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Josepha El Chami Crop Production Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u. 1., H–2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

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Elias El Chami Crop Production Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u. 1., H–2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

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Ákos Tarnawa Crop Production Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u. 1., H–2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

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Katalin Maria Kassai Crop Production Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u. 1., H–2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

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Zoltán Kende Crop Production Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u. 1., H–2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

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Márton Jolánkai Crop Production Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u. 1., H–2100 Gödöllő, Hungary

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Abstract

Wheat is a cereal of special importance in the world cereal production. Fusarium head blight is one of the most important diseases of wheat caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium species that significantly reduce wheat production. This disease reduces grain yield and quality and causes the presence of harmful mycotoxins. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters in two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj. The results showed that Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (91.47% and 95.20%) compared to 2020 (44.33% and 40.27%) in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj respectively. In Alföld, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, gluten content and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas falling number was not affected. In Mv Karéj, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas protein content and gluten content were not affected. Although Fusarium infection reduced wheat quality, Mv Karéj showed a stable protein and gluten content whereas Alföld showed a stable falling number. Thus, Mv Karéj is more tolerant to Fusarium infection compared to Alföld.

Abstract

Wheat is a cereal of special importance in the world cereal production. Fusarium head blight is one of the most important diseases of wheat caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium species that significantly reduce wheat production. This disease reduces grain yield and quality and causes the presence of harmful mycotoxins. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters in two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj. The results showed that Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (91.47% and 95.20%) compared to 2020 (44.33% and 40.27%) in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj respectively. In Alföld, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, gluten content and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas falling number was not affected. In Mv Karéj, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas protein content and gluten content were not affected. Although Fusarium infection reduced wheat quality, Mv Karéj showed a stable protein and gluten content whereas Alföld showed a stable falling number. Thus, Mv Karéj is more tolerant to Fusarium infection compared to Alföld.

Introduction

Wheat is a cereal of special importance in the world cereal production. During crop production, both abiotic and biotic stresses occur, often acting in combinations under field conditions (Mittler, 2002) and potentially increase sensitivity to pathogens. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most devastating fungal diseases of wheat and other small grain cereals and has caused serious epidemics worldwide (Bai et al., 2003) The major fungal pathogen associated with this disease in wheat is Fusarium graminearum (Kikot et al., 2011). During the wheat's flowering stage, Fusarium infection occurs when weather conditions become favorable. The infection begins in the middle of the wheat spike and then spreads throughout the rest of it, eventually causing the entire ear spike to turn white and the kernels to become light-weight and shrivelled (Kelly et al., 2015). Occurrence of FHB can be a serious problem because of several reasons, such as considerable economic losses caused by lowered yield, deteriorated grain quality (Bottalico and Perrone, 2002; Argyris et al., 2003; Prange et al., 2005), and possible contamination of infested grain with mycotoxins that are known to be harmful for both consumer and livestock health (Dexter and Nowicki, 2003).

In many regions, severe intensity of FHB occurs in cultivated wheat approximately two to three times per decade (Shaner, 2003; Stack, 2003; Champeil et al., 2004). Severe yield losses can occur during the epidemic year which are largely determined by the weather (Mesterházy et al., 2020). Thus, growers use multiple control measures to protect crops against FHB infections and prevent yield loss. The most important ways to control FHB are the use of FHB tolerant wheat varieties, good planting practices, fungicides, biological controls, and crop rotation (Mesterházy et al., 2015; Dendouga et al., 2016; Sakr and Shoaib, 2021).

