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Elias El Chami Agronomy Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

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Josepha El Chami Agronomy Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

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Ákos Tarnawa Agronomy Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

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Katalin Mária Kassai Agronomy Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

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Zoltán Kende Agronomy Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

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Márton Jolánkai Agronomy Institute, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary

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Abstract

The fungal genus Fusarium encompasses a diverse group of species responsible for synthesizing mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, and zearalenone and inducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. The research was undertaken over a period of two consecutive growing seasons (2020 and 2021) on the premises and facilities of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of growing season, nitrogen fertilization, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection as well as mycotoxin contamination in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was absent throughout the course of the two growing seasons, whereas deoxynivalenol was found solely in 2020. The findings demonstrate that nitrogen fertilization failed to exhibit a statistically significant impact on both Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The impact of wheat variety on Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol was not found to be statistically significant. However, it exerted a significant effect on fumonisin production. The growing season exerted a statistically significant impact on the incidence of Fusarium infection and the ensuing contamination with mycotoxins, attributable to augmented precipitation levels in 2021 compared to 2020, specifically during the flowering period when the spike of wheat is highly susceptible to Fusarium infection.

Abstract

The fungal genus Fusarium encompasses a diverse group of species responsible for synthesizing mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, and zearalenone and inducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. The research was undertaken over a period of two consecutive growing seasons (2020 and 2021) on the premises and facilities of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of growing season, nitrogen fertilization, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection as well as mycotoxin contamination in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was absent throughout the course of the two growing seasons, whereas deoxynivalenol was found solely in 2020. The findings demonstrate that nitrogen fertilization failed to exhibit a statistically significant impact on both Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The impact of wheat variety on Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol was not found to be statistically significant. However, it exerted a significant effect on fumonisin production. The growing season exerted a statistically significant impact on the incidence of Fusarium infection and the ensuing contamination with mycotoxins, attributable to augmented precipitation levels in 2021 compared to 2020, specifically during the flowering period when the spike of wheat is highly susceptible to Fusarium infection.

Introduction

Triticum aestivum L., commonly known as wheat, holds paramount significance for human nutrition by functioning as a principal source of nutrients. Wheat is mainly used to produce bread, bakery, and confectionery products such as cakes, noodles, pasta, and biscuits. Furthermore, it is used in the production of animal feed, biofuel, and ethanol. The annual global wheat output for 2021 and 2022 was estimated at 775.1 million and 778 million metric tons respectively. Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium species, is among the leading fungal infections that significantly impact wheat production, jeopardize human and animal health, and pose a substantial risk to the global economy (Gilbert and Tekauz, 2000; Lori et al., 2003; Osborne and Stein, 2007). FHB diminishes the yield and the quality of the wheat harvest due to the production of lightweight, shriveled, and discolored wheat kernels (Molinié et al., 2005). The Fusarium species predominantly associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat all over Europe are Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium culmorum and to a lesser extent Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum (Bottalico and Perrone, 2002). Annually, 25%–50% of the crops harvested globally are found to be infected with mycotoxins (Ricciardi et al., 2013). Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites synthesized by fungi, especially Fusarium spp., that cause acute and chronic toxic effects leading to diseases and even mortality (Logrieco et al., 2003; Domijan et al., 2005; Ferrigo et al., 2016). The most frequently encountered Fusarium mycotoxins in Europe are deoxynivalenol and zearalenone produced by F. graminearum and F. culmorum, with the former more common in southern (warmer) and the latter in northern (colder) European areas. Deoxynivalenol, also known as vomitoxin, has been identified as the causative agent of feed refusal in animals (Miller et al., 2001). Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin that affects the endocrine and the reproductive system of human and animal (Hagler et al., 2001). In addition, it is interesting to note that the occurrence of fumonisin, produced by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, is more common nowadays in wheat even though it used to be limited to maize (Infantino et al., 2001). Fumonisin is a carcinogenic mycotoxin linked with the incidence of esophageal and liver cancer in human and animal (Marin et al., 2013). Thus, the presence of these mycotoxins raises concerns about the safety of wheat products for human and animal consumption (Bennett and Klich, 2003). Therefore, to protect human and animal health, countries have continuously monitored the maximum levels of mycotoxins in foods and other commodities. FHB can be limited by measures that reduce and prevent the spread of F. spp., such as crop rotation, weed control, biological control, and the use of tolerant or resistant varieties (Magan and Aldred, 2007). The present study was designed to investigate the impact of three variables, namely, growing season, nitrogen fertilization, and wheat variety, on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel.

