study

Strain IDSpeciesSequenced lociGrapevine trunk diseaseReference
15/5Botryosphaeria dothideaITS, EFBotryosphaeria diebackGeiger et al. (2022)
63C/2Diaporthe ampelinaITS, EF, ACTPhomopsis diseaseGeiger et al. (2022)
T15/2Eutypa lataITSEutypa diebackGeiger et al. (2022)
P46Phaeomoniella chlamydosporaITSEscaKarácsony et al. (2023)

ITS: internal transcribed spacer; EF: partial transcription elongation factor 1-α gene; ACT: γ-actin gene.

In vitro confrontation tests

One strain of B. dothidea (Bdo), E. lata (Ela), P. chlamydospora (Pch), and D. ampelina (Dam) GTD pathogenic fungi were used in the present study and are listed in Table 1. Mycelial disks were cut from the actively growing margin of each strain cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA; 20 %m/v potato infusion; 2 %m/v glucose; 2 %m/v agar) medium and placed on YG plates. Bacterial strains were co-inoculated by streaking 2 days old liquid cultures (LB, 25 °C, 120 rpm) with a 5 cm distance to the fungal inoculum. Control plates with only the fungi inoculated were also prepared. Cultures were incubated at 25 °C. Mycelial growth was measured at 2, 3, 4, and 9 dpi (days post inoculation) and fungal growth rates were calculated both on treated (RGt) and control (RGc) plates. Percental growth inhibitions (RGI%) on dual cultures were calculated with the following equation:
RGI%=(RGcRGt)/RGc×100

All experiments were done in duplicate.

Examination of bacterial culture filtrates

Preparation of culture filtrates

To test the effects of secreted bacterial metabolites on GTD pathogens, liquid cultures were prepared. YG media were inoculated with bacterial isolates and subjected to a three days incubation at 25 °C, with 120 rpm shaking. Fermentation broths were centrifuged (4,000 g, 15 min) and supernatants were filtered through a 0.22 µm pore size membrane to obtain sterile culture filtrates.

Fungal growth inhibition

Solid, two-fold concentrated YG medium was mixed with an equal volume of bacterial culture filtrate or liquid YG medium as control and poured into Petri dishes. Actively growing mycelia of tested GTD fungal pathogens (Table 1) were inoculated on the media and incubated at 25 °C. Mycelial growth was measured at 2, 6, 8, and 9 dpi and RGI% was calculated as in the case of in vitro confrontation tests. All measurements were done in triplicates.

Fungicidal activity

Viability of fungal cells were measured by the use of fluorescein diacetate. Fluorescein diacetate is a widely used dye for the detection and quantification of viability in wide range of organisms including fungi (Gaspar et al., 2001). The substance is converted to the fluorescent molecule fluorescein as the action of intracellular esterases indicating living cells. The formed fluorescein can be either detected by microscopy (Calich et al., 1979) or quantified by a fluorometer after extraction of the biomass with acetone (Gaspar et al., 2001). Mycelial disks (3 mm in diameter) were cut from the actively growing margins of fungal colonies (Table 1) on PDA media, and placed in 500 µL culture filtrate or distilled water as a control. Thereafter, mycelia were incubated at 25 °C for 6 h 25 µL volumes of fluorescein diacetate solution (2 mg mL−1 in acetone) were added to the samples, and incubation continued for an additional 1 h. Reactions were stopped by adding 500 µL acetone. After a 30 min incubation at room temperature and a brief centrifugation (5,000 rpm, 5 min) supernatants were removed and the fluorescence of released fluorescein was measured by QFX Fluorometer (DeNovix Inc., United States) using the FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) program. All experiments were done in triplicates.

