For more detail, see, Tibor Frank, “From Austria-Hungary to the United States: National Minorities and Emigration, 1880–1914,” in. Tibor Frank, Ethnicity, Propaganda, Myth-Making. Studies on Hungarian Connections to Britain and America, 1848–1945, (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó), 1999, 73–91.
Tibor Glant, Amerika, a csodák és csalódások földje: Az Amerikai Egyesült Államok képe a hosszú XIX. századi magyar utazási irodalomban [America, the Land of Wonders and Disappointments: The Image of the United States in Hungarian Travelogues in the Long Nineteenth Century], Debrecen: Debreceni Egyetemi Kiadó, 2013.
For more detail about the ARA's work in Hungary, see Tibor Glant, “Herbert Hoover and Hungary, 1918–1923,” Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2002), 95–109. On the general Central and Eastern European relief work, which in the greatest part was provided by American sources, see Herbert Clark Hoover, The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover. vol. 1–3, (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1951–1952), vol. 1, 282–430.
Ulysses Grant-Smith to Charles Hughes, December 10, 1921, 864.00/482, Roll 6, M. 708, National Archives and Records Administration (hereafter cited as NARA). Washington, D. C., USA.
Charles Hughes to Ulysses Grant-Smith, July 9, 1921, 711.64119/1, Roll 1, M. 709, NARA.
Charles Hughes to Ulysses Grant-Smith, July 23, and July 28, 1921, 711.64119/1 and /2, Ibid.
Ulysses Grant-Smith to Charles Hughes, August 12, and December 14, 1921, 711.64119/8 and /36, Ibid.; Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States (hereafter cited as FRUS): 1921, vol. 2, (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1936), 258–59. The text of the treaty is in FRUS: 1921, vol. 2, 255–58.
See Tibor Glant, “Ninety Years of United States-Hungarian Relations,” Eger Journal of American Studies. Volume 13, (2012), 166–168. Grant-Smith was soon appointed minister for Albania, then Uruguay.
For Brentano's biography, see, Sketches: Judiciary Candidates, (Chicago: The Hehrt O. Shepard Co., Printers, 1903), 6; New York Times, July 3, 1940.
New York Times, July 3, 1940.
See, Richard Allen Morton, “A Victorian tragedy: The Strange Deaths of Mayor Carter H. Harrison and Patrick Eugene Prendergast,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. 96, No. 1 (Spring, 2003), 6–36.
New York Times, September 30, 1894.
H. G. Creel, Prostitution for Profit. A Police Reporter's View of the White Slave Traffic, (St. Louis, Missouri: The National Rip-Saw Publishing Co., 1911), 19–22.
Fourth Estate: A Weekly Newspaper for Publishers, Advertisers, Advertising Agents and Allied Interests, Issue 281, July 13, 1899; The Chicago Tribune, April 24, 1876.
On the Rogers Act, see, Waldo H. Heinrichs, American Ambassador: Joseph C. Grew and the Development of the United States Diplomatic Tradition, (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966), 95–106, 115–117; Robert D. Schulzinger, The Making of the Diplomatic Mind: The Training, Outlook and Style of United States Foreign Service Officers, 1908–1931, (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1975); Richard Hume Werking, The Master Architects Building the United States Foreign Service, 1890–1931, (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1977); Lawrence E. Gelfand, “Towards a Merit System for the American Diplomatic Service 1900–1930,” Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1988), 49–63.
Egyenlőség, April 1, 1922.
Unknown person to László Széchenyi, March 2, 1922, Folder 1, Bundle 5, K 106, Papers of the Washington Legation, Hungarian National Archives (hereafter mentioned as HNA).
Pesti Napló, vol. 73, no. 103, May 7, 1922.
New York Times, April 14, 1922.
Memorandum of the Secretary of the Western European Division, April 22, 1922, 864.00/630, Roll 7, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
On the relationship between Hungary and the organization, see, Zoltán Peterecz, “Hungary and the League of Nations: A Forced Marriage”. In Peter Becker and Natasha Wheatley, eds., Remaking Central Europe. The League of Nations and the Former Habsburg Lands, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2020, 145–165.
On the Optants question, see, Francis Deák, The Hungarian-Rumanian Land Dispute, (Columbia University Press. 1928); Ferenc Matheovics, A Magyar-román birtokper [The Hungarian-Romanian Optants Case], (Grill Károly, 1929); Elek Nagy, Magyarország és a Népszövetség [Hungary and the League of Nations]. (Franklin Társulat. 1930), 57–82; Gábor Aradi, “A San Remo-i tárgyalások magyarországi előkészülete,” [The Hungarian Preparations for the San Remo Talks] Levéltári Szemle, Vol. 42, No. 3 (2002)., 24–38; Holly Case, Between States: The Transylvanian Question and the European Idea during the Second World War, (Stanford University Press. 2009), 27–30; Antal Berkes, “The League of Nations and the Optants' Dispute of the Hungarian Borderlands: Romania, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia,” In Remaking Central Europe. The League of Nations and the Former Habsburg Lands, edited by Peter Becker and Natasha Wheatley, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2020), 283–314.
On the history of the financial reconstruction of Hungary, see, League of Nations, The Financial Reconstruction of Hungary. General Survey and Principal Documents, (Geneva, 1926); György Péteri, Global Monetary Regime and National Central Banking, The Case of Hungary, 1921–1929, Boulder, (Colorado: Social Science Monographs, 2002); Zoltán Peterecz, Jeremiah Smith, Jr. and Hungary, 1924–1926: the United States, the League of Nations, and the Financial Reconstruction of Hungary, (London: Versita, 2013), 80–204.