Material and methods

The experiment was carried out during the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons at the experimental field and research facilities of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Gödöllő, Hungary. The experimental field is in a hilly area (47°35′42.5″N 19°22′10.7″E, 210 m above sea level) with a brown forest (Chromic Luvisol) soil type and a climate close to the average of the country. The experimental field was cleaned up, plowed, rototilled, and the seedbed was made before sowing. Plot machines were used to sow and harvest the plots. The rate of sowing was 450–500 seeds per square meter. Weeds were controlled by herbicides and wheat pests were controlled by pesticides. A split-plot design was used for the experiment with the main plots consisting of several wheat cultivars and the subplots consisting of several nitrogen doses. The area of each subplot was 5 m2, the main plots and subplots were spaced 50 cm horizontally and 30 cm vertically apart. Three replications of each treatment were made. The wheat cultivars used were Mv Kolompos, Mv Karéj and Alföld. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied in the form of granular ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with 34% content of the active ingredient. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied once during the month of April of each growing season in the following doses: 40, 80, and 120 kg N ha−1. Nitrogen free plots were used as control. The calculation of the Fusarium infection level was done by counting the number of colonies that developed on 100 wheat grains from each treatment disinfected for 2 min with a solution of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) and chloramphenicol (distilled water 1 L, PCNB 1 g, chloramphenicol 100 ppm) and then incubated for 7 days under laboratory conditions (23 °C ± 0.6 °C and 45% RH ± 5% RH) on Nash and Snider Fusarium selective media (distilled water 1 L, peptone 15 g, KH2PO4 1 g, MgSO47H2O 0.5 g, agar 20 g, PCNB 1 g, chloramphenicol 100 ppm). Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisin (FUM) mycotoxin concentrations were examined using Charm Sciences' ROSA FAST 5 Quantitative Test (DONQ-FAST5 Test, FUMQ-FAST5 Test, ZEARQ-FAST5 Test). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) module followed by a Tukey's test of IBM SPSS V.21 software was used to evaluate the results statistically at a 5% significant level.

Results

The study of the influence of growing season, wheat variety, and nitrogen fertilization on Fusarium infection and subsequent mycotoxin production in wheat kernel was carried out in 2020 and 2021.

The growing season significantly affected Fusarium infection (F = 277.89, P = 0.000) and subsequent mycotoxin production (DON, F = 7.29, P = 0.008; FUM, F = 3.81, P = 0.05) (Table 6). Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (93.56%) than in 2020 (44.33%) (Fig. 5, Table 5). The presence of zearalenone was not detected during the two consecutive growing seasons. Fumonisin concentration (total mean = 24.44 ppb) was higher than that of deoxynivalenol (total mean = 23.89 ppb). Deoxynivalenol was not detected in 2021, its concentration was 47.78 ppb in 2020. Fumonisin concentration was higher in 2021 (32.22 ppb) than in 2020 (16.67 ppb) (Fig. 6, Table 5).

Table 1.

Descriptive statistics of Fusarium infection (%), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin (FUM) concentration (ppb) affected by nitrogen fertilization (kg N ha−1)

NMeanStd. DeviationStd. ErrorMinimumMaximum
DON01827.78117.8527.780500
40185.5616.173.81050
801819.4448.9311.530150
1201811.1147.1411.110200
1601855.56138.1532.560550
Total9023.8986.849.150550
FUM01816.6729.707.000100
401816.6724.255.72050
801813.8923.045.43050
1201836.1150.8912.000200
1601838.8950.1611.820200
Total9024.4438.404.050200
Fusarium01869.3928.176.6412100
401866.7826.336.212496
801871.7828.796.7922100
1201865.2231.507.4312100
1601871.5629.656.9920100
Total9068.9428.402.9912100

0: no nitrogen

40: the nitrogen dose was 40 kg N ha−1

80: the nitrogen dose was 80 kg N ha−1

120: the nitrogen dose was 120 kg N ha−1

160: the nitrogen dose was 160 kg N ha−1

Table 2.