Fractionation of the bacterial culture filtrate

Different fractions of the 5 mL portions of bacterial culture filtrates were also tested for fungicidal activity. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of 0.7 g mL−1 ammonium sulfate and incubation at 4 °C for 16 h (Wingfield, 1998). After centrifugation (4,000 g, 20 min) supernatants were removed and the pellets were dried. Extraction of 5 mL culture filtrates with organic solvents was carried out two times by an equal volume of chloroform, or ethyl acetate (Maung et al., 2021). The organic extracts were pooled and dried at 60 °C for 16 h in a fume hood. The ammonium sulfate precipitates and the dried organic extracts redissolved in 5 mL distilled water and subjected to fungicidal activity measurement as described above, using Bdo as the test organism.

Phytotoxicity test

Phytotoxicity tests were done as described previously (Karácsony et al., 2023) with minor modifications. Young leaves from one-year-old V. vinifera Cabernet sauvignon potted cuttings were removed, extensively washed with sterile distilled water, and foliar disks with 5 mm diameter were cut. Five foliar disks were placed in a petri dish (d = 55 mm) containing 10 mL of ten-fold diluted bacterial culture filtrate or distilled water as a control. The foliar disks were incubated at room temperature with ambient light conditions for 6 days and photographed.

Statistical analysis

Significances of differences were calculated by One-way ANOVA test using GraphPad Prism 5 software (GraphPad Software, San Diego California USA, www.graphpad.com) demo version.

Results and discussion

A total of 57 bacterial strains were isolated from asymptomatic grapevines in 2022, in Eger wine region. Preliminary screening of the isolates for fungicidal activity against Pch led to the selection of 10 positive strains according to the blue discoloration of fungal cells around the bacterial colonies (Fig. 1). The species Pch was selected for preliminary screening because of its slow growth rate and its high significance as the pioneer pathogen of the possibly most important GTD, the Esca disease complex (Bertsch et al., 2013).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Representative photograph of a plate used for the screening of bacterial isolates for antifungal activity against Pch (YG medium + methylene blue, 25 °C, 5 dpi). Arrows indicate bacterial colonies with a dark blue halo on the mycelial mat, suggesting fungicidal activity

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 58, 2; 10.1556/038.2023.00192

The 10 selected isolates were subjected to in vitro confrontation tests against representative causal agents of the most important GTDs (Fig. 2). One bacterial strain (ID TKP3/1) showed significant growth inhibition against all tested fungal species. The RGI% values were somewhat lower in the case of Bdo (28%) and Dam (23%), while Ela and Pch suffered high growth inhibition (65% and 100% respectively) when co-inoculated with TKP3/1. The following experiments were focused on isolate TKP3/1 to further reveal its biocontrol potential. The sequencing results suggested, that the isolate belongs to the B. velezensis species. All three examined loci showed high similarity to strains of this taxon: partial 16S RNA (GenBank Accession: OR514235) showed 100% similarity with B. velezensis strain YA215; gyrA sequence (GenBank Accession: OR513919) was 99.89% similar to B. velezensis strain Bac57, and gyrB (GenBank Accession: OR513920) was 97.79% identical with B. velezensis strain SRCM100072. While this species attracts attention as a biocontrol agent only in recent years, it is already commercialized (previously identified as B. amyloliquifaciens) and efficiently used against several plant pathogenic fungi (Rabbee et al., 2023). B. velezensis is also recognized as a potential antagonist of GTDs pathogens suggested by in vitro tests (Blundell et al., 2021; Bustamante et al., 2022; Boiu-Sicuia et al., 2023) as well as in planta experiments (Langa-Lomba et al., 2023). While the efficient growth inhibition of Bdo, Ela, and Dam (besides some other GTD-associated fungi) by B. velezensis is reported previously in the above studies, to the best of our knowledge this study is the first observation of the antagonism of this species against Pch. The antifungal mode of action of B. velenzensis against GTD pathogens is mostly based on its secreted metabolites (Bustamante et al., 2022). Our results on the effect of TKP3/1 culture filtrate on GTD fungi are in accordance with these previous results. Fungal growth tests in the presence of 50 %v/v cultural filtrate of TKP3/1 isolate (Fig. 3) showed significant growth inhibition for Bdo (81 RGI%), Ela (25 RGI%), Dam (56 RGI%), as well as Pch (100 RGI%).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Percental mean growth inhibition values and standard deviances for the tested bacterial isolates against GTD pathogenic fungi in dual culture assays. Letters mark significantly differing (P < 0.05) groups of datasets

