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  • 1 Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA
  • | 2 Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem, Bölcsészet és Társadalomtudományi Kar, Pszichológiai Intézet, Budapest
  • | 3 Békés Megyei Központi Kórház Pándy Kálmán Tagkórháza, Pszichiátriai Osztály, Gyula
  • | 4 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Magatartástudományi Intézet, Pécs
  • | 5 Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem Pszichológiai Intézet, Budapest
  • | 6 Kaposvári Egyetem, Pedagógiai és Pszichológiai Intézet, Kaposvár
  • | 7 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Pszichiátriai és Pszichoterápiás Klinika, Pécs
  • | 8 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Bölcsészettudományi Kar, Pszichológiai Intézet, Pécs
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Háttér: A pszichózisra való sérülékenység feltárása és a korai intervenció a klinikai gyakorlat és a kutatások fontos részét képezik. A Mágikus Fogalomképzés Skála az egyik leggyakrabban alkalmazott önjellemző kérdőív, amelyet a pszichózisra való hajlam feltárására dolgoztak ki. Meglepő azonban, hogy a Mágikus Fogalomképzés Skála pszicho­ metriai jellemzőit klinikai mintán szinte alig vizsgálták. Célkitűzés: A tanulmány fő célja a Mágikus Fogalomképzés Skála faktorszerkezetének feltárása nagy elemszámú egyetemi hallgatói mintán (n = 1730) és pszichiátriai betegek (n = 319) körében. Módszerek: A kérdőív faktorszerkezetét megerősítő (egydimenziós, többdimenziós szerkezet, bifaktoros elrendezés) és feltáró faktorelemzések, valamint parallel­elemzések segítségével vizsgáltuk. A skálák megbízhatóságát a hagyományos módszerek mellett (pl. Cronbach­α) modellalapú megbízhatósági becslésekkel (hierarchikus ómega) is jellemeztük. A faktorszerkezet elemzését követően a valószínűségi tesztelméleti alapokon nyugvó Tétel­válasz elmélet (Item Response Theory, IRT) segítségével az item­paraméterek becslését (nehézség és diszkrimináció) és az eltérő tételműködést is megvizsgáltuk, majd egy rövid, 15 tételes változatot alakítottunk ki, amelynek a kritériumvaliditását más mérőeszközök felhaszná- lásával teszteltük (pl. Szkizotípia Személyiség Kérdőív rövid változat; Davis­féle Empátia Kérdőív). Eredmények: A parallel­elemzés a hallgatói mintán 3 faktort, míg a klinikai mintán 2 dimenziót valószínűsített. Mindkét minta esetében a negatív tételek önálló dimen ziót alkottak, amit járulékos faktornak tekintetve a későbbiekben nem elemeztünk. A megerősítő faktorelemzés a normatív hallgatói mintán a bifaktoros struktúrát támasztotta alá, ahol az általános faktor mellett két speciális dimenzió jelent meg: paranormális hiedelmek és mágikus okság/spiritualitás (RMSEA = 0,052; CFI = 0,993; TLI = 0,990). A klinikai mintán az egydimenziós szerkezet adta a legjobb illeszkedési mutatókat (RMSEA = 0,032; CFI = 0,970; TLI = 0,965). A 15 tételre rövidített skála jó pszichometriai jellemzőkkel rendelkezett, bár az IRT elemzés rávilágított arra, hogy néhány tétel eltérő jelentést hordoz a nemek (nők vs. férfiak) vagy a vizsgálati minta típusa (normatív vs. klinikai) szerinti összevetéskor. Következtetések: Eredményeink megerősítik, hogy a mágikus fogalomalkotás a klinikai mintán egydimenziós modellel ragadható meg leginkább, ezzel szemben a normatív hallgatói mintán már inkább egy bifaktoros struktúra valószínűsíthető, amelynek két speciális dimenziója az adaptív (mágikus okság/spiritulaitás) és maladaptív (paranormális hiedelmek) sajátosságok mentén különül el.

Background: Study of vulnerability to psychosis and early intervention is an area of great clinical impact and research. The Magical Ideation Scale (MIS) is among the most widely used instruments for the assessment of psychosis proneness. However, there has been little research on the psychometric properties of the MIS in clinical sample. Aims: The main goal of the present work was to study the dimensional structure underlying the MIS in a large sample of students (n = 1.730) and clinical subjects (n = 319). Methods: The structures of the MIS were examined by confirmatory (e.g., single-factor model, model with second-order factor, bifactor model) and exploratory factor analysis and parallel-analysis. The internal consistencies were calculated not only in the conventional way (e.g. Cronbach’s α) but also in the controlling of the general factor (hierarchical omega, explained common variance). After initial testing, we used Item Response Theory (IRT) to shorten and further refine the instrument, and criterion validity was evaluated by other questionnaires (e.g. Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire – Brief Revised; Interpersonal Reactivity Index). Results: To determine the number of factors that can be applied, parallel-analysis provided a good estimation of the three dimensional structure of MIS in student sample and two dimensions in clinical subjects. However, the reversed worded items caused a method factor that does not appear to be substantively meaningful. Confirmatory factor analysis identified a bifactor solution (general scale and two specific scales: paranormal beliefs and magical reasoning/spirituality) for the MIS in student sample (RMSEA = 0.052, CFI = 0.993, TLI = 0.990), and a unidimensional factor structure in clinical sample (RMSEA = 0.032, CFI = 0.970, TLI = 0.965). The shortened 15-item version of the MIS has good psychometric properties, but few of the items displayed DIF across gender or type of sample (normative or clinical). Conclusions: Our results confirm that magical ideation can be considered as a single latent psychological variable on clinical sample, and a bifactorial structure in normative sample where the adaptive (magical reasoning/spirituality) and maladaptive (paranormal beliefs) functions separated.

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