Author:
Livia Roka-Madarasz Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary

Search for other papers by Livia Roka-Madarasz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0646-6867
Open access

Abstract

This paper demonstrates the application of surveying methodologies aiding the management of heritage properties, especially for UNESCO World Heritage sites. The objective of the current study is to provide an overview of the historical background of surveying a particular field of engineering and the related social environment. In Europe, all types of historic streets and avenues share a centuries-long common history. Investments financed by governments, capital or residential sources relating to these streets have provided opportunities for interesting architectural experiments. This study demonstrates the intensity of these investments and the morphological and functional changes in relation to their distance from the CBD. To achieve this objective, based on an on-line database of housing features and values, apartments (n = 1,031) from the range of Residential Real Estates in Teréz Town Budapest were collected. Data statistics tools included a Decision Tree and an Artificial Multi-layer Neural Network employed in order to analyse inequalities in price according to the condition of the property and available conveniences. The characteristics of monocentricity/polycentricity are shown to be adaptable elements that have been used historically in urban landscapes and can be implemented in urban design to enhance green spaces and improve the overall quality of urban life. As good examples, the Andrássy/Hübner - Court and the ICOMOS prize-winning renovation of the Wahrmann Palace are presented. Real estate can carry both real and philosophical meaning. Sometimes buildings express physical reality in the environment, at others, they have a symbolic meaning, e. g. an urban idyll, harmony with the habitat, local community, heritage property, wealth or poverty, integration or segregation of people or families. Functional changes support long-term decision-making for investors and city residents in search for better locations within global cityscapes.

Abstract

This paper demonstrates the application of surveying methodologies aiding the management of heritage properties, especially for UNESCO World Heritage sites. The objective of the current study is to provide an overview of the historical background of surveying a particular field of engineering and the related social environment. In Europe, all types of historic streets and avenues share a centuries-long common history. Investments financed by governments, capital or residential sources relating to these streets have provided opportunities for interesting architectural experiments. This study demonstrates the intensity of these investments and the morphological and functional changes in relation to their distance from the CBD. To achieve this objective, based on an on-line database of housing features and values, apartments (n = 1,031) from the range of Residential Real Estates in Teréz Town Budapest were collected. Data statistics tools included a Decision Tree and an Artificial Multi-layer Neural Network employed in order to analyse inequalities in price according to the condition of the property and available conveniences. The characteristics of monocentricity/polycentricity are shown to be adaptable elements that have been used historically in urban landscapes and can be implemented in urban design to enhance green spaces and improve the overall quality of urban life. As good examples, the Andrássy/Hübner - Court and the ICOMOS prize-winning renovation of the Wahrmann Palace are presented. Real estate can carry both real and philosophical meaning. Sometimes buildings express physical reality in the environment, at others, they have a symbolic meaning, e. g. an urban idyll, harmony with the habitat, local community, heritage property, wealth or poverty, integration or segregation of people or families. Functional changes support long-term decision-making for investors and city residents in search for better locations within global cityscapes.

1 Introduction

Throughout history, human beings have used different ancient disciplines including architecture, geodesy, law, philosophy, and mathematics to manage real estate - res immobiles. Besides ancient disciplines, there exist younger disciplines including urban studies, sociology, facility management, life-cycle assessment, economics, environmental psychology, and information technology to support scientific analysis and research into real estate management. This paper is an attempt to analyse both the real and the philosophical meanings of real estate and to merge the traditional and the younger disciplines (Wagner, 2012). Many scientists believe that it is very important to apply the sciences in an interdisciplinary manner, demonstrating their inerconnections. There are different branches of science, but only one science of nature. It is necessary to protect nature in more efficient ways than our current practices. It would also be necessary to respect and adopt the scientific results of other nations, cultures, and civilizations (Lewis, 1966; Róka-Madarász and Mályusz, 2013). Ancient Egypt was one of the greatest and earliest civilizations. The earliest records of land ownership date back to the Royal Registry of Ancient Egypt that was created in about 3000 BC. The world's oldest surviving papyrus map, the Turin map, was drawn about 1160 BC for King Ramesses's IV of the New Kingdom's 20th Dynasty Period. A recent reassessment of Stonehenge (c. 2500 BC) suggests that the monument was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg-and-rope geometry. The Bible further indicates that surveyors were active in Jerusalem, defining property boundaries and ownership. The Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276–195 BC) calculated the Earth's circumference using triangulation based on the hypotheses of Pythagoras and Aristotle. In his three-volume work, Geography, he created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians. The Romans are said to have used the plane table in laying out their impressive road system. The first such road, with its perfectly straight sections, was the Via Appia named after Appius Claudius Caecus, also known as “regina viarum”. A plane table consists of a drawing board mounted on a tripod or other stable support. It has a straight edge – usually with sights for accurate aiming of the alidade to the objects to be mapped – along which lines are drawn. It was the first device capable of recording or establishing angles. The levelling instrument used by the Romans was the simple libella.

In 1086 William the Conqueror wrote the Domesday Book which covered all of England and contained the names of the land-owners, the amount of land they owned, the quality of said land, and specific information about the resources and people four in each area. In the 16th century after Galileo's discovery of the telescope, Johannes Kepler also embarked on a theoretical and experimental investigation of telescopic optics. The Keplerian telescope has two convex lenses that can produce higher magnification than Galileo's combination of convex and concave lenses. The study of astronomy resulted in the development of angle-reading devices that were based on arcs of large radii. In the 17th century, in 1620, the English mathematician Edmund Gunter developed a surveying chain that was superseded only by the steel tape which appeared in the late 19th century. Later on, Sir Isaac Newton and Christian Huygens searched for a mathematical theory for determining the shape of the Earth. Newton believed that rotation would bring about a flattening, with the polar radius smaller than the Equatorial radius. Indeed, the Earth is approximately spherical, but there is a slight flattening towards the poles – a consequence of rotation in the period of the planet's formation during the early history of the solar system. When Munich was occupied in 1800, the commanding general of Napoleon's French Army, Decaen, ordered the making of an astronomically and geographically accurate map of Bavaria. After the French had retreated, Max I. Joseph, later to become King of Bavaria, founded the Topographic Office in 1801. He wanted to make a topographic atlas of Bavaria on a scale of 1:50,000 that would be useable both for military and civilian purposes. In 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte founded the cadastre (from the Greek κατάστιχον = account book) – a comprehensive register of the properties of a country, which recorded ownership details, location, and information about the value and usage of the land. It also included maps drawn to scale, both at a ratio of 1:2,500. Sir George Everest was made Surveyor General for the Great Trigonometrical Survey in 1830, hence the English name was given to Chomolungma. Important technological developments followed in the 20th century. The military requirements of the two World Wars were to bring about photogrammetry, or mapping via aerial photographs. Revolutionary changes were the use of satellites as reference points for geodesic surveys and computers to speed up the recording and processing of survey data. The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS). as well as of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) 3D laser scanners have aided in surveying and measuring real estate.