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 58, 2; 10.1556/038.2023.00192

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Percental growth inhibition values of GTD pathogenic fungi in the presence of 50 %v/v culture filtrate (YG medium, 25 °C, 120 rpm, 3 days) of strain TKP3/1. Letters mark significantly differing (P < 0.05) groups of datasets

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 58, 2; 10.1556/038.2023.00192

Besides its growth inhibition ability, the culture filtrate of strain TKP3/1 is also tested for fungicidal activity. Results showed a significant decrease in the viability of cells in the presence of TKP3/1 culture filtrate in the case of all fungi, compared to control mycelia treated with distilled water (Fig. 4). This result suggests, that B. velezensis strain TKP3/1 may be suitable for the treatment of grapevines previously infected by GTD pathogens, its applicability is not limited to a preventive effect.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effect of 6h treatment with culture filtrate of strain TKP3/1 (CF: YG medium, 25 °C, 120 rpm, 3 days) or distilled water (DW) on the ability of GTD pathogens mycelia to hydrolyze fluorescein diacetate. Asterisks mark the significance of differences (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0005, ****P < 0.0001)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 58, 2; 10.1556/038.2023.00192

To get further information on the active antifungal agents secreted by strain TKP3/1, its culture filtrate was subjected to fractionation and subsequent fungicide assays using Bdo as test organism (Fig. 5). The fungicidal activity of the culture filtrate is retained after ammonium sulfate precipitation or in the extracts of the organic solvents chloroform and ethyl acetate. The precipitation of the fungicidal agents by ammonium sulfate suggests their macromolecular nature, while their solubility in organic solvents suggests a hydrophobic character. These results are in accordance with the high number of previously identified antimicrobial lipopeptides in B. velezensis, and with several reports suggesting their crucial role in the antifungal activity of this bacterial species (Fazle Rabbee and Baek, 2020; Liu et al., 2020; Platel et al., 2021; Yu et al., 2022; Xiong et al., 2022).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of 6h treatment with fractions of culture filtrate of strain TKP3/1 (YG medium, 25 °C, 120 rpm, 3 days) or distilled water (DW) on the ability of Bdo mycelia to hydrolyze fluorescein diacetate. Chl: chloroform extract; EtAc: ethyl acetate extract; AS: ammonium sulfate precipitate. Asterisks mark the significance of differences (**P < 0.005)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 58, 2; 10.1556/038.2023.00192

While B. velezensis is in the focus of researches related to plant disease management, relatively few studies are available on its effectiveness against GTDs. Dual culture assays previously pointed out, that B. velezensis is an antagonist of Botryosphaeria dieback causal agents N. parvum and Diplodia seriata (Blundell et al., 2021; Bustamante et al., 2022; Boiu-Sicuia et al., 2023). The RGI% of the bacterium against these pathogens was between 30 and 75 depending on the pathogen and the bacterial isolate, while TKP3/1 showed 28 RGI% against another Botryiosphaeriaceae pathogen, Bdo in this study. Previously reported RGI% of B. velezensis against Ela was between 75 and 80 (Bustamante et al., 2022; Boiu-Sicuia et al., 2023) contrary to the 25 RGI% for TKP3/1. Strain TKP3/1 was exceptionally effective against Dam (56 RGI%) compared to a previously studied strain with 20 RGI% (Blundell et al., 2021). There are no literature data on the efficacy of B. velezensis as an antagonist of Pch, while the strain tested in this study showed 100% inhibition.

