View More View Less
  • 1 International Centre for Higher Education Innovation under the auspices of UNESCO, Shenzhen, China
Open access

Abstract

Private supplementary tutoring, or shadow education, has become a global phenomenon, and China is among the countries where it is most prevalent. By 2019, China’s private tutoring industry had grown into a prominent sector providing educational services to millions of students and parents. This article examines the development process of shadow education in China, and explores the path that led to its current prevalence. Drawing on existing literature and publicly available data sources, the article maps key stages of shadow education’s evolution and its changing characteristics. The analysis suggests that China’s private tutoring industry has undergone three stages of evolution: first, the emergence stage, when small numbers of individuals started to provide tutoring on an informal basis; second, the industrialisation stage, when institutionalised providers became primary providers of more formal types of tutoring services; and third, the capitalisation stage, when major providers of shadow education evolved into part of the educational capital market. The discussion argues that the development trajectory of shadow education occurred in line with the continued marketisation of education in China. The article also addresses the implications of capitalised shadow education as it enters a more intensified and controversial phase of development.

Abstract

Private supplementary tutoring, or shadow education, has become a global phenomenon, and China is among the countries where it is most prevalent. By 2019, China’s private tutoring industry had grown into a prominent sector providing educational services to millions of students and parents. This article examines the development process of shadow education in China, and explores the path that led to its current prevalence. Drawing on existing literature and publicly available data sources, the article maps key stages of shadow education’s evolution and its changing characteristics. The analysis suggests that China’s private tutoring industry has undergone three stages of evolution: first, the emergence stage, when small numbers of individuals started to provide tutoring on an informal basis; second, the industrialisation stage, when institutionalised providers became primary providers of more formal types of tutoring services; and third, the capitalisation stage, when major providers of shadow education evolved into part of the educational capital market. The discussion argues that the development trajectory of shadow education occurred in line with the continued marketisation of education in China. The article also addresses the implications of capitalised shadow education as it enters a more intensified and controversial phase of development.

Introduction

During the first two decades of the 21st century, the reach and influence of shadow education became all the more profound across continents. Whether provided at the home of a Myanmar student, taught in a fully packed classroom of a Greek frontistirion, or live-streamed on a Korean student’s tablet computer, private supplementary tutoring is a significant part of many students’ outside-school experiences today (Feng & Bray, 2019). Along with its growing popularity, shadow education provisions have changed shapes over the years. Students and families are now facing an increasingly industrialised tutoring sector, and in many places commercial companies’ standardised services have replaced individual tutors’ informal instructions as the dominant source of provision (Kim & Jung, 2019).

In East Asia, which Manzon and Areepattamannil (2014, p. 389) described as “a cradle of private tutoring”, shadow education has long been a major phenomenon. Both high rates of participation and high levels of industrialised provision have been reported in countries such as China, Japan and South Korea (Bray, 2020; Bray & Lykins, 2012; Kim & Jung, 2019; Manzon & Areepattamannil, 2014). In these societies, industrialised supplies of shadow education have become a new normal in the 2020s, and a study about private tutoring’s developing patterns may complement the existing research literature in the field. These changes in supply have also brought challenges to the conventional conception of shadow education, which was initially used by researchers to define the types of tutoring that mimic regular schooling on academic subjects (e.g. Bray, 1999; Stevenson & Baker, 1992). In the more recent research literature, the expansion of the private tutoring industry is implicated in the expanded definitions of private supplementary tutoring and their inclusion of more diverse types of tutoring beyond the conventional “shadowing” of school education (Aurini, Davies, & Dierkes, 2013; Bray, 2017; Feng & Bray, 2019; Park, Buchmann, Choi, & Merry, 2016).

This paper explores the waves of evolution of shadow education provisions in China’s changing society. In many ways, China resembles her East Asian neighbours. They have a shared Confucian cultural foundation, attach great value to education, and are highly competitive (Sun, 2013; Yang, 2011). In other ways, however, China is distinctive. It is one of the few remaining socialist countries, but shifted to a neoliberal market economy after the 1980s (Coase & Wang, 2012; Zhang & Bray, 2017). It is a heavily populated rising power with a dynamic economy (Wu, 2019); and it is also run by an authoritarian government in a single-party political system.