Fusarium head blight poses a toxicological risk due to the mycotoxin contamination of wheat. In addition, it may influence grain components such as starch and proteins (Siuda et al., 2010) and impair wheat quality essential for baking performance (Lancova et al., 2008). Those biochemical changes in grain composition and subsequent changes in wheat quality traits are caused by the incomplete accumulation of the kernel constituents through the mechanical blocking of vascular bundles by fungal mycelium (Kang and Buchenauer, 2000; Ribichich et al., 2000; Goswami and Kistler, 2004) or through the impaired synthesis of grain components due to the presence of mycotoxins (Eriksen and Pettersson, 2004). Moreover, during the invasion of the kernel, Fusarium ssp. secretes enzymes such as carbohydrases and proteases that degrade the cell wall and the kernel components (Pekkarinen and Jones, 2000; Dexter and Nowicki, 2003; Eggert et al., 2011). As a result, FHB infection leads to poor end use quality (Dexter and Nowicki, 2003). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters: falling number, protein and gluten content, test weight, thousand kernel weight and Zeleny sedimentation index.

Material and methods

Two winter wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj were examined under identical agronomic conditions in a long-term field trial. The trial was run at the Gödöllő experimental field of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The soil type of the experimental field is chernozem (calciustoll). Plots were sown and harvested by plot machines. The rate of sowing was 450–500 seeds per square meter. Weeds were controlled by herbicide and wheat pests and diseases beside Fusarium were controlled by pesticide. Each variety had a total plot area of 75 m2. Each plot was then divided into 15 sub-plots of 5 m2 each to create replications. At the end of the growing season, wheat grain samples were collected from each sub-plot and measured for Fusarium infection, protein content, gluten content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index. Wheat kernels (100 kernels from each sample) were sanitized with a solution of PCNB and chloramphenicol and incubated under laboratory conditions on Nash and Snyder Fusarium selective medium (Distilled water 1 l, Peptone 15 g, KH2PO4 1 g, MgSO47H2O 0.5 g, Agar 20 g, PCNB 1 g, Chloramphenicol 100 ppm). After 7 days we counted the number of colonies to determine the level of Fusarium infection. The quality parameters were measured from wheat grain samples. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic equipment Mininfra Scan-T Plus 2.02 version was used to measure gluten, protein, and Zeleny sedimentation values of whole grains. Falling number was determined with Perten Type:1400 system, which meets the requirements of ICC method No. 107/1 1995. Test weight was measured with OS 1 type equipment which meets the requirements of ISO 7971-3:2019. Test weight and thousand kernel weight were determined with the KERN EMS and the Sartorius MA-30 precision scales. To determine the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters, the linear regression module at 5% significance level of IBM SPSS V.21 statistical software was used. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) module at 5% significance level was performed to determine the influence of growing season on Fusarium infection and quality parameters in Alföld and Mv Karéj varieties.

Results

Fusarium infection level

Growing season significantly affected Fusarium infection [F = 135.813, P = 0.000] and [F = 100.952, P = 0.000]. Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (91.47% and 95.20%) compared to 2020 (44.33% and 40.27%), in the two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj used, respectively (Table 1). Simple linear regression is used to test the effect of Fusarium infection on the following wheat quality parameters: protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number, gluten content, and Zeleny sedimentation index.

Table 1.

Descriptive statistics and ANOVA for the influence of growing season on Fusarium infection and quality parameters in Alföld and Mv Karéj varieties