In the case of biocontrol agents, it's a straightforward prerequisite, that it does not damage the treated plant. While B. velezensis is broadly acknowledged as a potent biocontrol agent, its phytopathogenic behavior was also reported in some hosts like onion (Hwang et al., 2012), potato (Wang et al., 2017), or peach (Zeng et al., 2022). To examine the potential toxicity of B. velezensis TKP3/1 on V. vinifera, its cultural filtrate was subjected to phytotoxicity tests, using grapevine foliar disks (Fig. 6). After 6 days of treatment no harmful effects observed, suggesting that B. velezensis TKP3/1 strain can be applied on grapevines safely.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of 6 days treatment with distilled water (a), or ten-fold dilution of culture filtrate of strain TKP3/1 (b: YG medium, 25 °C, 120 rpm, 3 days) on grapevine foliar disks

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 58, 2; 10.1556/038.2023.00192

In conclusion, the characteristics of the B. velezensis TKP3/1 strain presented in this study suggest its practical usability as a biocontrol agent against GTDs. Since the strain was isolated from the same niche as the pathogens, it can access these fungi in field conditions. The in vitro experiments with dual cultures and culture filtrates suggest, that the antagonistic activity of TKP3/1 against GDT pathogens is based on small secreted lipopeptides, which possibly can be transported by the vascular system of grapevine. This eliminates the need for direct contact between the pathogens and the biocontrol agent to achieve efficient antagonism. These secreted molecules also seem to be harmless for the grapevine, according to the phytotoxicity tests. While these preliminary results on the ability of the strain TKP3/1 to control GTD pathogens are promising, several further (e.g. in planta, in field) investigations should be carried out to prove this hypothesis.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgements

This work was financed by the NRDI Fund (projectID: TKP2021-NKTA-16). Kálmán Zoltán Váczy was supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Bolyai + New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology.

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  • Liu, Y., Teng, K., Wang, T., Dong, E., Zhang, M., Tao, Y., and Zhong, J. (2020). Antimicrobial Bacillus velezensis HC6: production of three kinds of lipopeptides and biocontrol potential in maize. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 128(1): 242254. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maung, C.E.H., Lee, H.G., Cho, J.Y., and Kim, K.Y. (2021). Antifungal compound, methyl hippurate from Bacillus velezensis CE 100 and its inhibitory effect on growth of Botrytis cinerea. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 37: 110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03046-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mondello, V., Songy, A., Battiston, E., Pinto, C., Coppin, C., Trotel-Aziz, P., Clément, C., Mugnai, L., and Fontaine, F. (2018). Grapevine trunk diseases: a review of fifteen years of trials for their control with chemicals and biocontrol agents. Plant Disease, 102(7): 11891217. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1181-FE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Platel, R., Sawicki, M., Esmaeel, Q., Randoux, B., Trapet, P., El Guilli, M., Chtaina, N., Arnauld, S., Bricout, A., Rochex, A., Bourdon, N., Halama, P., Jacquard, C., Barka, E.A., Reignault, P., Magnin-Robert, M., and Siah, A. (2021). Isolation and identification of lipopeptide-producing Bacillus velezensis strains from wheat phyllosphere with antifungal activity against the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Agronomy, 12(1): 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollard-Flamand, J., Boulé, J., Hart, M., and Úrbez-Torres, J.R. (2022). Biocontrol activity of Trichoderma species isolated from grapevines in British Columbia against Botryosphaeria dieback fungal pathogens. Journal of Fungi, 8(4): 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabbee, M.F., Hwang, B.S., and Baek, K.H. (2023). Bacillus velezensis: a beneficial biocontrol agent or facultative phytopathogen for sustainable agriculture. Agronomy, 13(3): 840. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva-Valderrama, I., Toapanta, D., Miccono, M.D.L.A., Lolas, M., Díaz, G.A., Cantu, D., and Castro, A. (2021). Biocontrol potential of grapevine endophytic and rhizospheric fungi against trunk pathogens. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 614620. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.614620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trotel-Aziz, P., Abou-Mansour, E., Courteaux, B., Rabenoelina, F., Clément, C., Fontaine, F., and Aziz, A. (2019). Bacillus subtilis PTA-271 counteracts Botryosphaeria dieback in grapevine, triggering immune responses and detoxification of fungal phytotoxins. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 25. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., Li, X.B., Suo, H.C., An, K., Luo, H.M., and Liu, X.J. (2017). Soft rot of potatoes caused by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in Guangdong province, China. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 39(4): 533539. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2017.1381994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, W.Y., Kong, W.L., Liao, Y.C.Z., and Zhu, L.H. (2022). Identification of Bacillus velezensis SBB and its antifungal effects against Verticillium dahliae. Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wingfield, P. (1998). Protein precipitation using ammonium sulfate. Current Protocols in Protein Science, 13(1): A-3F. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471140864.psa03fs13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woods, D.R. and Bevan, E.A. (1968). Studies on the nature of the killer factor produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology, 51(1): 115126. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-51-1-115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiong, Z.R., Cobo, M., Whittal, R.M., Snyder, A.B., and Worobo, R.W. (2022). Purification and characterization of antifungal lipopeptide produced by Bacillus velezensis isolated from raw honey. Plos One, 17(4): e0266470. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0266470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, F., Shen, Y., Qin, Y., Pang, Y., Fan, H., Peng, J., Pei, X., and Liu, X. (2022). Isolation and purification of antibacterial lipopeptides from Bacillus velezensis YA215 isolated from sea mangroves. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9: 1064764. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.1064764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeng, Y., Yu, Q., and Cheng, S. (2022). Effects of Bacillus velezensis zk1 on the physiology and metabolism of peaches. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 57(4): 22032215. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.15368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adejoro, D.O., Jones, E.E., Ridgway, H.J., Mundy, D.C., Vanga, B.R., and Bulman, S.R. (2023). Grapevines escaping trunk diseases in New Zealand vineyards have a distinct microbiome structure. Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1231832. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2023.1231832.