2 Research aim and methodology

The main aim and result of this part of the research are to present indicators and measurements for real estate investments in the process of gentrification.

  1. i.Data sampling and review of available cases and their properties were selected areas for social analysis. Table 1 shows the review of the social area analysis (Colomb, 2007; Demény and Shorter, 1968; Lewis, 1966; Van Arsdol et al., 1958).
  2. ii.Literature review; review of social area analyses.
  3. iii.Location specification, historical background. Cartographical data were gathered from many sources. For heritage buildings, I visited the homepage of www.vilagorokseg.hu. For presenting historical maps, the Arcanum Digital Database was used. Historical property terrier data were gathered from the Hungaricana Digital Database.
  4. iv.New statistical results were obtained through the use of a Decision Tree and an Artificial Neural Network Analysis. An online database, www.ingatlan.com, offers survey information on the condition of building resources.
  5. v.Presentation of diverse case studies.

2.1 Data sampling

Benchmark instruments have existed for centuries in many forms. Real estate surveys have traditionally used triangulation with the Ordnance Survey Benchmarks (BMs) as reference points for establishing ground heights (Fig. 1). This uses four classes of marks:

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

a) 1st oder, München SO-1, Frauenkirche nördl. Kirchturm, TP-Nr. 002 44. (Null-Ablotepunkt, Knopf Mitte). b) 1st order, Debrecen, Great Protestant Church, Eastern spire, TP-Nr. 69-2001. c) 2nd order, Hamburg, St Michaelis Kirche, TP-Nr. 3/2425. d) 3rd order, Lébény, St James Benedictine Abbey-Church; Leiden, Southern spire, TP-Nr. 72-4012D. e) 4th order, Radostyán, Belfry, TP-Nr. 88-1119

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

  • first-order marks (FBMs) of high accuracy, usually anchored to solid rock and securely protected

  • second-order marks established on stable structures

  • third-order marks cut into walls and houses

  • fourth-order marks are used to subdivide an area within a third-order network.

2.2 Goodwill value of heritage properties

Article 7 of Act LXIV of 2001 regulates the protection of the built heritage and defines ‘heritage asset’. In order to have heritage value, the asset must be an element of the built heritage, as well as of any natural territories, groups or systems related to these elements, and it must embody a historical, scientific, artistic, or technical monument of primary significance with regard to the past and its affiliation with a local community. It may include any type of sub-components, equipment, or contents. The goodwill value of heritage assets can be calculated by adjusting the correction coefficient of the replacement value of the property. The definition of heritage value and goodwill value requires the services of a heritage expert with the appropriate qualification and relevant practice in the field. In addition to the bases of value set out in VPS 3 of the RICS Red Book, the valuer is required to provide a valuation based on the ‘value category’ as used in Hungarian legislation. The so-called Red Book – the RICS appraisal and valuation manual – was originally published as a set of guidance notes on the valuation of assets. The 1st edition (1976), was published under the title Statement of Asset Valuation Practice and Guidance Note. The 2012 edition of the RICS Valuation – Professional Standards was published in March 2012 and RICS Hungary has also published the National Association Valuation Standards in Hungarian translation in 2012.

2.3 Location of heritage real estate management

UNESCO World Heritage sites in Hungary were first inscribed on the list at the 11th Session of the World Heritage Committee held in Paris, France in 1987. This extended to areas in Budapest including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter, and Andrássy Avenue and its listed buildings (Fig. 2), UNESCO guidelines define three different aspects for examining the conditions of integrity. It requires an assessment of the extent to which the property

  1. includes all elements necessary to express its outstanding universal value;
  2. is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey the property's significance;
  3. suffers from adverse effects of development and/or neglect. Integrity is a measure of wholeness and intactness of the natural and/or cultural heritage and its attributes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Budapest world heritage zone and its listed buildings

(Source: vilagorokseg.hu; ed.: author).

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

2.4 Historical background and literature review of gentrification

Beginning with the fundamental contributions of J.H. von Thünen (Der Isolierte Staat in Beziehung auf Landwirtschaft und Nationalökonomie, I. 1826, II. 1850, III. 1860), A. Weber (Reine Theorie des Standorts, 1909), W. Christaller (Central Places in Southern Germany, 1933), G.K. Myrdal (Monetary Equilibrium, 1939), A. Lösch (The Economics of Location, 1940) and later of the well-established model of W. Alonso (Location and Land Use: Towards a General Theory of Land Rent, 1964), R.F. Muth (Cities and Housing, 1969) and E.S. Mills (An Aggregative Model of Resource Allocation in a Metropolitan Area, 1967), urban economics has mainly considered generated land rent in terms of the demand for accessibility (Fig. 3). The two most important aspects of monocentricity/polycentricity are:

  1. i)its morphological dimension, which denotes the size and spatial distribution of centres (Gál and Unger, 2009; Kadar and Vitkova, 2019; Locsmándi et al., 2000; Mészáros, 2000; Mills and MacKinnon, 1973; Nyitray, 1992; Ring, 2014),
  2. ii)its five functional dimensions (commercial, manufacturing, residential, agricultural, waste), which additionally address the linkage between centres such as the daily flow of commuting people and social network connections (Alföldi, 2011; Baross and Struyk, 1993; Dúll, 1996; Lepel, 2010; Riedel and Ábel, 2018; Róka-Madarász, 2012).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Monocentric Alonso-Muth-Mills (AMM) model, Polycentric 3D bid rent function, R. J. Brown, 2011, ed.: author

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

The AMM model defines rent as the remainder left when the entrepreneur has subtracted production costs (including transportation costs) and a desired level of profit from the revenue obtained by selling the good. The Prime Value Intersection (PVI) is the place in the Central Business District with the highest land rent value. Formally, rent is expressed as (d0)ri=(pxπc(d0))x(d0) where

ri, rii, riii,… rn denotes the rent,

px the unit price of the good produced by the entrepreneur,

c the production costs per unit of land (including transportation costs) at a distance

d0, d1, d2,… dn from the city center CBD,

π the profit per unit of land, and

x the quantity of the good produced per unit of land at a distance from the city center.