Analysis of variance for Fusarium infection deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin (FUM) concentration affected by nitrogen fertilization

Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
DONBetween Groups27,666.66746,916.6670.9140.460
Within Groups643,472.222857,570.261
Total671,138.88989
FUMBetween Groups10,388.88942,597.2221.8270.131
Within Groups120,833.333851,421.569
Total131,222.22289
FusariumBetween Groups604.6674151.1670.1810.948
Within Groups71,172.05685837.318
Total71,776.72289

df: degree of freedom; Sig.: significance; Significance level: P < 0.05.

Table 3.

Descriptive statistics of Fusarium infection (%), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin (FUM) concentration (ppb) affected by wheat variety

NMeanStd. DeviationStd. ErrorMinimumMaximum
DONAlföld3036.67133.2224.320550
Mv Kolompos3013.3339.257.170150
Mv Karéj3021.6759.7210.900250
Total9023.8986.849.150550
FUMAlföld3028.3342.927.840200
Mv Kolompos3036.6743.427.930200
Mv Karéj308.3318.953.46050
Total9024.4438.404.050200
FusariumAlföld3067.9026.324.8120100
Mv Kolompos3071.2027.885.0912100
Mv Karéj3067.7331.575.7612100
Total9068.9428.402.9912100
Table 4.

Analysis of variance for Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin (FUM) concentration affected by wheat variety

Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
DONBetween Groups8,388.88924,194.4440.5510.579
Within Groups662,750.000877,617.816
Total671,138.88989
FUMBetween Groups12,722.22226,361.1114.6700.012
Within Groups118,500.000871,362.069
Total131,222.22289
FusariumBetween Groups229.3562114.6780.1390.870
Within Groups71,547.36787822.384
Total71,776.72289

df: degree of freedom; Sig.: significance; Significance level: P < 0.05.

Table 5.

Descriptive statistics of Fusarium infection (%), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin (FUM) concentration (ppb) affected by growing season

NMeanStd. DeviationStd. ErrorMinimumMaximum
DON20204547.78118.6817.690550
20214500000
Total9023.8986.849.150550
FUM20204516.6736.935.500200
20214532.2238.665.760200
Total9024.4438.404.050200
Fusarium20204544.3319.002.831288
20214593.565.610.8480100
Total9068.9428.402.9912100
Table 6.

Analysis of variance for Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin (FUM) concentration affected by growing season

Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
DONBetween Groups51,361.11151,361.117.290.008
Within Groups619,777.78887,042.93
Total671,138.8989
FUMBetween Groups5,444.4415,444.443.810.05
Within Groups125,777.78881,429.29
Total131,222.2289
FusariumBetween Groups54,513.61154,513.61277.890.000
Within Groups17,263.1188196.17
Total71,776.7289

df: degree of freedom; Sig.: significance; Significance level: P < 0.05.

The wheat variety did not significantly affect Fusarium infection (F = 0.139, P = 0.87) and deoxynivalenol production (DON, F = 0.551, P = 0.579) but it significantly influenced fumonisin production (FUM, F = 4.67, P = 0.012) (Figs 34, Table 4). Fumonisin was the highest in Mv Kolompos (36.67 ppb) and Alföld (28.33 ppb) and the lowest in Mv Karéj (8.33 ppb) (Fig. 4, Table 3). The presence of zearalenone was not detected during the two consecutive growing seasons. The presence of deoxynivalenol could not be detected during the 2021 growing season.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effect of nitrogen fertilization (kg N ha−1) on Fusarium infection (%)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00190

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of nitrogen fertilization (kg N ha−1) on mycotoxin concentration (ppb)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00190

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effect of wheat variety on Fusarium infection (%)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00190

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effect of wheat variety on mycotoxin concentration (ppb)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00190

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of growing season on Fusarium infection (%)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00190

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of growing season on mycotoxin concentration (ppb)

Citation: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 2023; 10.1556/038.2023.00190

The nitrogen fertilization did not significantly affect Fusarium infection (F = 0.181, P = 0.948) and subsequent mycotoxin production (DON, F = 0. 914, P = 0. 460; FUM, F = 1.827, P = 0. 131) (Figs 12, Tables 1 and 2).

Discussion

According to our findings, the environmental conditions in 2020/2021 may be the cause of the rise in Fusarium infection and fumonisin concentration. Precipitation (mm) during anthesis (May) when wheat is most susceptible to Fusarium infection was 88.39 mm in 2021, higher than in 2020 (42.8 mm) according to the World Weather Online® meteorological service, this increase in rain could explain the increased Fusarium infection and fumonisin concentration. Environmental conditions such as precipitation, temperature and humidity in the atmosphere are major factors modulating Fusarium infection. Wheat heads are most susceptible to FHB infection during anthesis, but infection can occur up to the soft dough stage (Lacey et al., 1999; Windels, 2000). Generally, a temperature range between 25 and 30 °C and relative humidity between 88% and 95% are the optimal conditions for Fusarium infection (Doohan et al., 2003; Berthiller et al., 2009).