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  • Berbegal, M., Ramón‐Albalat, A., León, M., and Armengol, J. (2020). Evaluation of long‐term protection from nursery to vineyard provided by Trichoderma atroviride SC1 against fungal grapevine trunk pathogens. Pest Management Science, 76(3): 967977. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5605.

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  • Bertsch, C., Ramírez‐Suero, M., Magnin‐Robert, M., Larignon, P., Chong, J., Abou‐Mansour, E., Spagnolo, A., Clément, C., and Fontaine, F. (2013). Grapevine trunk diseases: complex and still poorly understood. Plant Pathology, 62(2): 243265. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02674.x.

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  • Billar de Almeida, A., Concas, J., Campos, M.D., Materatski, P., Varanda, C., Patanita, M., Murolo, S., Romanazzi, G., and Felix, M.D.R. (2020). Endophytic fungi as potential biological control agents against grapevine trunk diseases in Alentejo region. Biology, 9(12): 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120420.

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  • Blundell, R., Arreguin, M., and Eskalen, A. (2021). In vitro evaluation of grapevine endophytes, epiphytes and sap micro-organisms for potential use to control grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 60(3): 535548. https://doi.org/10.36253/phyto-12500.

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  • Bustamante, M.I., Elfar, K., and Eskalen, A. (2022). Evaluation of the antifungal activity of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria against grapevine trunk pathogens. Microorganisms, 10(10): 2035. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10102035.

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  • Boiu-Sicuia, O.A., Toma, R.C., Diguță, C.F., Matei, F., and Cornea, C.P. (2023). In vitro evaluation of some endophytic Bacillus to potentially inhibit grape and grapevine fungal pathogens. Plants, 12(13): 2553. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132553.

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  • Calich, V.L.G., Purchio, A., and Paula, C.R. (1979). A new fluorescent viability test for fungi cells. Mycopathologia, 66(3): 175177. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00683967.

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  • De la Fuente, M., Fontaine, F., Gramaje, D., Armengol, J., Smart, R., Nagy, Z.A., Borgo, M., Rego, C., and Corio-Costet, M.F. (2016). Grapevine trunk diseases: a review, OIV collective expertise document (first ed.), 979-10-91799-60-7, ©OIV publications, Paris, France, pp. 124.

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  • Fazle Rabbee, M. and Baek, K.H. (2020). Antimicrobial activities of lipopeptides and polyketides of Bacillus velezensis for agricultural applications. Molecules, 25(21): 4973. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214973.