Offices and shops can afford to pay higher rents in city centres than in industry or housing, so they tend to occupy the central ring. Researchers now argue that the construction of luxury apartment developments in city centres is a form of gentrification (Smith, 1996). The resulting architectural and spatial renewal causes social displacement type changes in the retail/consumption of services and the rise of property values in the nearby neighbourhoods (Dixon et al., 2003). During the era of socialism, the housing market in the cities of central and eastern European countries was controlled by the national administrations. During this period little maintenance of the building stock took place (Baross, 1987). Since then, liberalization of the housing market has meant almost complete deregulation in these countries (Brade et al., 2009). The privatization of ownership, including housing and land, was a key part of that process.

In Germany, with the Unification Treaty (Einigungsvertrag) a legal right was given to the original owners to claim their confiscated property (Krüger and Henderson, 1997). After reunification, Berlin's District 01-Mitte has been the area that most radically changed, as its central position in the united Berlin made it attractive to investors (Chr, 2004). Friedrichstraße is one of Berlin's most exclusive and expensive areas, with high-end retail and offices. In this area Friedrichstraße crosses Unter den Linden, the magnificent boulevard lined on both sides with monumental, centuries-old period buildings, including the State Opera. Table 1 shows the review of social area analysis in Berlin and some other countries.

Table 1.

Social area analysis: selected studies

Social Area Analysis
CountryCityStudy
USALos AngelesShevky, Williams (1949)
San FranciscoShevky, Bell (1955)
Chicago, MichiganHawley, Duncan (1956)
Akron, Ohio; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Kansas City, Missouri; Louisville Providence, Rhode Island; Rochester, New York; Seattle, WashingtonVan Arsdol, Camilleri,

Schmid (1958)
Dayton Indianapolis SyracuseAnderson, Egeland (1961)
UKLondon

Newcastle-under-Lyme
Herbert (1967), Harvey (1973)

Atkinson (2000)
TurkeyIstanbulDemény, Shorter (1968)
AustraliaMelbourneJones (1969)
NewcastleParkers (1972)
CanadaWinnipegHerbert (1972)
ItalyRomeMcElrath (1972)
HungaryBudapestKovács, Wießner (1995)
Czech R.PragueSykora (1996)
PolandCracowWęcławowicz (1996)
WarsawGorzelák (1998)
GermanyBerlinHäußermann, Kapphan (1998)
LeipzigAring, Herfert (2001)
RussiaMoscowLentz (1999), Gdaniec (2005)
St. PetersburgRudolp, Aksenov (2003)
SlovakiaBratislava, KassaOndoš, Korec (2006)

3 The history of building Andrássy Avenue in Budapest

All types of historic boulevards and avenues share a centuries-long history.

3.1 Erlangen: Universitätsstraße

Christian Ernst, a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, commissioned the architect Johann Moritz Richter to plan the Neu-Sadt area of Erlangen in 1686. It may fairly be assumed that the concept of the “Richter'sche Plan” was delivered by the first Huguenots from Vitry-le-François. In the plan there is a square, the ‘Grande Place’ (Schlossplatz), a double of the ‘Place devant le Temple et la Douane’ (Hugenottenplatz) (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Inner city (Inneres Stadtgebiet), ed.: author

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

The street's width and length (in Fuß) followed the golden ratio:

‘principale Rue’ (Hauptstraße) symmetry axis, w:50F,

‘grande Rue’ (Ringstrasse), w:40F,

‘Rue’ (Straßen), w:25 F,

‘Ruelle pour entrer dans les basses cours’ [alley to enter the lower courtyards] (Gassen), w:20 F (Wüst et al., 2002).

The Neo-Renaissance apartment buildings around the ‘rondell’ at the intersection of Frauenklinikstraße (Universitätsstraße) and Kasernstraße (today Bismarckstraße) were built between 1890 and 1895. Until the inauguration of the monument in honor of Kaiser Wilhelm I, the square was simply called ‘Rondell’ and from 1897 Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz (today Lorlebergplatz).

3.2 Berlin: Leipziger Straße

As part of the Berlin fortress, Liepziger Square, with the shape of an octagon and initially also officially referred to as 'Octogon', was developed together with the square, Pariser Platz, alias 'Quareé' and the circular, Belle Alliance Square, alias 'Rondell', (since 1947 Mehringplatz), following plans by Philipp Gerlach. The surrounding avenues, Leipziger Straße, Unter den Linden and Friedrich Straße, were developed with prestigious residential, administrative, and retail buildings.

3.3 London: Regent Street

After the Great Fire of 1666, the plan for Regent Street was the first urban renewal in the medieval inner city of London. The layout of Regent Street remains the same to this day as the architect John Nash designed it, and it has three significant points along its length, Langham Place, Oxford Circus and Piccadilly Circus. Regent Street and Regent's Park were conceived at a time when ideas were influenced by Haussmann's successes in Paris. When Mary-le-Bone Park, the royal hunting ground, reverted to the Crown in 1810, the Prince Regent (later King George IV) commissioned Nash to design a connecting ceremonial road from Carlton House to Regent's Park via Regent Street. Despite the desire to rival the Parisian avenues, Nash soon realised that land acquisition (e.g. impossible to acquire Langham House) and the social characteristics of the areas through which such an avenue would run, ruled out building a straight road. Nash's plan was presented to the House of Commons as a street proposed to run from Charing Cross to Portland Place, leading to the Crown Estate in Mary-le-Bone Park, and was accepted on 28th January 1813.