Descriptive statisticsMeanStd. DeviationStd. ErrorMinimumMaximum
Fusarium InfectionAlföld202044.3314.603.772066
202191.475.681.4780100
Total67.9026.324.8120100
Mv Karéj202040.2720.715.351288
202195.204.391.1388100
Total67.7331.575.7612100
Protein ContentAlföld202014.750.880.2313.1016.20
202113.410.710.1812.7015.20
Total14.081.040.1912.7016.20
Mv Karéj202014.810.620.1613.5015.80
202114.350.730.191315.40
Total14.580.710.131315.80
Test WeightAlföld202075.101.220.3172.7077.30
202172.761.320.3470.3075.20
Total73.931.720.3170.3077.30
Mv Karéj202081.040.650.1779.5082.00
202179.330.680.1877.7080.35
Total80.191.090.2077.7082.00
Thousand Kernel WeightAlföld202045.912.190.5742.0548.95
202139.651.150.3037.5041.30
Total42.783.620.6637.5048.95
Mv Karéj202043.091.860.4840.5545.70
202141.612.300.5938.8445.08
Total42.352.190.4038.8445.70
Falling NumberAlföld2020430.2752.9613.67360526
2021419.4033.788.72349.50467
Total424.8343.998.03349.50526
Mv Karéj2020415.6743.5911.26348502
2021364.2020.955.41328397
Total389.9342.607.78328502
Gluten ContentAlföld202030.002.940.7625.7035.80
202124.792.290.5921.4029.80
Total27.393.710.6821.4035.80
Mv Karéj202029.171.960.5125.2032.60
202128.651.860.4825.3032.70
Total28.911.890.3525.2032.70
Zeleny Sedimentation IndexAlföld202053.505.631.4545.3062.30
202138.405.791.4928.9050.30
Total45.959.511.7428.9062.30
Mv Karéj202060.578.972.3244.4071.90
202149.474.881.2640.6056.90
Total55.029.071.6640.6071.90
ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
Fusarium InfectionAlföldBetween Groups16661.633116661.633135.8130.000
Within Groups3435.06728122.681
Total20096.70029
Mv KaréjBetween Groups22632.533122632.533100.9520.000
Within Groups6277.33328224.190
Total28909.86729
Protein ContentAlföldBetween Groups13.467113.46720.8620.000
Within Groups18.075280.646
Total31.54229
Mv KaréjBetween Groups1.58711.5873.4430.074
Within Groups12.907280.461
Total14.49429
Test WeightAlföldBetween Groups40.950140.95025.3380.000
Within Groups45.252281.616
Total86.20229
Mv KaréjBetween Groups21.845121.84548.9360.000
Within Groups12.499280.446
Total34.34529
Thousand Kernel WeightAlföldBetween Groups294.2201294.22096.2490.000
Within Groups85.592283.057
Total379.81229
Mv KaréjBetween Groups16.398116.3983.7430.063
Within Groups122.656284.381
Total139.05429
Falling NumberAlföldBetween Groups885.6331885.6330.4490.508
Within Groups55241.533281972.912
Total56127.16729
Mv KaréjBetween Groups19866.133119866.13316.9840.000
Within Groups32751.733281169.705
Total52617.86729
Gluten ContentAlföldBetween Groups203.8411203.84129.3510.000
Within Groups194.457286.945
Total398.29929
Mv KaréjBetween Groups2.02812.0280.5570.462
Within Groups101.891283.639
Total103.91929
Zeleny Sedimentation IndexAlföldBetween Groups1710.07511710.07552.4120.000
Within Groups913.5802832.628
Total2623.65529
Mv KaréjBetween Groups925.1851925.18517.7480.000
Within Groups1459.5832852.128
Total2384.76829

Protein content

In Alföld, growing season significantly affected protein content [F = 20.862, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (13.41%) compared to 2020 (14.75%). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on protein content in wheat [R = −0.682], protein content decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and protein content is y = −0.027x + 15.917. The regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.465, F = 24.309, P = 0.000] (Fig. 1, Table 2).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Influence of Fusarium infection (%) on protein content (%)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00179

Table 2.

Model summary, ANOVA and coefficients for the influence of Fusarium infection on quality parameters in Alföld and Mv Karéj varieties