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  • Fourie, P.H., Halleen, F., van der Vyver, J., and Schreuder, W. (2001). Effect of Trichoderma treatments on the occurrence of decline pathogens in the roots and rootstocks of nursery grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 40(4): S473S478. https://doi.org/10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-1619.

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  • Fussler, L., Kobes, N., Bertrand, F., Maumy, M., Grosman, J., and Savary, S. (2008). A characterization of grapevine trunk diseases in France from data generated by the National Grapevine Wood Diseases Survey. Phytopathology, 98(5): 571579. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-98-5-0571.

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  • Gaspar, M.L., Cabello, M.N., Pollero, R., and Aon, M.A. (2001). Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis as a measure of fungal biomass in soil. Current Microbiology, 42: 339344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002840010226.

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  • Geiger, A., Karácsony, Z., Geml, J., and Váczy, K.Z. (2022). Mycoparasitism capability and growth inhibition activity of Clonostachys rosea isolates against fungal pathogens of grapevine trunk diseases suggest potential for biocontrol. Plos One, 17(9): e0273985. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273985.

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  • Hwang, S.K., Back, C.G., Win, N.K.K., Kim, M.K., Kim, H.D., Kang, I.K., Lee, S.C., and Jung, H.Y. (2012). Occurrence of bacterial rot of onion caused by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in Korea. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 78: 227232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-012-0376-8.

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  • Karácsony, Z., Mondello, V., Fontaine, F., and Váczy, K.Z. (2023). The potential role of Aureobasidium pullulans in the development of foliar symptoms of Esca disease in grapevine. OENO One, 57(3): 189203. https://doi.org/10.20870/oeno-one.2023.57.3.7463.

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  • Langa-Lomba, N., González-García, V., Venturini-Crespo, M.E., Casanova-Gascón, J., Barriuso-Vargas, J.J., and Martín-Ramos, P. (2023). Comparison of the efficacy of Trichoderma and Bacillus strains and commercial biocontrol products against grapevine Botryosphaeria dieback pathogens. Agronomy, 13(2) 533. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020533.

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  • Leal, C., Gramaje, D., Fontaine, F., Richet, N., Trotel‐Aziz, P., and Armengol, J. (2023). Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis PTA‐271 and Trichoderma atroviride SC1 to control Botryosphaeria dieback and black‐foot pathogens in grapevine propagation material. Pest Management Science, 79(5): 16741683. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.7339.