Az Est, vol. 15, no. 150, July 25, 1924.
Színházi Élet, vol. 16, no. 29, July 19–25, 1926, 20.
Royall Tyler to Mildred Barnes Bliss, February 21, 1927, Budapest, “Bliss-Tyler Correspondence,” https://www.doaks.org/resources/bliss-tyler-correspondence/letters/21feb1927, accessed December 9, 2015.
Nemzeti Újság, vol. 8, no. 148, July 4, 1926.
Miklós Horthy to Calvin Coolidge, July 3, 1926, and István Bethlen to Calvin Coolidge, July 3, 1926, Box 15, 1926-1941 USA, Papers of the Protocol Department, 1918–1944, K 62, Foreign Ministry Archives, HNA. This became a typical practice on the part of the Hungarian leadership especially Horthy, while the Americans always sent their good wishes on August 20, the main Hungarian national holiday.
Theodore Brentano to István Bethlen, July 24, 1926, Bundle 3, 1921–1928 B/2, Files Relating to Foreign Policy, Bethlen Papers, K 468, HNA.
New York Times, October 23, 1924.
Az Est, vol. XV. no. 235, November 6, 1924.
New York Times, March 31, 1925.
Theodore Brentano to Charles Evans Hughes, March 4, 1924, 864.00/573, Roll 6, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Charles Evans Hughes, February 17, 1925, 864.00/615, Roll 7, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Frank B. Kellogg, June 4, 1925, 864.00/652, Roll 7, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Charles Evans Hughes, July 15, 1924, 864.021/1, Roll 16, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Frank B. Kellogg, July 15, 1925, 864.0131/8, Roll 16, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
For more about the scandal in detail, see Ignác Romsics, “Franciaország, Bethlen és a frankhamisítás,” [France, Bethlen, and the Franc Forgery] Történelmi Szemle, Vol. 26, No. 1 (1983), 67–86, Balázs Ablonczy, „A frankhamisítás. Hálók, személyek, döntések”, Múltunk, Vol. 53, no. 1 (2008), 29–56.
On the British viewpoint concerning the franc forgery and French intentions, see, Robert Crewe-Milnes to Austen Chamberlain, June 2, 1926, C6443/433/21 and Otto Niemeyer to Miles Lampson, June 4, 1926, C6392/443/21, 11370, FO371, The National Archives, London, UK. For the League's Financial Commission take on the forgery scandal, see Report of the Financial Committee to the Council, June 6, 1926, Financial Reconstruction of Hungary, Deliberations at the 40th Session of the Council, June 1926. Doc. No. 52083, Registry Files, R. 302, League of Nations Archives, Geneva, Switzerland.
Theodore Brentano to Frank B. Kellogg, March 31, 1926, 864.00/671, Roll 7, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Charles Evans Hughes, February 6, 1923, 864.20/34, Roll 19, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
For the text of the treaty, see FRUS, 1925, vol. 2, (United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1940), 341–54.
Frank B. Kellogg to László Széchenyi and László Széchenyi to Frank B. Kellogg, June 24, 1925, and Theodore Brentano to Lajos Walkó and Lajos Walkó to Walkó Brentano, September 4, 1926, Ibid., 354–57.
Theodore Brentano to Frank B. Kellogg, August 11, 1926, 711.642/24, Roll 1, Microcopy No. 709, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Frank B. Kellogg, September 4, 1926, 711.642/25, Roll 1, Microcopy No. 709, NARA.
William Phillips to Brentano, (no date on letter, but it was early 1923), 864.00/536; Leland Harrison (for the Secretary of State) to Brentano, September 15, 1924, 864.00/586, Roll 6, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
William R. Castle, Jr. to Charles B. Curtis, December 6, 1923, William R. Castle, Jr., Papers, Countries Correspondence: Box 8: Hungary (1923–1926), Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, West Branch, IA (hereafter cited as William R. Castle, Jr., Papers).
Memorandum, September 17, 1922, in Theodore Brentano to Charles Evans Hughes, September 20, 1922, 864.00/511, Roll 6, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Memorandum, in Theodore Brentano to Charles Evans Hughes, October 1, 1922, 864.00/517, Roll 6, Microcopy No. 708, NARA.
Theodore Brentano to Dorothy Brentano, April 16, 1923, Folder 11, Dorothy (Dodie) Brentano, 12 Aug 1921–24 May 1925, n.d., Box 2, Brentano Family Papers, Chicago History Museum Research Center, Chicago, USA.
William R. Castle, Jr. to Charles B. Curtis, May 6, 1925, and June 9, 1925, William R. Castle, Jr., Papers.
Ibid. and William R. Castle, Jr. to George A. Gordon, January 14, 1926, ibid.
William R. Castle, Jr. to George A. Gordon, November 11, 1925, ibid.
William R. Castle, Jr. to George A. Gordon, August 8, 1926, ibid.
William R. Castle, Jr. to George A. Gordon, August 23, 1926, ibid.
George A. Gordon to Frank B. Kellogg, June 3, 1927, 864.00/702, Roll 8, Microcopy No. 708, NARA. On Gordon's career until 1930, see, Bernard V. Burke, Ambassador Frederic Sackett and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic, 1930–1933, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 71.
In more detail, see, Zoltán Peterecz, “Reflection of and about Hungary in the English-speaking World in the Interwar Years”, Hungarian Studies, vol. 31, no. 2, (2017), 237–249.
Hungary was often mentioned as one of the Balkan States by the State Department officials.
New York Times, May 10, 1927.