Model SummaryRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
Protein ContentAlföld0.6820.4650.4460.777
Mv Karéj0.3100.0960.0640.684
Test WeightAlföld0.6260.3910.3701.369
Mv Karéj0.6920.4790.4600.800
Thousand Kernel WeightAlföld0.7650.5850.5702.373
Mv Karéj0.4540.2060.1781.986
Falling NumberAlföld0.1420.020−0.01544.315
Mv Karéj0.4280.1830.15439.176
Gluten ContentAlföld0.7160.5120.4952.635
Mv Karéj0.0090.000−0.0361.926
Zeleny Sedimentation IndexAlföld0.7470.5570.5426.440
Mv Karéj0.6130.3750.3537.294
ANOVASum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
Protein ContentAlföldRegression14.658114.65824.3090.000
Residual16.884280.603
Total31.54229
Mv KaréjRegression1.39211.3922.9740.096
Residual13.102280.468
Total14.49429
Test WeightAlföldRegression33.7371.00033.73718.0050.000
Residual52.46628.0001.874
Total86.20229.000
Mv KaréjRegression16.4451.00016.44525.7240.000
Residual17.90028.0000.639
Total34.34529.000
Thousand Kernel WeightAlföldRegression222.1231.000222.12339.4410.000
Residual157.68928.0005.632
Total379.81229.000
Mv KaréjRegression28.6441.00028.6447.2640.012
Residual110.41128.0003.943
Total139.05429.000
Falling NumberAlföldRegression1139.5411.0001139.5410.5800.453
Residual54987.62628.0001963.844
Total56127.16729.000
Mv KaréjRegression9645.1851.0009645.1856.2850.018
Residual42972.68228.0001534.739
Total52617.86729.000
Gluten ContentAlföldRegression203.9481.000203.94829.3830.000
Residual194.35128.0006.941
Total398.29929.000
Mv KaréjRegression0.0091.0000.0090.0020.962
Residual103.91028.0003.711
Total103.91929.000
Zeleny Sedimentation IndexAlföldRegression1462.3191.0001462.31935.2570.000
Residual1161.33628.00041.476
Total2623.65529.000
Mv KaréjRegression895.0561.000895.05616.8230.000
Residual1489.71228.00053.204
Total2384.76829.000
CoefficientsUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.
BStd. ErrorBeta
Protein ContentAlföldFusarium−0.0270.005−0.682−4.9300.000
(Constant)15.9170.39839.9890.000
Mv KaréjFusarium−0.0070.004−0.310−1.7250.096
(Constant)15.0470.30050.1960.000
Test WeightAlföldFusarium−0.0410.010−0.626−4.2430.000
(Constant)76.7140.702109.3320.000
Mv KaréjFusarium−0.0240.005−0.692−5.0720.000
(Constant)81.8020.350233.4740.000
Thousand Kernel WeightAlföldFusarium−0.1050.017−0.765−6.2800.000
(Constant)49.9201.21641.0380.000
Mv KaréjFusarium−0.0310.012−0.454−2.6950.012
(Constant)44.4830.87051.1190.000
Falling NumberAlföldFusarium−0.2380.313−0.142−0.7620.453
(Constant)441.00222.71519.4140.000
Mv KaréjFusarium−0.5780.230−0.428−2.5070.018
(Constant)429.05717.16724.9930.000
Gluten ContentAlföldFusarium−0.1010.019−0.716−5.4210.000
(Constant)34.2341.35025.3500.000
Mv KaréjFusarium−0.0010.011−0.009−0.0490.962
(Constant)28.9440.84434.2870.000
Zeleny Sedimentation IndexAlföldFusarium−0.2700.045−0.747−5.9380.000
(Constant)64.2663.30119.4680.000
Mv KaréjFusarium−0.1760.043−0.613−4.1020.000
(Constant)66.9383.19620.9420.000

In Mv Karéj, growing season did not affect protein content [F = 3.443, P = 0.074] (Table 1). Fusarium infection had no effect on protein content [R = −0.310]. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and protein content is y = −0.007x + 15.047. The regression is not statistically significant [R2 = 0.096, F = 2.974, P = 0.096] (Fig. 1, Table 2).

