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  • 1 Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Szeged
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A társas kapcsolatok hiánya és a szociális funkciók romlása, az alacsony énhatékonyság és ennek következtében a csökkent életminőség a szorongásos zavarok gyakori velejárói. A társas környezetben tapasztalt szorongás nemcsak a vonásszorongással és a tökéletességre való törekvéssel függ össze, hanem a pszichológiai védőfaktorok hiányával is. Annak ellenére, hogy a lámpaláz hazánkban is igen elterjedt, a pedagógusok csak kis mértékben, vagy egyáltalán nem tudnak tanácsot adni a kezelést vagy a tünetek enyhítését illetően. Nemzetközi szinten dinamikusan nő a lámpaláz iránti érdeklődés, bővül a zenészek körében alkalmazott terápiás lehetőségek száma, míg hazánkban csak elvétve találunk olyan tanulmányokat, amelyek említenék ezt a témakört. Ezt a hiányt szeretném pótolni a jelen tanulmánnyal, amelyben bemutatom a zenei teljesítményszorongás háttértényezőit, a társuló mentális zavarokat és azokat a kezelési módszereket, amelyek hatékonyságát már zenészek körében is igazolták. A szakirodalmi áttekintés alapján a zenei teljesítményszorongás minden korosztályban és hangszercsoportban előforduló jelenség. Tünetei a specifikus fóbiával mutatnak hasonlóságokat, fokozott szociális félelem esetén azonban felmerülhet a szociális szorongás gyanúja. Más szorongásos zavarokhoz hasonlóan gyakrabban fordul elő nők körében. Kialakulásának hátterét egy pánikszerű negatív érzelem képzi, amely kondicionálás útján asszociálódik a zenei teljesítményhelyzettel. Protektív faktorként tekinthető az énhatékonyság-érzés és a vonásszintű tudatosság, ezek hiányában gyakran jár együtt depresszióval és perfekcionizmussal. A társuló zavarok miatt kezelése komplex, azonban megfelelő terápia és gyógyszeres kezelés pozitív változásokat eredményez. Az oktatási intézményekben jelenleg nagy szükség lenne olyan előadói készségfejlesztő kurzusokra és szakmai programokra, amelyek tájékoztatásra adnának lehetőséget a zenei teljesítményszorongást és annak kezelését illetően.

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