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  • 1 ELTE Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem Pszichológiai Intézet, Budapest
  • 2 Zuglói Egészségügyi Szolgálat, Gyermek-, és Serdülőpszichiátria, Budapest
  • 3 ELTE Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem Pszichológiai Doktori Iskola, Budapest
  • 4 SE-NAP 2 Genetikai Agyi Képalkotó Migrén Kutatócsoport, MTA, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
  • 5 Semmelweis Egyetem, Gyógyszerhatástani Intézet, Budapest
Open access

Elméleti háttér

A nem öngyilkossági szándékkal történő önsértő viselkedés (pl. a saját test szándékos megvágása, megütése, megharapása) egyre növekvő mértékű magatartási és egészségügyi probléma a serdülők körében. Felmérésére többféle mérőeszköz született, de kevés olyan létezik, amely a jelenséget annak komplexitásában ragadja meg.

Cél

Vizsgálatunk célja a különböző önsértő viselkedésformákat több szempontból (pl. attitüdinális komponensek, kapcsolódó érzelmek, a háttérben meghúzódó okok) felmérő Kezelésközpontú Önsértés Kérdőív (Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related; SIQ-TR) bevezetése a hazai tesztállományba.

Módszerek

A mérőeszköz pszichometriai jellemzőit egy speciális populációban, 14 és 20 év közötti (átlagéletkor = 16,99 év; SD = 1,28 év) fiatal fogvatartottak körében mértük be. A 244 fős javítóintézeti minta 92,6%-a (n = 226) fiú volt. Az önsértéssel összefüggésben a negatív életeseményeket (Serdülő Életesemény Kérdőív) és az elkerülés-fókuszú érzelemregulációs mechanizmusokat (Tapasztalati Elkerülés Kérdőív; Serdülő Disszociatív Tapasztalatok Skála) is feltártuk.

Eredmények

A javítóintézeti fiatalok 26,2%-a (n = 64) aktuálisan is végez önsértő viselkedést, 34,4%-uk (n = 84) esetében az önsértés az egy hónapnál korábbi élettörténetben jelent meg, a fennmaradó 39,3% (n = 96) saját bevallása szerint sohasem folytatott önsértést. Eredményeink szerint a kar- moláshoz és az ütéshez asszociálódik a legtöbb negatív érzelem, e két mód esetében a legerőteljesebb az arra irányuló figyelem, illetve azt követően a sebekről való öngondoskodás mértéke. Továbbá a karmolás és az ütés az a két önsértési mód, amelynek legjellemzőbb célja a negatív érzelmi állapotok csökkentése. A mintában a jelenleg és a korábban önsértők szignifikánsan több negatív életeseményt éltek át a megelőző fél évben a sohasem önsértőkhöz képest (F(2) = 9,16; p < 0,0001). Az aktuálisan önsértők jellemezhetők továbbá a legmagasabb disszociatív élményszinttel (F(2) = 7,82; p = 0,001) és kognitív inflexibilitással (F(2) = 6,58; p = 0,002). Következtetések: A Kezelésközpontú Önsértés Kérdőív magyar nyelvű változata (SIQ-TR-HU) hatékony eszköze a nem öngyilkossági szándékkal történő önsértés összetett vizsgálatának, ezzel összefüggésben célzott terápiás intervenciók megalapozását támogathatja.

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