Test weight

In Alföld, growing season significantly affected test weight [F = 25.338, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (72.76 kg hL−1) compared to 2020 (75.10 kg hL−1). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on test weight [R = −0.626], test weight decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and test weight is y = −0.041x + 76.714. The regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.391, F = 18.005, P = 0.000] (Fig. 2, Table 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Influence of Fusarium infection (%) on test weight (kg hL−1)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00179

In Mv Karéj, growing season significantly affected test weight [F = 48.936, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (79.33 kg hL−1) compared to 2020 (81.04 kg hL−1). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on test weight in wheat [R = −0.692], test weight decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and test weight is y = −0.024 + 81.802. The regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.479, F = 25.724, P = 0.000] (Fig. 2, Table 2).

Thousand kernel weight

In Alföld, growing season significantly affected thousand kernel weight [F = 96.249, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (39.65 g) compared to 2020 (45.91 g). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on thousand kernel weight in wheat [R = −0.765], thousand kernel weight decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and thousand kernel weight is y = −0.105x + 49.920. The regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.585, F = 39.441, P = 0.000] (Fig. 3, Table 2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Influence of Fusarium infection (%) on thousand kernel weight (g)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00179

In Mv Karéj, growing season did not affect thousand kernel weight [F = 3.743, P = 0.063] (Table 1). Fusarium infection had a moderate negative effect on thousand kernel weight in wheat [R = −0.454], thousand kernel weight decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and thousand kernel weight is y = −0.031x + 44.483. The regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.206, F = 7.264, P =0.012] (Fig. 3, Table 2).

Falling number

In Alföld, growing season did not affect falling number [F = 0.449, P = 0.508] (Table 1). Fusarium infection had no effect on falling number in wheat [R = −0.142]. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and falling number is y = −0.238x + 441.002. The regression is not statistically significant [R2 = 0.020, F = 0.580, P = 0.453] (Fig. 4, Table 2).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Influence of Fusarium infection (%) on falling number (second)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00179

In Mv Karéj, growing season significantly affected falling number [F = 16.984, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (364.30 s) compared to 2020 (415.67 s). Fusarium infection had a moderate negative effect on falling number in wheat [R = −0.428], falling number decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and falling number is y = −0.578x + 429.057. The regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.183, F = 6.285, P = 0.018] (Fig. 4, Table 2).

Gluten content

In Alföld, growing season significantly affected gluten content [F = 29.351, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (24.79%) compared to 2020 (30%). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on gluten content in wheat [R = −0.716], gluten content decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and gluten content is y = −0.101x + 34.234. The overall regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.512, F = 29.383, P = 0.000] (Fig. 5, Table 2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Influence of Fusarium infection (%) on gluten content (%)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00179

In Mv Karéj, growing season did not affect gluten content [F = 0.557, P = 0.462] (Table 1). Fusarium infection had no effect on gluten content in wheat [R = −0.009] The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and gluten content is y = −0.001x + 28.944. The regression is not statistically significant [R2 = 0.000, F = 0.002, P = 0.962] (Fig. 5, Table 2).

Zeleny sedimentation index

In Alföld, growing season significantly affected Zeleny sedimentation index [F = 52.412, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (38.40 mL) compared to 2020 (53.5 mL). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on Zeleny sedimentation index in wheat [R = −0.747], Zeleny sedimentation index decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and Zeleny sedimentation index is y = −0.270x + 64.266. The overall regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.557, F = 35.257, P = 0.000] (Fig. 6, Table 2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Influence of Fusarium infection (%) on Zeleny sedimentation index (mL)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00179

In Mv Karéj, growing season significantly affected Zeleny sedimentation index [F = 17.748, P = 0.000] (Table 1). It was lower in 2021 (49.47 mL) compared to 2020 (60.57 mL). Fusarium infection had a strong negative effect on Zeleny sedimentation index in wheat [R = −0.613], Zeleny sedimentation index decreased when the infection increased. The fitted regression model between Fusarium infection and Zeleny sedimentation index is y = −0.176x + 66.938. The overall regression is statistically significant [R2 = 0.375, F = 16.823, P = 0.000] (Fig. 6, Table 2).

