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Roland Ferenczi Oriental Collection, Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest, Hungary

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This study aims to answer the question whether the ancient Cēra kings sailed the seas and, if so, whether their technology was suitable for crossing the Indian Ocean, while it tries to summarize what we know about shipbuilding in ancient Southwest India. On the following pages, an attempt is made to introduce the most important passages of the Old Tamil Caṅkam literary sources in order to analyse their data in the light of Greek and Latin sources, and of Indian and Mediterranean inscriptions. It can be concluded that although inscriptions of Tamil traders can be found from Egypt to Thailand, and the Cēra kings built a maritime fleet for probably the first time in the history of ancient South India in order to punish their enemy, the kaṭampu tribe by sailing on the seas, their nautical contribution to the long-distance trade of the Arabian Sea as well as their engagement in coastal shipping can be classified as moderate and incidental in the antiquity.

  • Akanāṉūṟu Akanāṉūṟu eṉṉum neṭuntokai nāṉūṟu mutaṟpakuti – kaḷiṟṟiyāṉainirai (1120). Ed. by Eva Wilden. 3 vols. Pondichéry: École française d’Extrême/Institut français de Pondichéry, 2018.

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  • Akanāṉūṟu. Patippu-āciriyak-kuḻuviṉar. Ceṉṉai: Es. Rājam, 1957.

  • Cassius Dio: Roman History: Volume VI: Books 51–55. Trans. by Earnest Cary, Herbert B. Foster. [Loeb Classical Library 83.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1917.

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  • Cilappatikāram mūlamum arumpatavuraiyum aṭiyārkkunallāruraiyum. Ed by U. Vē. Cāminātaiyar. Ceṉṉai: Kapīr Accukkūṭam, 1955.

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  • Diodorus Siculus: Library of History: Volume II: Books 2.35–4.58. Trans. by C. H. Oldfather. [Loeb Classical Library 303.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935.

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  • Florus: Epitome of Roman History. Trans. by E. S. Forster. [Loeb Classical Library 231.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1929.

  • Kalittokai nacciṉārkkiṉiyār uraiyuṭaṉ. Ed. by Ci.Vai Tāmōtaram Piḷḷai. Madras: Scottish Press, 1887.

  • Kuṟuntokai: A critical edition and an annotated translation of the Kuṟuntokai. Ed. by Eva Wilden. 3 volumes. Pondichéry: École française d’Extrême/ Chennai: Tamiḻmaṇ Patippakam, 2010.

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  • Lucian in Eight Volumes: Volume VI. Ed. by A. M. Harmon. With an English translation by K. Kilburn. [Loeb Classical Library 430.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959, 429487.

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  • Manu’s code of law: A critical edition and translation of the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra. Ed. and trans. by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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  • Naṟṟiṇai. A Critical Edition and an Annotated Translation of the Naṟṟiṇai. Ed. and trans. by Eva Wilden. 3 vols. Pondichéry: École française d’Extrême / Chennai: Tamiḻmaṇ Patippakam, 2008.

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  • Paripāṭal mūlamum āciriyar parimēlaḻakariyaṟṟiya uraiyum. Ed. by U. Vē Cāminātaiyar. Ceṉṉai: Kamarṣiyal Accukkūṭam, 1918.

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  • Patiṟṟuppattu paḻaiyavuraiyum. Edited by U. Vē. Cāminātaiyar. Ceṉṉapaṭṭaṇam: Vaijay-anti Accukkūṭam, 1904.

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  • Periplus Maris Erythraei: see Casson, Lionel 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with introduction, translation and commentary by Lionel Casson. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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  • ‘Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai.’ In: Pattuppāṭṭu mūlamum uraiyum. 2 vols. Edited by Po.Vē. Cōmacuntaraṉār. Ceṉṉai: Kaḻakam, 1956.

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  • Philostratus. Apollonius of Tyana: Volume I: Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Books 1–4. Ed. and trans. by Christopher P. Jones. [Loeb Classical Library 16.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

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  • Caius Plinius Secundus: Naturalis Historia. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Lipsiae: Teubner, 1875–1906.

  • Klaudios Ptolemaios: Handbuch der Geographie (Griechisch – Deutsch). Herausg. von Alfred Stückelberger & Gerd Grasshoff. II. Teil (Buch 5–8 und Indices). Basel: Schwabe Verlag, 2017.

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  • Puṟanāṉūṟu mūlamum uraiyum. Edited by U. Vē. Cāminātaiyar. Vē.Tā. Ceṉṉai: Jūbili Accukkūṭam, 1923 (2nd edition).

  • Scher, Addai 1910: ‘Histoire Nestorienne Inédite (Chronique de Séert): Première partie (II).’ Patrologia Orientalis. Paris: Firmin-Didot. 1910: 5, 217344.

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  • Strabo: Geography: Volume I: Books 1–2. Trans. by Horace Leonard Jones. [Loeb Classical Library 49.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1917.

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  • Strabo: Geography: Volume VII: Books 15–16. Trans. by Horace Leonard Jones. [Loeb Classical Library 241.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1930.

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  • Strabo: Geography: Volume VIII: Book 17. General Index. Trans. by Horace Leonard Jones. [Loeb Classical Library 267.] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1932.

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  • The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian With an Introduction of John Masefield. [Trans. W. Marsden] London: Dent / New York: Dutton, 1908.

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  • Aruḷampalavaṉār, Paṇṭitar Cu. (1960): Patiṟṟup pattu: ārāycciyurai: paḻaiyavurai oppumaippakuti palavakai ārāyccik kuṟippukkaḷ mutaliyavaṟṟuṭaṉ. Yāḻppāṇam: A. Civāṉantanātaṉ.

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  • Casson, Lionel 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with introduction, translation and commentary by Lionel Casson. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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  • Casson, Lionel 1997. ‘Unearthing Roman Connection: Alagankulam.’ Indian Express (Madras) 10 February.

  • Chandra, Moti 1977. Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications.

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  • De Romanis, Federico 2020. The Indo-Roman Pepper Trade and the Muziris Papyrus. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Ferenczi, Roland 2016. ‘A Malabár-part kalózai az indo-római kereskedelem idején.’ Keletkutatás. 2016/1: 3961.

  • Gurukkal, Rajan 2010. Social Formations of Early South India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

  • Gurukkal, Rajan 2016. Rethinking Classical Indo-Roman Trade: Political Economy of Eastern Mediterranean Exchange Relations. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

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  • Hall, Edith 2012. Adventures with Iphigenia in Tauris: A cultural history of Euripides’ black sea tragedy. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

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  • Legge, James 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of His Travels in India and Ceylon (A. D. 399–414) in Search of the Buddhist Books of Disciple. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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  • Lehmann, Thomas & Thomas Malten 2007. A word index for Caṅkam literature. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies.

  • Mahadevan, Iravatham 2003. Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century AD. [0Harvard Oriental Series 62.] Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

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  • Malekandathil, Pius 2010. Maritime India: Trade, religion and polity in the Indian Ocean. New Delhi: Primus Books.

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2020  
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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
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