The results of this study are in accordance with the results of Schaafsma et al. (2001), who ascertained from a four year-survey that the climatical and weather conditions are the factors associated with variation in Fusarium and mycotoxin levels in wheat grain. Also, Brennan et al. (2003) found that humidity, precipitation, and temperature play an important role in the development of FHB, the production and dispersal of the inoculum and the infection of wheat heads. In addition, Bryła et al. (2016) noted that rainfall has a significant impact on FHB as well as the severity of infection. According to Mesterházy et al. (2012), González et al. (2008), Bernhoft et al. (2012), Czaban et al. (2015), Covarelli et al. (2015) and Kelly et al. (2015) environmental conditions play a significant role in Fusarium infection and mycotoxin contamination especially during anthesis. Osborne and Stein (2007) and Zhang et al. (2008) suggest that weather conditions, plant development, and genetic or morphological cultivar characteristics as factors influencing the epidemiology of F. species and the risk of FHB in wheat.

The prevention of wheat diseases, especially Fusarium head blight, requires the use of agronomic techniques such as tillage, crop rotation, cultivar selection, and chemical or biological management (Wegulo et al., 2015). Fertilization with nitrogen is thought to have an impact on Fusarium head blight. Our research indicates that nitrogen dose had no effect on mycotoxin and Fusarium contamination. Some studies (Lemmens et al., 2004; Ma et al., 2004; Muhammad et al., 2010) indicated an increasing effect of FHB with higher nitrogen availability, but other studies reported decreasing nitrogen effects on FHB (Obst et al., 2002; Yang et al., 2010). Several investigations (Teich and Hamilton, 1985; Fauzi and Paulitz, 1994; Aufhammer et al., 2000) failed to find any evidence of nitrogen influence or produced contradictory results (Heier et al., 2005; Subedi et al., 2007). Krnjaja et al. (2015) found that nitrogen fertilization did not increase FHB intensity. Kuzdralinski et al. (2014) reported that nitrogen fertilization did not affect Fusarium head blight. Oldenburg et al. (2007) concluded that nitrogen fertilization did not influence Fusarium growth and their production of mycotoxins in wheat grains. According to Parry et al. (1995), the impact of nitrogen fertilization on Fusarium infestation remains unclear. Aufhammer et al. (2000) found that nitrogen fertilization did not promote Fusarium infection or the production of mycotoxin. According to Lemmens et al. (2004) nitrogen fertilization significantly affected Fusarium infection and subsequent mycotoxin contamination in wheat, but this can't be attributed exclusively to nitrogen input in crop production. All these findings imply that nitrogen fertilization exerts a limited impact on the establishment of favorable circumstances necessary for the emergence of F. spp.

Conclusion

The present study was designed to investigate the impact of three variables, namely, growing season, nitrogen fertilization, and wheat variety, on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel. The findings demonstrate that nitrogen fertilization failed to exhibit a statistically significant impact on both Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The impact of wheat variety on Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol production was not found to be statistically significant. However, it exerted a significant effect on fumonisin production. The growing season exerted a statistically significant impact on the incidence of Fusarium infection and the ensuing contamination with mycotoxins, attributable to augmented precipitation levels in 2021 compared to 2020, specifically during the flowering phase when the spike of wheat is highly susceptible to Fusarium infection.

Acknowledgments

The present study was made possible through the kind support extended by the Stipendium Hungaricum Scholarship and the Doctoral School of Plant Sciences at the esteemed Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation to all their colleagues and laboratory staff who have provided invaluable assistance and support towards the successful execution of this research.