Discussion

This study was conducted to determine the impact of Fusarium infection on wheat quality during the two growing seasons 2020 and 2021. Differences in climatic conditions prevalent in the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons may be the reason for the increased Fusarium infection leading to poor wheat quality. According to El Chami et al. (2022), environmental factors play an important role in the determination of fungal development. Thus, fungal activity and the extent of its colonization are strongly determined by climatic conditions. Our study showed that increased Fusarium infection adversely affected wheat quality. Prange et al. (2005) and Antes et al. (2001) found that severe Fusarium infection had no significant effect on wheat quality parameters. On the contrary, Seitz et al. (1986) and Gärtner et al. (2008) observed in their study that Fusarium infection adversely affected wheat quality parameters.

The results showed that Fusarium infection decreases protein content in Alföld which is observed by Bechtel et al. (1985), Nightingale et al. (1999), Prange et al. (2005) and Gärtner et al. (2008). However, in Mv Karéj Fusarium infection did not have an effect on protein content which is supported by the findings of other studies (Seitz et al., 1986; Dexter et al., 1996; Prange et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2005; Terzi et al., 2007). Other studies found an increase of protein content after severe Fusarium infection (Meyer et al., 1986; Boyacioǧ;lu and Hettiarachchy, 1995; Pawelzik et al., 1998; Matthäus et al., 2004; Siuda et al., 2010).

The results showed that Fusarium infection decreases gluten contents in Alföld. Dexter et al. (1997) and Gärtner et al. (2008) agrees with the observations of other studies (Meyer et al., 1986; Boyacioǧ;lu and Hettiarachchy, 1995; Pawelzik et al., 1998) who found a slight decrease in gluten content in wheat kernels after Fusarium infection. However, in Mv Karéj gluten content was not affected by Fusarium infection. Wang et al. (2005) concluded that gluten content in the wheat grain was not affected by Fusarium infection. However, Boyacioğlu and Hettiarachchy (1995) concluded that gluten content in wheat kernels increased following their contamination with Fusarium species.

The results revealed that Fusarium infection decreases falling number in Mv Karéj. Fungal infection of spikes increases degradation of starch due to the presence of enzymes, such as α-amylase, the activity of which is measured using falling number (Wang et al., 2008). After infection with Fusarium a reduction of falling number could, therefore, be expected and has been confirmed (Dexter et al., 1996; Siuda et al., 2010). According to Hareland (2003), Fusarium species secretes enzymes such as α-amylase which degrade starch in wheat kernels, decreases the quality of wheat flour and lowers the values of the falling number. However, in Alföld falling number was not affected by Fusarium infection which was observed by Gärtner et al. (2008), whereby falling number remained unchanged by the infection.

The results revealed that Fusarium infection, in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj, decreases Zeleny sedimentation index. Papousková et al. (2011) observed that Zeleny sedimentation index showed distinctively decreased values in the infected samples. Fusarium infection leads to the reduction of Zeleny sedimentation index in wheat kernels according to Meyer et al. (1986) and Gärtner et al. (2008). However, it had no effect on Zeleny sedimentation index in the findings of Kreuzberger et al. (2015).

The results indicated that test weight and thousand kernel weight, in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj, were significantly decreased by Fusarium infection. Wong et al. (1995), McMullen et al. (2012) and Spanic et al. (2017) reported the negative effect that Fusarium infection has on test weight. Dexter et al. (1996), Wang et al. (2005) and Dvojkovic et al. (2007) found that Fusarium infection decreased thousand kernel weight. Fusarium infected kernels are damaged, shriveled, and light weight with low endosperm to bran ratio due to fungal carbohydrate consumption. Results from the mentioned studies indicate that Fusarium infection may reduce and deteriorate the quality of the wheat.