3.4 Paris: Champs-Elysées

During the period known as the Second Empire (1852-70), France was ruled by Napoleon III. During times of conflict and political revolts (1789, 1830, 1848), urban mobs would frequently blockade the maze that was the streets of Paris, and the crooked narrow lanes of the medieval city also played a role in such events. Napoleon III dreamed of a new, imperial city whose very streets would speak of the glory of the French empire. He instructed Baron Georges-Eugene Haussmann, prefect of Seine, to modernize Paris. The emperor gave him the mission of making the city healthier and grander. He looked back to Louis XIV's Grande Epoque for the Baroque planning scheme of plazas, radial avenues, and junctions, like the Champs-Elysees and the Avenue de l’Opera linked to Rue de Rivoli. ‘Une étoile’, a star, was created around the Arc de Triomphe on the western side of Paris.

3.5 Budapest: Andrássy Avenue

The first plan for the construction of the new avenue was agreed upon by the House of Representatives in 1870 upon the proposal of Prime Minister Count Gyula Andrássy senior. This dynamic era brought an American-style development to Budapest and the capital became a modern European metropolis. The Municipal Board of Public Works (BoPW) (Fővárosi Közmunkák Tanácsa) was established in 1870 with Andrássy following the example of a similar board in London in 1855. In 1871 an international competition was organized for a city plan including a layout of radial avenues and circular boulevards and squares, and the location of public buildings. The first prize went to Lajos Lechner, chief engineer of the Ministry of Public Works and Transportation. The second prize went to the architects Frigyes Feszl & Co. and the third prize to Klein and Fraser from London. The new avenue was opened in 1876, and these Neo-Renaissance style buildings were finished in 1885. The avenue was named after Count Gyula Andrássy. Until Andrássy Avenue was built, Zsigmond Madarász's family lived at No. 61 Váczi út which was the corner house at the intersection of Könyök and Váczi út (currently 13 Bajcsy Zsilinszky út). Because of its spatial situation, the Madarász’ site of 506 □° square-fathoms (ftm2) was the most unusually shaped site along the avenue (Mezősné Szilágyi, 2014). The plot, ending in an acute angle, suggested putting the emphasis on the endpoint of the trapezoid shape. The corner site provided the opportunity for having two main facades – a circumstance that could inspire architectural experimentation (Preisich, 1998). Besides the President, Count Andrássy, Frigyes Podmaniczky was appointed as Vice-President of the Board of Public Works (BoPW). Podmaniczky proposed Miklós Ybl and István Linzbauer produce the study plans for the most important sites of the new avenue. István Linzbauer's plan of the Opera House for the Madarász site was strongly influenced by Semper's Opera House in Dresden. The following plots were selected as possible locations for the Opera House (Dalműszínház):

Zsigmond Madarász's plot

Karl's Barracks

Wodianer site

Hermina Square

In the end, the Opera House was built on an empty public plot – the lowest-priced plot – on Hermina Square using the plans by Miklós Ybl (Józsa, 2016). The construction of the avenue and the demolition of buildings started in 1872, but in the following year, on Black Friday 9th May 1873, only eight days after the opening ceremony of the Vienna EXPO, Vienna's stock exchange crashed and the financial crisis caused significant interruption to the works. Buda, the old capital of Hungary, and Óbuda were officially united with Pest, and a new metropolis, Budapest, was born in November 1873 (Preisich, 1998). The construction work dragged on from 1873 to 1876. By 1876 a mere forty houses had been completed, several of them as investments by the Avenue Corporation. The construction work and the wooden cube road surface were partially finished for the opening ceremony of the avenue held on 20th August 1876. From 1879 onwards, the building industry started booming again and the number of buildings continued to go up. The ‘Pest Insurance Company’ merged with the Belgian ‘Fonciére Insurance Company’ in 1879. They chose the Madarász site on the first plot of the ‘Radial Avenue’ and decided to build a new luxury residential tenament house, the main purpose being to advertise the firm's strength. The site was successfully purchased for 253.415 Forints – a costly price at the time. For comparison, 3.6 square meters cost 500.82 Forints at the corner of Váczi Boulevard and the same unit would have been less than 30 Forints near the City Park (Ahlfeldt, 2013). The task of designing the buildings lining the new avenue was assigned to various famous architects, amongst them Ödön Lechner. Lechner was an outstanding master in the history of Hungarian national architecture and laid the foundations for a specifically Hungarian version of ‘secessionist’ art (Art Nouveau). In 1899 he started a study-tour of Europe with his best friend, Vilmos Zsolnay, the founder of the Zsolnay Ceramics Works which is still in operation at Pécs. In London, he studied Persian and Indian art at the Kensington Museum and the achievements of modern urbanistics. These trips had a major influence on his later work. The first time he applied both oriental and Hungarian folk art motifs and utilized the pyrogranite and majolica produced by Zsolnay was in the plans for the Museum of Applied Arts, completed in 1896. The Museum is the first mature example of the non-Historicist style and the advent of nationally inspired secessionist architecture. This building was the first opportunity for Lechner to realise completely his own architectural and artistic ideas. His architectural conceptions essentially remained based on eclecticism, and his ornamentation relied increasingly on the treasure trove of Hungarian folk art. This was realised and embodied in the building of the Royal Hungarian Geophysical Institute, in the Drechsler Palace on Andrássy Avenue (the Hungarian Railway Pensioners' Building designed together with Gyula Pártos), in the Church of St. Elisabeth – the “Blue Church”, in the Thonet House, and in Gyula Lechner's House at 40 Bartók Béla Street.