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    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Y., Teng, K., Wang, T., Dong, E., Zhang, M., Tao, Y., and Zhong, J. (2020). Antimicrobial Bacillus velezensis HC6: production of three kinds of lipopeptides and biocontrol potential in maize. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 128(1): 242254. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maung, C.E.H., Lee, H.G., Cho, J.Y., and Kim, K.Y. (2021). Antifungal compound, methyl hippurate from Bacillus velezensis CE 100 and its inhibitory effect on growth of Botrytis cinerea. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 37: 110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03046-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mondello, V., Songy, A., Battiston, E., Pinto, C., Coppin, C., Trotel-Aziz, P., Clément, C., Mugnai, L., and Fontaine, F. (2018). Grapevine trunk diseases: a review of fifteen years of trials for their control with chemicals and biocontrol agents. Plant Disease, 102(7): 11891217. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1181-FE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Platel, R., Sawicki, M., Esmaeel, Q., Randoux, B., Trapet, P., El Guilli, M., Chtaina, N., Arnauld, S., Bricout, A., Rochex, A., Bourdon, N., Halama, P., Jacquard, C., Barka, E.A., Reignault, P., Magnin-Robert, M., and Siah, A. (2021). Isolation and identification of lipopeptide-producing Bacillus velezensis strains from wheat phyllosphere with antifungal activity against the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Agronomy, 12(1): 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollard-Flamand, J., Boulé, J., Hart, M., and Úrbez-Torres, J.R. (2022). Biocontrol activity of Trichoderma species isolated from grapevines in British Columbia against Botryosphaeria dieback fungal pathogens. Journal of Fungi, 8(4): 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabbee, M.F., Hwang, B.S., and Baek, K.H. (2023). Bacillus velezensis: a beneficial biocontrol agent or facultative phytopathogen for sustainable agriculture. Agronomy, 13(3): 840. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva-Valderrama, I., Toapanta, D., Miccono, M.D.L.A., Lolas, M., Díaz, G.A., Cantu, D., and Castro, A. (2021). Biocontrol potential of grapevine endophytic and rhizospheric fungi against trunk pathogens. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11: 614620. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.614620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trotel-Aziz, P., Abou-Mansour, E., Courteaux, B., Rabenoelina, F., Clément, C., Fontaine, F., and Aziz, A. (2019). Bacillus subtilis PTA-271 counteracts Botryosphaeria dieback in grapevine, triggering immune responses and detoxification of fungal phytotoxins. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 25. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., Li, X.B., Suo, H.C., An, K., Luo, H.M., and Liu, X.J. (2017). Soft rot of potatoes caused by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in Guangdong province, China. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 39(4): 533539. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2017.1381994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, W.Y., Kong, W.L., Liao, Y.C.Z., and Zhu, L.H. (2022). Identification of Bacillus velezensis SBB and its antifungal effects against Verticillium dahliae. Journal of Fungi, 8(10): 1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wingfield, P. (1998). Protein precipitation using ammonium sulfate. Current Protocols in Protein Science, 13(1): A-3F. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471140864.psa03fs13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woods, D.R. and Bevan, E.A. (1968). Studies on the nature of the killer factor produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology, 51(1): 115126. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-51-1-115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiong, Z.R., Cobo, M., Whittal, R.M., Snyder, A.B., and Worobo, R.W. (2022). Purification and characterization of antifungal lipopeptide produced by Bacillus velezensis isolated from raw honey. Plos One, 17(4): e0266470. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0266470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, F., Shen, Y., Qin, Y., Pang, Y., Fan, H., Peng, J., Pei, X., and Liu, X. (2022). Isolation and purification of antibacterial lipopeptides from Bacillus velezensis YA215 isolated from sea mangroves. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9: 1064764. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.1064764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeng, Y., Yu, Q., and Cheng, S. (2022). Effects of Bacillus velezensis zk1 on the physiology and metabolism of peaches. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 57(4): 22032215. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.15368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Editorial Board

Z BOZSÓ Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
PE CHETVERIKOV Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
JX CUI Henan Institute of Science and Technology, China
J FODOR Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
Z IMREI Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
BM KAYDAN Çukurova University, Turkey
L KISS University of Southern Queensland, Australia
V MARKÓ Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hungary
MW NEGM Ibaraki University, Japan
L PALKOVICS Széchenyi István University, Hungary
M POGÁNY Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
D RÉDEI National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
A TOLSTIKOV University of Tyumen, Russia
J VUTS Rothamsted Research, UK
GQ WANG Guangxi University, China

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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
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not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
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not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
22
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.211
Scimago Quartile Score

Insect Science (Q4)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.1
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Insect Science 124/173 (28th PCTL)
Plant Science 385/487 (21st PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.375

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
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not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
21
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,29
Scimago Quartile Score Insect Science (Q3)
Plant Science (Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,3
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Insect Science 107/172 (Q3)
Plant Science 316/482 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,481

2020  
Scimago
H-index
20
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,185
Scimago
Quartile Score
Insect Science Q4
Plant Science Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
75/98=0,8
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Insect Science 129/153 (Q4)
Plant Science 353/445 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,438
Scopus
Cites
313
Scopus
Documents
20
Days from submission to acceptance 64
Days from acceptance to publication 209
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
19
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,177
Scimago
Quartile Score
Insect Science Q4
Plant Science Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
66/103=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Insect Science 125/142 (Q4)
Plant Science 344/431 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,240
Scopus
Cites
212
Scopus
Documents
24
Acceptance
Rate
35%

 

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1966
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia  
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0238-1249 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2691 (Online)

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