Conclusion

In our study, the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality was analysed in two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj. The effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality varied between the different wheat varieties as they showed different response patterns against Fusarium head blight. In Mv Karéj, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas protein content and gluten content were not affected. In Alföld, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, gluten content and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas falling number was not affected. Although Fusarium infection reduced wheat quality, Mv Karéj showed a stable protein and gluten content whereas Alföld showed a stable falling number. Thus, Mv Karéj is more tolerant to Fusarium infection compared to Alföld.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and the supporting Stipendium Hungaricum Program.

References

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    • Export Citation
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    • Export Citation
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    • Export Citation
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    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bai, G., Guo, P., and Kolb, F.L. (2003). Genetic relationships among head blight resistant cultivars of wheat assessed on the basis of molecular markers. Crop Science, 43: 498507. https://doi.org/10.2135/CROPSCI2003.0498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bottalico, A. and Perrone, G. (2002). Toxigenic Fusarium species and mycotoxins associated with head blight in small-grain cereals in Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108: 611624. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020635214971.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyacioǧlu, D. and Hettiarachchy, N.S. (1995). Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Cereal Science, 21: 5762. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(95)80008-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Champeil, A., Doré, T., and Fourbet, J.F. (2004). Fusarium head blight: epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains. Plant Science, 166: 13891415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004ï.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dendouga, W., Boureghda, H., and Belhamra, M. (2016). Biocontrol of wheat Fusarium crown and root rot by Trichoderma spp. and evaluation of their cell wall degrading enzymes activities. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 51(1): 112. https://doi.org/10.1556/038.51.2016.1.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dexter, J.E., Clear, R.M., and Preston, K.R. (1996). Fusarium head blight: effect on the milling and baking of some Canadian wheats. Cereal Chemistry, 73: 695701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dexter, J.E., Marchylo, B.A., Clear, R.M., and Clarke, J.M. (1997). Effect of Fusarium head blight on semolina milling and pasta-making quality of durum wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 74: 519525. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1997.74.5.519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dexter, J.E. and Nowicki, T.W. (2003). Safety assurance and quality assurance issues associated with Fusarium head blight in wheat. In: Leonard, K.J. and Bushnell, W.R. (Eds.), Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. St. Paul, Minnesota: The American Phytopathological Society, pp. 420460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dvojkovic, K., Drezner, G., Horvat, D., Novoselovic, D., and Spanic, V. (2007). Fusarium head blight influence on agronomic and quality traits of winter wheat cultivars. Cereal Research Communications, 35: 365368. https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.35.2007.2.50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eggert, K., Wieser, H., and Pawelzik, E. (2011). The influence of Fusarium infection and growing location on the quantitative protein composition of (Part I) emmer (Triticum dicoccum). European Food Research and Technology, 230: 837847. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00217-010-1229-3/TABLES/8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El Chami, E., El Chami, J., Tarnawa, Á., Kassai, K.M., Kende, Z., and Jolánkai, M. (2022). Influence of growing season, nitrogen fertilisation and wheat variety on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel. Acta Alimentaria, 51: 282289. https://doi.org/10.1556/066.2022.00036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eriksen, G.S. and Pettersson, H. (2004). Toxicological evaluation of trichothecenes in animal feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 114: 205239. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2003.08.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gärtner, B.H., Munich, M., Kleijer, G., and Mascher, F. (2008). Characterisation of kernel resistance against Fusarium infection in spring wheat by baking quality and mycotoxin assessments. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 120: 6168. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10658-007-9198-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goswami, R.S. and Kistler, H.C. (2004). Heading for disaster: Fusarium graminearum on cereal crops. Molecular Plant Pathology, 5: 515525. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1364-3703.2004.00252.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hareland G.A. (2003). Effects of pearling on falling number and α-amylase activity of preharvest sprouted spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 80: 232237. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2003.80.2.232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ICC. (1995). Determination of the Falling Number according to Hagberg – as a measure of the degree of alpha-amylase activity in grain and four. Method No. 107/1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ISO. (2019). Cereals determination of bulk density, called mass per hectoliter. ISO 7971–3:2019.