Emil Gyula Unger, Mihály Pollack's grandson, had graduated from the Bauakademie [Academy of Architecture] of Berlin and returned to Pest. He worked with Miklós Ybl at the architectural office of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and later at the Sugárút/Radialstrasse Bauunternehmung (Radial Avenue Construction Company) as a chief architect. The first building permit in August 1872 was issued for a block called Seven Houses to be built at the corner of Nagymező and Jókai (Gyár) Street (Preisich, 1998). The cluster of plots 32-44, comprising three five-storey and four four-storey buildings, was designed by Emil Unger. The Madarász Villa was the first studio type house around Andrássy Avenue before the buildings of the Epreskert (Strawberry Garden) Art Colony. Sadly, the plans for the Madarász Villa haven't survived, so we know little about this studio cum painter's home and can only imagine the way it must have looked based on the one available photo kept in the Photo Archives of the Hungarian National Gallery. In 1869 Madarász acquired a 599 ¼ □° square-fathom plot for 6.000 Forints at Városligeti alley 27 (Fig. 5). Madarász commissioned Károly Hild to build an atelier-villa following the plans of architect E. Gy. Unger. It can fairly be assumed that the architect was Unger, as mentioned by E. Gábor (Gábor, 2007). The Madarász Villa had a symmetrical layout with a tripartite façade and a unique arch in the middle. The triumphal arch is rather rare in the Hungarian architecture of the age, but we can see similar examples in the Wechselmann villa and the great pavilions to the side of Várkert Bazaar. This motif alludes both to the Italian cinquecento and French revolutionary architecture. According to E. Gábor, the facade is similar to Claude-Nicolas Ledoux's Tabary pavilion in Paris from the end of the 18th century (Gábor, 2007).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Halácsy Map in 1873 a) Zsigmond Madarász's plot at Városliget, Arena Str. Grundbuch: V. 139-144 grape, b) Viktor Madarász's plot at 27 Városligeti fasor, and the newly built studio (today 45 Városligeti fasor)

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

At the turn of the 19th century, the urbanisation of Budapest shifted to outer Teréz Town. The growing population required the construction of educational facilities. Two schools were built on Zsigmond Madarász's site – the elementary school at Bajza street following plans by architect Rezső Ray and a secondary school following plans by architect Kálmán Kőrössy. The grammar school was named after Ferenc Kölcsey, the author of the Hungarian national prayer and anthem, the Hymn [Himnusz]. The closest counterpart in Hungary was the Budapest Royal Hungarian State Institute for Model Drawing, which was later elevated to the rank of The Hungarian University of Fine Arts at 69-71 Andrássy út.

4 New results and case studies

4.1 Andrássy/Hübner-court

The former Andrássy Court of what was originally termed ‘the Körönd’ was designed following the plans of architect Gyula Bukovics and was built in 1885. From 1924 until his death in 1967 composer Zoltán Kodály and his family lived in this building, which came to be named after him. The renovation project of the Kodály House, located on what came to be called Kodály Circus, was financed by an international property developer. This project had a significant impact on raising the mean supply prices in the local property market around (Kutasi, 2016; Róka-Madarász and Mályusz, 2013; Róka-Madarász, 2021) in 2010. Property data were analysed using a tool called Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. All modelling functions are available in the end-user environment which offers the opportunity of programming in syntax. Decision Tree classification was used to predict a maximum Tree Depth in the 2-level CHAID tree with a total of 5 nodes, of which one root parent node contains all at level 0, and of which 4 were terminal child nodes at level 1 with the Depth being 1. The major variable ‘Condition’ (px(i) = 0.000, Chi-square = 179,899, with Bonferroni correction on the p-value, α = 0.05), reached significance for ‘Conveniences‘ (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Decision tree relation with conditions

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

In the Artificial Neural Network Analysis (ANNA) a 70-30 partitioning was used, with 70% of the data set for training and 30% for testing; training time being 00:00:02,833. Multi-layer, in this case, three-layer, perceptron (TLP) 9-5-6 neurons feedforward network architecture was used with one hidden layer. For the hidden layer, the hyperbolic tangent activation function was used, where the chain rule was employed to backpropagate. The Input Layer (Link) contains a ‘Conveniences‘ factor and a ‘Price/m2‘ covariate. The Output Layer (Right) contains ‘Condition’ as a dependent variable with a softmax activation function σ:RΚ[0,1]Κ. The choice for cost function includes the use of a cross-entropy error that may minimize loss, for the jth element of class according to the weight vector Py=j x=exTwjexTwk and bias in the network (Kádas and Klafszky, 1976); see Fig. 7. The online property database classifies the conveniences of the units as follows: total, double, luxury, or without conveniences. The database classifies the condition as follows: in bad condition, renovated, in good condition, in medium condition, newly built, andin near-new condition (Róka-Madarász and Mályusz, 2013).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Network information and syntax of the multi-layer ANNA

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

Hübner Court, a French neo-renaissance style cour d'honneur building was a commission executed by contractor Nándor Hübner in 1883 and built after the plans, once more, of architect Gyula Bukovics at No. 4. Körönd. The Circus was originally decorated with fountains and planted with horse-chestnut trees. King Franz Joseph made a gift of ten statues to the capital at the beginning of the 20th century. One of these stands at the Körönd, the statue of Miklós Zrínyi (by József Róna 1902). The building, due to its history and special features is an unrepeatable masterpiece where each aspect serves a greater purpose that is more important than the individual piece, both as regards the environment in which it is built and the individuals who are to live in it. The architectural documentation was created by Bálint Nagy's studio N&n Ltd., later known as Studio KVARC Ltd. As of 2022, the Hübner Court at 92-94 Andrássy Avenue offers new living spaces, while it continues to reflect faithfully its historical heritage. The property, with its rich historical and cultural legacy, has been refurbished in a new, elegant neo-renaissance style, thanks to state-of-the-art innovative technologies and outstanding engineering expertise, and is on its way to becoming a real jewel in its lively surroundings. A sum of 17 individual and unique rooftop luxury apartments boast an internal two-storey structure incorporating the corner-towers (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Renovation of the Hübner corner-towers. a) Photo by Edit Szilágyi (VI-73-1), 1965. b) Orthophoto in 2001. c) Drawings by N&n in 2002. d) Under construction in 2021. e) f) 3D model of the two-storey tower by studiokvarc.hu

Citation: Hungarian Studies 36, 1-2; 10.1556/044.2022.00180

4.2 Wahrmann Palace

Wahrmann Palace, in Lower Teréz Town at 23 Andrássy Avenue, was built in 1884 in a neo-renaissance style following the plans of architect Vilmos Freund. This listed building was renovated in 2006 according to plans by architects Tamás Kőnig DLA and Péter Wagner DLA (Wagner, 2012), experts whose entire architectural oeuvre and teaching approach are highly authentic and set a good example in the profession.