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  • Lacey, J., Bateman, G.L., and Mirocha, C.J. (1999). Effects of infection time and moisture on development of ear blight and deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium spp. in wheat. Annals of Applied Biology, 134(3): 277283. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1744-7348.1999.TB05265.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemmens, M., Buerstmayr, H., Krska, R., Schuhmacher, R., Grausgruber, H., and Ruckenbauer, P. (2004). The effect of inoculation treatment and long-term application of moisture on Fusarium head blight symptoms and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat grains. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110(3): 299308. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EJPP.0000019801.89902.2A.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Logrieco, A., Bottalico, A., Mulé, G., Moretti, A., and Perrone, G. (2003). Epidemiology of toxigenic fungi and their associated mycotoxins for some Mediterranean crops. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(7): 645667. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026033021542/METRICS.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lori, G.A., Sisterna, M.N., Haidukowski, M., and Rizzo, I. (2003). Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol contamination in the durum wheat area of Argentina. Microbiological Research, 158(1): 2935. https://doi.org/10.1078/0944-5013-00173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, B.L., Yan, W., Dwyer, L. M., Frégeau-Reid, J., Voldeng, H.D., Dion, Y., and Nass, H. (2004). Graphic analysis of genotype, environment, nitrogen fertilizer, and their interactions on spring wheat yield. Agronomy Journal, 96(1): 169180. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2004.1690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magan, N. and Aldred, D. (2007). Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119(1–2): 131139. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJFOODMICRO.2007.07.034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marin, S., Ramos, A.J., Cano-Sancho, G., and Sanchis, V. (2013). Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 60: 218237. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FCT.2013.07.047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mesterházy, Á., Lemmens, M., and Reid, L.M. (2012). Breeding for resistance to ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. in maize – a review. Plant Breeding, 131(1): 119. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1439-0523.2011.01936.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, J.D., ApSimon, J.W., Blackwell, B.A., Greenhalgh, R., and Taylor, A. (2001). Deoxynivalenol: a 25-year perspective on a trichothecene of agricultural importance. In: Summerell, B.A., Leslie, J.F., Backhouse, D., Bryden, W.L., and Burgess, L.W. (Eds.), Fusarium. Paul E. Nelson memorial symposium .APS Press, St. Paul, Minn, pp. 310319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinié, A., Faucet, V., Castegnaro, M., and Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A. (2005). Analysis of some breakfast cereals on the French market for their contents of ochratoxin A, citrinin and fumonisin B1: development of a method for simultaneous extraction of ochratoxin A and citrinin. Food Chemistry, 92(3): 391400. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2004.06.035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muhammad, A.A., Thomas, K., Ridout, C., and Andrews, M. (2010). Effect of nitrogen on mildew and Fusarium infection in barley. Aspects of Applied Biology, 105: 261266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obst, A., Günther, B., Beck, R., Lepschy, J., and Tischner, H. (2002). Weather conditions conducive to Gibberella zeae and Fusarium graminearum head blight of wheat. Journal of Applied Genetics, 43: 185192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oldenburg, E., Bramm, A., and Valenta, H. (2007). Influence of nitrogen fertilization on deoxynivalenol contamination of winter wheat – experimental field trials and evaluation of analytical methods. Mycotoxin Research, 23: 712. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02946018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osborne, L.E. and Stein, J.M. (2007). Epidemiology of Fusarium head blight on small-grain cereals. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119(1–2): 103108. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJFOODMICRO.2007.07.032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parry, D.W., Jenkinson, P., and Mcleod, L. (1995). Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grain cereals—a review. Plant Pathology, 44(2): 207238. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1365-3059.1995.TB02773.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ricciardi, C., Castagna, R., Ferrante, I., Frascella, F., Luigi Marasso, S., Ricci, A., Canavese, G., Lorè, A., Prelle, A., Lodovica Gullino, M., and Spadaro, D. (2013). Development of a microcantilever-based immunosensing method for mycotoxin detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 40(1): 233239. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIOS.2012.07.029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaafsma, A.W., Ilinic, L.T., Miller, J.D., and Hooker, D.C. (2001). Agronomic considerations for reducing deoxynivalenol in wheat grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23(3): 279285. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060660109506941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Subedi, K.D., Ma, B.L., and Xue, A.G. (2007). Planting date and nitrogen effects on Fusarium head blight and leaf spotting diseases in spring wheat. Agronomy Journal, 99(1): 113121. https://doi.org/10.2134/AGRONJ2006.0171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teich, A.H. and Hamilton, J.R. (1985). Effect of cultural practices, soil phosphorus, potassium, and pH on the incidence of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol levels in wheat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49(6): 14291431. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.49.6.1429-1431.1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegulo, S.N., Stephen Baenziger, P., Hernandez Nopsa, J., Bockus, W.W., and Hallen-Adams, H. (2015). Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Crop Protection, 73: 100107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.02.025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Windels, C.E. (2000). Economic and social impacts of Fusarium head blight: changing farms and rural communities in the northern great plains. Phytopathology, 90(1): 1721. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.1.17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, F., Jensen, J.D., Spliid, N.H., Svensson, B., Jacobsen, S., Jørgensen, L.N., Jørgensen, H.J.L., Collinge, D.B., and Finnie, C. (2010). Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley. Journal of Proteomics, 73(4): 743752. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JPROT.2009.10.010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J.X., Jin, Y., Rudd, J.C., and Bockelman, H.E. (2008). New Fusarium head blight resistant spring wheat germplasm identified in the USDA national small grains collection. Crop Science, 48: 223235. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2007.02.0116.