  • Kang, Z. and Buchenauer, H. (2000). Cytology and ultrastructure of the infection of wheat spikes by Fusarium culmorum. Mycological Research, 104: 10831093. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0953756200002495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, A.C., Clear, R.M., O’Donnell, K., McCormick, S., Turkington, T.K., Tekauz, A., Gilbert, J., Kistler, H.C., Busman, M., and Ward, T.J. (2015). Diversity of Fusarium head blight populations and trichothecene toxin types reveals regional differences in pathogen composition and temporal dynamics. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 82: 2231. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FGB.2015.05.016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kikot, G.E., Moschini, R., Consolo, V.F., Rojo, R., Salerno, G., Hours, R.A., Gasoni, L., Arambarri, A.M., and Alconada, T.M. (2011). Occurrence of different species of Fusarium from wheat in relation to disease levels predicted by a weather-based model in Argentina pampas region. Mycopathologia, 171: 139149. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11046-010-9335-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kreuzberger, M., Limsuwan, S., Eggert, K., Karlovsky, P., and Pawelzik, E. (2015). Impact of Fusarium spp. infection of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on composition and quality of flour in association with EU maximum level for deoxynivalenol. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 88: 177185. http://dx.doi.org/10.5073/JABFQ.2015.088.025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lancova, K., Hajslova, J., Kostelanska, M., Kohoutkova, J., Nedelnik, J., Moravcova, H., and Vanova, M. (2008). Fate of trichothecene mycotoxins during the processing: milling and baking. Food Additives & Contaminants, 25: 650659. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701660536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthäus, K., Dänicke, S., Vahjen, W., Simon, O., Wang, J., Valenta, H., Meyer, K., Strumpf. A., Ziesenib, H., and Flachowsky, G. (2004). Progression of mycotoxin and nutrient concentrations in wheat after inoculation with Fusarium culmorum. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 58: 1935. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039420310001656668.

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Jenő KONTSCHÁN Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary

Technical Editor

Ágnes TURÓCI Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary

Section Editor

K SALÁNKI Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
 

Editorial Board

Z BOZSÓ Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
PE CHETVERIKOV Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
JX CUI Henan Institute of Science and Technology, China
J FODOR Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
Z IMREI Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
BM KAYDAN Çukurova University, Turkey
L KISS University of Southern Queensland, Australia
V MARKÓ Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hungary
MW NEGM Ibaraki University, Japan
L PALKOVICS Széchenyi István University, Hungary
M POGÁNY Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
D RÉDEI National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
A TOLSTIKOV University of Tyumen, Russia
J VUTS Rothamsted Research, UK
GQ WANG Guangxi University, China

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2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
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not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
22
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.211
Scimago Quartile Score

Insect Science (Q4)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.1
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Insect Science 124/173 (28th PCTL)
Plant Science 385/487 (21st PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.375

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
21
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,29
Scimago Quartile Score Insect Science (Q3)
Plant Science (Q3)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,3
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Insect Science 107/172 (Q3)
Plant Science 316/482 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,481

2020  
Scimago
H-index
20
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,185
Scimago
Quartile Score
Insect Science Q4
Plant Science Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
75/98=0,8
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Insect Science 129/153 (Q4)
Plant Science 353/445 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,438
Scopus
Cites
313
Scopus
Documents
20
Days from submission to acceptance 64
Days from acceptance to publication 209
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
19
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,177
Scimago
Quartile Score
Insect Science Q4
Plant Science Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
66/103=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Insect Science 125/142 (Q4)
Plant Science 344/431 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,240
Scopus
Cites
212
Scopus
Documents
24
Acceptance
Rate
35%

 

Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1966
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia  
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0238-1249 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2691 (Online)

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