Scenario A – Residential function.

The first concept of the Spanish property investor was to save the original residential function of the building, especially the Wahrmann's apartment on the piano nobile, so the plans contained luxury living rooms with recreation areas, and a pool on the subterrene.

Scenario B – Commercial – Office/Retail function.

True to the second set of plans for the house, it is currently functioning as an office building offering a 2,500 m2 lettable area. Retail shops for luxury brands operate on the ground floor (Collins and Morsányi, 2001). In 2010 the architects earned an ICOMOS award for this reconstruction.

Table 2 shows investment intensity in three areas of Andrássy Avenue and in the City Park.

Table 2.

Renovation and investment intensity in the research areas

InvestmentLower Teréz TownPest “Broadway”Outer Teréz TownCity Park
Date1990-2000-2010-2020-
CapitalLargesmallmediumsmall
GovernmentSmalllargemediumlarge
Residents'Smallmediumsmallsmall

5 Discussion and conclusion

The last three decades have seen Budapest regenerate in a number of different ways. The most important operations have taken place in the inner city (Belváros). As regards the study of the built environment, real estate research is dominated by an interest in commercial properties, including studies on offices, retail establishments, and hotels. Further research has looked into the functioning, among others, of residential, educational (school, academic), cultural (museum, theatre), manufacturing, healthcare (hospital, clinic), church, and institutional facilities (authorities, diplomatic establishments). Research has found that the area of the Andrássy Avenue world heritage core zone of Budapest was affected by gentrification progressing both in space and time, increasing with each location as one moves step by step further from the city center. According to the literature, in the life-cycle of listed heritage properties with goodwill value, a maintenance phase should be included and this should constitute the longest or a never-ending section of their life-cycle.

Acknowledgment

The author has to sincerely acknowledge architects Tamás Kőnig Tamás, and Péter Wagner for allowing access to the architectural documentation. The author is also grateful to Mary Ann Reynolds RICS Switzerland for her valuable comments on an earlier draft and for carefully proofreading.

References

  • Ahlfeldt, G.M. (2013). If we build it, will they pay? Predicting property price effects of transport innovationsEnvironment and Planning, 45(8): 19771994. https://doi.org/10.1068/a45429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alföldi, Gy. (2011). Urban Quartett: A város és a társadalmi szövet kölcsönhatása. In: Benkő, M., and Szabó, Á. (Eds.), Urban renewal: essays on urban design. BME, Dept. of Urbanism, Budapest, p. 159 ISBN: 9789633130193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baross, P. (1987). Managing the Housing Queue in Hungary: the current debate on the character of socialist housing policy in Hungary. Habitat International, 11(2): 161175. https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-3975(87)90066-X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baross, P. and Struyk, R. (1993). Housing transition in Eastern Europe. Progress and problems, Cities, 10(3): 179188. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-2751(93)90028-H.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brade, I., Günter, H., and Wiest, K. (2009). Recent trends and future prospects of socio-spatial differentation in urban regions of Central and Eastern Europe: a lull before the storm? Cities, 26: 233244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2009.05.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chr, K. (2004). Gentrification in zentrumsnahen Stadtquartieren in Berlin am Beispiel der Spandauer und Rosenthaler Vorstadt in Berlin-Mitte, Workshop AK Stadtzukünfte. http://www.stadtzukuenfte.de/Abstracts_17/Krajewski.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, P. and Morsányi, L. (2001). Retailing and retail real estate development- pre and post transition with special reference to shopping centres. In: The end of socialism conference. Westminster University, London, UK, EU. http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colomb, C. (2007). Unpacking new labour's ‘Urban Renaissance’ agenda: towards a socially sustainable reurbanization of British cities? Planning, Practice and Research, 22(1): 124. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701455249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demény, P. and Shorter, F.C. (1968). Estimating Turkish Mortality, fertility, and age structure: Istanbul: application of some new technics. Istanbul University Press. https://lib.ugent.be/en/catalog/rug01:002207989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, T., Marston, A., Thompson, B., and Elder, B. (2003). eBusiness and the City of London office market. Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 21: 348365. https://doi.org/10.1108/14635780310483638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dúll, A. (1996). A helyidentitásról. Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle, 4–6: 363390, In: MTA Doctor of the Hung. Acad. of Sci. Thesis, 2017. http://real-d.mtak.hu/996/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gábor, E. (2007). Die Stadtwäldchen Allée (1800–1873) Die Baugeschichte eines Pester Villenviertels. Acta Historiae Atrium Academiae, 48(1): 34114. https://doi.org/10.1556/ahista.48.2007.1.2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gál, T. and Unger, J. (2009). Detection of ventilation paths using high-resolution roughness parameter mapping in a large urban area. Building and Environment, 44(1): 198206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.02.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Józsa, A. (2016). Színházépítészet Magyarországon - Építészeti hatások, hagyományok és térformálás a 18. századtól a modern színházépítészet elveinek megjelenéséig, Theatre architecture in Hungary: architectural impacts, traditions and space shaping from the 18th century up to the appearance of the principles of modern theatre architecture, Ph.D dissertation, p. 300. https://repozitorium.omikk.bme.hu/handle/10890/1489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kadar, B. and Vitkova, L. (2019). Sustainability options for tourism development. In: Benko, M. (Ed.), et al., Book on unexplored cultural heritage in communities by the Danube, ISBN: 9788087079638. Praha, Gasset, InterREG, p. 137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kádas, A.S. and Klafszky, E. (1976). Estimation of the parameters in the gravity model for trip distribution: a new method and solution algorithm. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 6(4): 439445. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-0462(76)90035-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krüger, A. (1997). Urban regeneration and residents’ involvement – developments in Germany over the last two decades. In: Henderson, P. (Ed.), ‘No Europe without us’ - setting the Scene: community-based responses to urban deprivation in five European countries. LSA and Combined European Bureau for Social Development, The Hague.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kutasi, D. (2016). Value components of historic residential properties: evidence from Budapest real estate market. Open House International, 41(1): 101106. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-01-2016-B0014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lepel, A. (2010). Az ipari épületek második élete és újrahasznosításuk folyamata, the second life of industrial buildings and the process of their reuse, Ph.D. dissertaion, p. 127. https://repozitorium.omikk.bme.hu/handle/10890/884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, O. (1966). The culture of poverty. Scientific American, 215(4): 1925. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24931078.