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    • Export Citation
  • Aufhammer, W., Kubler, E., Kaul, H.-P., Hermann, W., Hohn, D., and Yi, C. (2000). Infection with head blight (F. graminearum, F. culmorum) and deoxynivalenol concentration in winter wheat as influenced by N fertilization. Pflanzenbauwissenschaften, 4: 7278.

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  • Bennett, J.W. and Klich, M. (2003). Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16(3): 497516. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.16.3.497-516.2003.

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  • Bernhoft, A., Torp, M., Clasen, P.E., Løes, A.K., and Kristoffersen, A.B. (2012). Influence of agronomic and climatic factors on Fusarium infestation and mycotoxin contamination of cereals in Norway. Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 29(7): 11291140. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2012.672476.

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  • Berthiller, F., Schuhmacher, R., Adam, G., and Krska, R. (2009). Formation, determination and significance of masked and other conjugated mycotoxins. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 395(5): 12431252. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00216-009-2874-X.

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  • Bottalico, A. and Perrone, G. (2002). Toxigenic Fusarium species and mycotoxins associated with head blight in small-grain cereals in Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108: 611624. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020635214971.

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  • Brennan, J.M., Fagan, B., van Maanen, A., Cooke, B.M., and Doohan, F.M. (2003). Studies on in vitro growth and pathogenicity of European Fusarium fungi. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(6): 577587. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024712415326/METRICS.

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  • Bryła, M., Waśkiewicz, A., Podolska, G., Szymczyk, K., Jędrzejczak, R., Damaziak, K., and Sułek, A. (2016). Occurrence of 26 mycotoxins in the grain of cereals cultivated in Poland. Toxins, 8(6): 160. https://doi.org/10.3390/TOXINS8060160.

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  • Covarelli, L., Beccari, G., Prodi, A., Generotti, S., Etruschi, F., Juan, C., Ferrer, E., and Mañes, J. (2015). Fusarium species, chemotype characterisation and trichothecene contamination of durum and soft wheat in an area of central Italy. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(3): 540551. https://doi.org/10.1002/JSFA.6772.

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  • Czaban, J., Wróblewska, B., Sułek, A., Mikos, M., Boguszewska, E., Podolska, G., and Nieróbca, A. (2015). Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions. Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 32(6): 874910. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2015.1019939.

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  • Domijan, A.M., Peraica, M., Jurjević, Ž., Ivić, D., and Cvjetković, B. (2005). Fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, zearalenone and ochratoxin A contamination of maize in Croatia. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(7): 677680. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030500132927.

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  • Doohan, F.M., Brennan, J., and Cooke, B.M. (2003). Influence of climatic factors on Fusarium species pathogenic to cereals. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(7): 755768. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026090626994/METRICS.

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  • Ferrigo, D., Raiola, A., and Causin, R. (2016). Fusarium toxins in cereals: occurrence, legislation, factors promoting the appearance and their management. Molecules, 21(5): 627. https://doi.org/10.3390/MOLECULES21050627.

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  • Gilbert, J., and Tekauz, A. (2000). Review: recent developments in research on Fusarium head blight of wheat in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(1): 18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060660009501155.

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  • González, H.H.L., Moltó, G.A., Pacin, A., Resnik, S.L., Zelaya, M.J., Masana, M., and Martínez, E.J. (2008). Trichothecenes and mycoflora in wheat harvested in nine locations in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Mycopathologia, 165: 105114. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11046-007-9084-X.

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  • Hagler, W.M. Jr., Towers, N.R., Mirocha, C.J., Eppley, R.M., and Bryden, W.L. (2001). Zearalenone: mycotoxin or mycoestrogen? In: Summerell, B.A., Leslie, J.F., Backhouse, D., Bryden, W.L., and Burgess, L.W. (Eds.), Fusarium. Paul E. Nelson memorial symposium .APS Press, St. Paul, Minn, pp. 321331.