  • Locsmándi, G., Péteri, G., and Varga-Ötvös, B. (2000). Urban planning and capital investment financing in Hungary. Open Society Institute, Local Government and Public service Reform Initiative Budapest. ISBN-10 : 963003798X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mészáros, M. (2000). Real estates in chains, Faculty of Architecture BME, Bulettin, pp. 309317.

  • Mezősné Szilágyi, K. (2014). Ethical and aesthetic aspects in the renewal of historic Allées. Historic Environment: Policy and Practice, 5(1): 316. https://doi.org/10.1179/1756750513Z.00000000039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, E.S. and MacKinnon, J. (1973). Notes on the new urban economics. Bell Journal of Economics, 4(2): 593601. https://doi.org/10.2307/3003054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyitray, R. (1992). Település–közgazdaság–kultúra Településmenedzsment, Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó, Budapest, p. 180 ISBN: 963-222-441-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preisich, G. (1998). Budapest városépítésének története 1945–1990. Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest. ISBN: 9631614700.

  • Riedel, M. and Ábel, M. (2018). The preservation of the unified townscape of the colonized residential areas and the possibilities of its protection through the examples of low lewel high density residentials. Építés-Építészettudomány, 46(1–2): 175200. https://doi.org/10.1556/096.2017.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ring, K. (2014). Self-Made city Berlin: Self-initiated urban living and architectural interventions. Jovis Verlag, Berlin. ISBN: 978-3-86859-167-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Róka-Madarász, L. (2012). Measurement of operation and maintenance practices for corporate property management. Pollack Periodica, 7(3): 117126. https://doi.org/10.1556/pollack.7.2012.3.12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Róka-Madarász, L. (2021 July 7–9). Connection of IT systems under level one, IEEE 25th international conference on intelligent engineering systems. IEEE Press, New York, pp. 171176. https://doi.org/10.1109/INES52918.2021.9512923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Róka-Madarász, L. and Mályusz, L. (2013). Evaluating indicators for renewal of properties via gentrification in Budapest. Open House International, 38(2): 6675. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-02-2013-B0007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, N. (1996). The new urban frontier: gentrification and the revanchist city. Routledge, London. ISBN: 9780415132558.

  • Van Arsdol, M.D., Jr., Camilleri, S.F., and Schmid, F.C. (1958). The generality of urban social area indexes. American Sociological Review, 23: 277284. https://doi.org/10.2307/2089241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wagner P. (2012). Kőnig és Wagner építészek harmincnyolc év. Ráday könyvesház. Budapest. https://www.wagner-peter.hu/konigeswagner.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wüst, W. (2002). Fürstliche Stadtentwicklung in der frühen Neuzeit: Toleranz und Geometrie. Das Beispiel Erlangen. In: Werner, K. and Pehle, H. (Hrsg.), Wie zukunftsfähig sind Erlangen und das Modell Stadt? Blessing. FAU-Aktuell Nr. 2758vom 17.4.2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahlfeldt, G.M. (2013). If we build it, will they pay? Predicting property price effects of transport innovationsEnvironment and Planning, 45(8): 19771994. https://doi.org/10.1068/a45429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alföldi, Gy. (2011). Urban Quartett: A város és a társadalmi szövet kölcsönhatása. In: Benkő, M., and Szabó, Á. (Eds.), Urban renewal: essays on urban design. BME, Dept. of Urbanism, Budapest, p. 159 ISBN: 9789633130193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baross, P. (1987). Managing the Housing Queue in Hungary: the current debate on the character of socialist housing policy in Hungary. Habitat International, 11(2): 161175. https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-3975(87)90066-X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baross, P. and Struyk, R. (1993). Housing transition in Eastern Europe. Progress and problems, Cities, 10(3): 179188. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-2751(93)90028-H.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brade, I., Günter, H., and Wiest, K. (2009). Recent trends and future prospects of socio-spatial differentation in urban regions of Central and Eastern Europe: a lull before the storm? Cities, 26: 233244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2009.05.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chr, K. (2004). Gentrification in zentrumsnahen Stadtquartieren in Berlin am Beispiel der Spandauer und Rosenthaler Vorstadt in Berlin-Mitte, Workshop AK Stadtzukünfte. http://www.stadtzukuenfte.de/Abstracts_17/Krajewski.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, P. and Morsányi, L. (2001). Retailing and retail real estate development- pre and post transition with special reference to shopping centres. In: The end of socialism conference. Westminster University, London, UK, EU. http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colomb, C. (2007). Unpacking new labour's ‘Urban Renaissance’ agenda: towards a socially sustainable reurbanization of British cities? Planning, Practice and Research, 22(1): 124. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701455249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demény, P. and Shorter, F.C. (1968). Estimating Turkish Mortality, fertility, and age structure: Istanbul: application of some new technics. Istanbul University Press. https://lib.ugent.be/en/catalog/rug01:002207989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, T., Marston, A., Thompson, B., and Elder, B. (2003). eBusiness and the City of London office market. Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 21: 348365. https://doi.org/10.1108/14635780310483638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dúll, A. (1996). A helyidentitásról. Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle, 4–6: 363390, In: MTA Doctor of the Hung. Acad. of Sci. Thesis, 2017. http://real-d.mtak.hu/996/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gábor, E. (2007). Die Stadtwäldchen Allée (1800–1873) Die Baugeschichte eines Pester Villenviertels. Acta Historiae Atrium Academiae, 48(1): 34114. https://doi.org/10.1556/ahista.48.2007.1.2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gál, T. and Unger, J. (2009). Detection of ventilation paths using high-resolution roughness parameter mapping in a large urban area. Building and Environment, 44(1): 198206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.02.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Józsa, A. (2016). Színházépítészet Magyarországon - Építészeti hatások, hagyományok és térformálás a 18. századtól a modern színházépítészet elveinek megjelenéséig, Theatre architecture in Hungary: architectural impacts, traditions and space shaping from the 18th century up to the appearance of the principles of modern theatre architecture, Ph.D dissertation, p. 300. https://repozitorium.omikk.bme.hu/handle/10890/1489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kadar, B. and Vitkova, L. (2019). Sustainability options for tourism development. In: Benko, M. (Ed.), et al., Book on unexplored cultural heritage in communities by the Danube, ISBN: 9788087079638. Praha, Gasset, InterREG, p. 137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kádas, A.S. and Klafszky, E. (1976). Estimation of the parameters in the gravity model for trip distribution: a new method and solution algorithm. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 6(4): 439445. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-0462(76)90035-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krüger, A. (1997). Urban regeneration and residents’ involvement – developments in Germany over the last two decades. In: Henderson, P. (Ed.), ‘No Europe without us’ - setting the Scene: community-based responses to urban deprivation in five European countries. LSA and Combined European Bureau for Social Development, The Hague.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kutasi, D. (2016). Value components of historic residential properties: evidence from Budapest real estate market. Open House International, 41(1): 101106. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-01-2016-B0014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lepel, A. (2010). Az ipari épületek második élete és újrahasznosításuk folyamata, the second life of industrial buildings and the process of their reuse, Ph.D. dissertaion, p. 127. https://repozitorium.omikk.bme.hu/handle/10890/884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, O. (1966). The culture of poverty. Scientific American, 215(4): 1925. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24931078.