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  • Heier, T., Jain, S.K., Kogel, K.H., and Pons-Kühnemann, J. (2005). Influence of N-fertilization and fungicide strategies on Fusarium head blight severity and mycotoxin content in winter wheat. Journal of Phytopathology, 153(9): 551557. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1439-0434.2005.01021.X.

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  • Infantino, A., Conca, G., Di Giambattista, G., Pucci, N., and Porta Puglia, A. (2001). Lo stato sanitario delle cariossidi di frumento. L'Informatore Agrario, 57(18): 9091.

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  • Kelly, A.C., Clear, R.M., O’Donnell, K., McCormick, S., Turkington, T.K., Tekauz, A., Gilbert, J., Kistler, H.C., Busman, M., and Ward, T.J. (2015). Diversity of Fusarium head blight populations and trichothecene toxin types reveals regional differences in pathogen composition and temporal dynamics. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 82: 2231. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FGB.2015.05.016.

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  • Krnjaja, V., Mandić, V., Lević, J., Stanković, S., Petrović, T., Vasić, T., and Obradović, A. (2015). Influence of N-fertilization on Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin levels in winter wheat. Crop Protection, 67: 251256. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CROPRO.2014.11.001.

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  • Kuzdraliński, A., Szczerba, H., Tofil, K., Filipiak, A., Garbarczyk, E., Dziadko, P., Muszyńska, M., and Solarska, E. (2014). Early PCR-based detection of Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides and F. poae on stem bases of winter wheat throughout Poland. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 140: 491502. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10658-014-0483-9/FIGURES/3.

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  • Lacey, J., Bateman, G.L., and Mirocha, C.J. (1999). Effects of infection time and moisture on development of ear blight and deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium spp. in wheat. Annals of Applied Biology, 134(3): 277283. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1744-7348.1999.TB05265.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemmens, M., Buerstmayr, H., Krska, R., Schuhmacher, R., Grausgruber, H., and Ruckenbauer, P. (2004). The effect of inoculation treatment and long-term application of moisture on Fusarium head blight symptoms and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat grains. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110(3): 299308. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EJPP.0000019801.89902.2A.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Logrieco, A., Bottalico, A., Mulé, G., Moretti, A., and Perrone, G. (2003). Epidemiology of toxigenic fungi and their associated mycotoxins for some Mediterranean crops. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(7): 645667. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026033021542/METRICS.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lori, G.A., Sisterna, M.N., Haidukowski, M., and Rizzo, I. (2003). Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol contamination in the durum wheat area of Argentina. Microbiological Research, 158(1): 2935. https://doi.org/10.1078/0944-5013-00173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, B.L., Yan, W., Dwyer, L. M., Frégeau-Reid, J., Voldeng, H.D., Dion, Y., and Nass, H. (2004). Graphic analysis of genotype, environment, nitrogen fertilizer, and their interactions on spring wheat yield. Agronomy Journal, 96(1): 169180. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2004.1690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magan, N. and Aldred, D. (2007). Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119(1–2): 131139. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJFOODMICRO.2007.07.034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marin, S., Ramos, A.J., Cano-Sancho, G., and Sanchis, V. (2013). Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 60: 218237. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FCT.2013.07.047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mesterházy, Á., Lemmens, M., and Reid, L.M. (2012). Breeding for resistance to ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. in maize – a review. Plant Breeding, 131(1): 119. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1439-0523.2011.01936.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, J.D., ApSimon, J.W., Blackwell, B.A., Greenhalgh, R., and Taylor, A. (2001). Deoxynivalenol: a 25-year perspective on a trichothecene of agricultural importance. In: Summerell, B.A., Leslie, J.F., Backhouse, D., Bryden, W.L., and Burgess, L.W. (Eds.), Fusarium. Paul E. Nelson memorial symposium .APS Press, St. Paul, Minn, pp. 310319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinié, A., Faucet, V., Castegnaro, M., and Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A. (2005). Analysis of some breakfast cereals on the French market for their contents of ochratoxin A, citrinin and fumonisin B1: development of a method for simultaneous extraction of ochratoxin A and citrinin. Food Chemistry, 92(3): 391400. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2004.06.035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muhammad, A.A., Thomas, K., Ridout, C., and Andrews, M. (2010). Effect of nitrogen on mildew and Fusarium infection in barley. Aspects of Applied Biology, 105: 261266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obst, A., Günther, B., Beck, R., Lepschy, J., and Tischner, H. (2002). Weather conditions conducive to Gibberella zeae and Fusarium graminearum head blight of wheat. Journal of Applied Genetics, 43: 185192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oldenburg, E., Bramm, A., and Valenta, H. (2007). Influence of nitrogen fertilization on deoxynivalenol contamination of winter wheat – experimental field trials and evaluation of analytical methods. Mycotoxin Research, 23: 712. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02946018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osborne, L.E. and Stein, J.M. (2007). Epidemiology of Fusarium head blight on small-grain cereals. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119(1–2): 103108. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJFOODMICRO.2007.07.032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parry, D.W., Jenkinson, P., and Mcleod, L. (1995). Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grain cereals—a review. Plant Pathology, 44(2): 207238. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1365-3059.1995.TB02773.X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ricciardi, C., Castagna, R., Ferrante, I., Frascella, F., Luigi Marasso, S., Ricci, A., Canavese, G., Lorè, A., Prelle, A., Lodovica Gullino, M., and Spadaro, D. (2013). Development of a microcantilever-based immunosensing method for mycotoxin detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 40(1): 233239. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIOS.2012.07.029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaafsma, A.W., Ilinic, L.T., Miller, J.D., and Hooker, D.C. (2001). Agronomic considerations for reducing deoxynivalenol in wheat grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23(3): 279285. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060660109506941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Subedi, K.D., Ma, B.L., and Xue, A.G. (2007). Planting date and nitrogen effects on Fusarium head blight and leaf spotting diseases in spring wheat. Agronomy Journal, 99(1): 113121. https://doi.org/10.2134/AGRONJ2006.0171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teich, A.H. and Hamilton, J.R. (1985). Effect of cultural practices, soil phosphorus, potassium, and pH on the incidence of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol levels in wheat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49(6): 14291431. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.49.6.1429-1431.1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegulo, S.N., Stephen Baenziger, P., Hernandez Nopsa, J., Bockus, W.W., and Hallen-Adams, H. (2015). Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Crop Protection, 73: 100107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.02.025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Windels, C.E. (2000). Economic and social impacts of Fusarium head blight: changing farms and rural communities in the northern great plains. Phytopathology, 90(1): 1721. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.1.17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, F., Jensen, J.D., Spliid, N.H., Svensson, B., Jacobsen, S., Jørgensen, L.N., Jørgensen, H.J.L., Collinge, D.B., and Finnie, C. (2010). Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley. Journal of Proteomics, 73(4): 743752. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JPROT.2009.10.010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J.X., Jin, Y., Rudd, J.C., and Bockelman, H.E. (2008). New Fusarium head blight resistant spring wheat germplasm identified in the USDA national small grains collection. Crop Science, 48: 223235. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2007.02.0116.

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    • Export Citation
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Z BOZSÓ Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
PE CHETVERIKOV Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
JX CUI Henan Institute of Science and Technology, China
J FODOR Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
Z IMREI Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
BM KAYDAN Çukurova University, Turkey
L KISS University of Southern Queensland, Australia
V MARKÓ Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hungary
MW NEGM Ibaraki University, Japan
L PALKOVICS Széchenyi István University, Hungary
M POGÁNY Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary
D RÉDEI National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
A TOLSTIKOV University of Tyumen, Russia
J VUTS Rothamsted Research, UK
GQ WANG Guangxi University, China

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2021  
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2020  
Scimago
H-index
20
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,185
Scimago
Quartile Score
Insect Science Q4
Plant Science Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
75/98=0,8
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Insect Science 129/153 (Q4)
Plant Science 353/445 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,438
Scopus
Cites
313
Scopus
Documents
20
Days from submission to acceptance 64
Days from acceptance to publication 209
Acceptance
Rate
48%

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
19
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,177
Scimago
Quartile Score
Insect Science Q4
Plant Science Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
66/103=0,6
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Insect Science 125/142 (Q4)
Plant Science 344/431 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,240
Scopus
Cites
212
Scopus
Documents
24
Acceptance
Rate
35%

 

Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 472 EUR / 576 USD
Print + online subscription: 552 EUR / 670 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1966
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia  
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0238-1249 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2691 (Online)

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