  • Locsmándi, G., Péteri, G., and Varga-Ötvös, B. (2000). Urban planning and capital investment financing in Hungary. Open Society Institute, Local Government and Public service Reform Initiative Budapest. ISBN-10 : 963003798X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mészáros, M. (2000). Real estates in chains, Faculty of Architecture BME, Bulettin, pp. 309317.

  • Mezősné Szilágyi, K. (2014). Ethical and aesthetic aspects in the renewal of historic Allées. Historic Environment: Policy and Practice, 5(1): 316. https://doi.org/10.1179/1756750513Z.00000000039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, E.S. and MacKinnon, J. (1973). Notes on the new urban economics. Bell Journal of Economics, 4(2): 593601. https://doi.org/10.2307/3003054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyitray, R. (1992). Település–közgazdaság–kultúra Településmenedzsment, Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó, Budapest, p. 180 ISBN: 963-222-441-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preisich, G. (1998). Budapest városépítésének története 1945–1990. Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest. ISBN: 9631614700.

  • Riedel, M. and Ábel, M. (2018). The preservation of the unified townscape of the colonized residential areas and the possibilities of its protection through the examples of low lewel high density residentials. Építés-Építészettudomány, 46(1–2): 175200. https://doi.org/10.1556/096.2017.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ring, K. (2014). Self-Made city Berlin: Self-initiated urban living and architectural interventions. Jovis Verlag, Berlin. ISBN: 978-3-86859-167-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Róka-Madarász, L. (2012). Measurement of operation and maintenance practices for corporate property management. Pollack Periodica, 7(3): 117126. https://doi.org/10.1556/pollack.7.2012.3.12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Róka-Madarász, L. (2021 July 7–9). Connection of IT systems under level one, IEEE 25th international conference on intelligent engineering systems. IEEE Press, New York, pp. 171176. https://doi.org/10.1109/INES52918.2021.9512923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Róka-Madarász, L. and Mályusz, L. (2013). Evaluating indicators for renewal of properties via gentrification in Budapest. Open House International, 38(2): 6675. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-02-2013-B0007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, N. (1996). The new urban frontier: gentrification and the revanchist city. Routledge, London. ISBN: 9780415132558.

  • Van Arsdol, M.D., Jr., Camilleri, S.F., and Schmid, F.C. (1958). The generality of urban social area indexes. American Sociological Review, 23: 277284. https://doi.org/10.2307/2089241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wagner P. (2012). Kőnig és Wagner építészek harmincnyolc év. Ráday könyvesház. Budapest. https://www.wagner-peter.hu/konigeswagner.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wüst, W. (2002). Fürstliche Stadtentwicklung in der frühen Neuzeit: Toleranz und Geometrie. Das Beispiel Erlangen. In: Werner, K. and Pehle, H. (Hrsg.), Wie zukunftsfähig sind Erlangen und das Modell Stadt? Blessing. FAU-Aktuell Nr. 2758vom 17.4.2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collapse
  • Expand
The author instructions are available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

 

Senior editors

Editor-in-Chief: Andrea Seidler

Editorial Board

  • Bíró, Annamária
  • Khavanova, Olga
  • de Montety, Henri
  • Áron Orbán

Nemzetközi Magyarságtudományi Társaság
Address: H-1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán u. 4. B.8.41.
Tel.: (36 1) 321 44 07, (36 1) 224 6700/4556
Web: http://hungarologia.net/

Scopus

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.101
Scimago Quartile Score

Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Social Sciences (miscellaneous) (Q4)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0.1
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Arts and Humanities 143/163 (12th PCTL)
General Social Sciences 252/262 (4th PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
0.230

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
not indexed
Journal Impact Factor not indexed
Rank by Impact Factor

not indexed

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
not indexed
5 Year
Impact Factor
not indexed
Journal Citation Indicator not indexed
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

not indexed

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,1
Scimago Quartile Score Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Social Sciences (miscellaneous) (Q4)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
0
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
General Arts and Humanities 143/158 (Q4)
General Social Sciences 259/264 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,167

2020  
Scimago
H-index
5
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,1
Scimago
Quartile Score

Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous) Q4
Social Sciences (miscellaneous) Q4

Scopus
Cite Score
4/80=0,1
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
General Arts and Humanitis 125/147 (Q4)
General Social Sciences 248/260 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,49
Scopus
Cites
19
Scopus
Documents
12
Acceptance
Rate
91%

 

Hungarian Studies
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 378 EUR / 434 USD
Print + online subscription: 420 EUR / 504 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Hungarian Studies
Language English
French
German
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1985
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
2
Founder Nemzetközi Magyarságtudományi Társaság -- International Association for Hungarian Studies
Founder's
Address
H-1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán u. 4. B.8.41.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0236-6568 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2772 (Online)