These characteristics have underpinned the development of the shadow education industry in China. Since the 1980s, private supplementary tutoring has emerged, grown, and evolved along with China’s fast-growing economy and changing policies. Within 40 years, what used to be school-teachers’ after-class home tuition has grown into an industry worth billions of RMB (Chinese yuan), and equipped with artificial intelligence and block-chain applications. In this context, process of industrialisation of China’s shadow education supply is an interesting case for analysis that will benefit further understandings of the phenomenon in China and beyond.

For these purposes, this paper reviews relevant research literature and publicly available documents such as educational policies and statistics, industry reports and media coverage. The following sections begin with a brief overview of China’s social and cultural context before the 1980s. The paper then presents a trilogy of development stages of shadow education in China, from the emergence stage, the industrialisation stage, to the capitalisation stage. Finally, the paper offers a discussion on the implications of this process before suggesting areas for further empirical research.

Education and society in China before the 1980s

Although this paper focuses on the development of shadow education in China since the 1980s, some aspects of the historical and cultural context are relevant. The Confucian culture runs deep in the Chinese society, and education is one of the cornerstones of Confucianism. In China’s imperial era, the selection of candidates for the civil service was based on examinations which tested classical studies on Confucian canons (Feng, 1995; Gu, 2006). For thousands of years, education about Confucianism had been an essential social channel for individuals to become part of the higher class (Sun, 2013). In today’s Chinese society, the Confucian culture might still be found in many social and cultural aspects, and the role of education is still vital to many Chinese families (Wang, 2013).

In China’s imperial era, education, especially at the basic level, was mainly organised in the form of home schools, and wealthy families and communities hired scholars to teach at their homes or in community classrooms. In some literature (e.g. Elman, 2013), these Confucian scholars are also referred to as private tutors, but the education they provided should be distinguished from the modern definitions of private supplementary tutoring (e.g. Bray, 1999; Feng & Bray, 2019).

In 1911, the imperial era ended with the demise of the Qing Dynasty. However, a new modern state did not immediately arrive, and attempts to build a modern national education system failed as the country encountered constant civil conflicts and foreign invasion in the ensuing four decades (Sun, 2000; Walder, 2015). When Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, a modern nation-state which effectively controlled its territory was established for the first time in the 20th century (Walder, 2015).

In the Mao era, a modern education system was eventually established during the 1950s and 1960s following the Soviet model (Gu, 2004; Walder, 2015). Like many of his other ideas, Mao’s education policies were largely influenced by his radical egalitarian ideals of socialism. Especially during the Cultural Revolution, Mao pushed for a “redness” doctrine which viewed education as a device to convey Marxist-Leninist revolutionary values and focused on educating the lower class of workers and peasants (Pepper, 2000; Walder, 2015). Following this direction, less priority was given to higher education. Rather, programmes with part-work part-study schemes for the alliance of workers and peasants were prioritised, which “aimed at achieving mass literacy, providing local initiative, expanding rural educational opportunities, [and] encouraging curricular and structural innovation” (Saywell, 1980, p. 2). Mao also ordered the abolition of school entrance examinations, which had long been a key component of education in China (Andreas, 2004). The new admission system heavily stressed the candidates’ class backgrounds and political loyalties. For example, high school graduates had to work for one or two years before they could be recommended by their own work units to enter universities (Pepper, 2000, p. 384; Saywell, 1980).

During the Mao era, like most of the other private elements in China’s social-economic context, privateness in education was removed from the spectrum. Private schools and universities were taken over by the state and transformed or merged into public universities (Zheng, 2005). On and off the campus, teachers were supposed to put unreserved efforts into helping the students, and any form of fee-charging tutoring or coaching provided by the teachers would have been considered unethical (Pepper, 2000). Chinese scholars at the time criticised the role that private tutoring classes played in the Soviet Union, as these classes mainly served the reproduction desires of the privileged class (He & Wang, 1976).

After his death in 1976, Mao left complex legacies to China. In education, many gains had been derived from the executive efficiency of a modern bureaucracy, while many losses had been caused by the backfires of Mao’s radical political ideas (Walder, 2015). One example of the gains was China’s literacy progress. After four rounds of massive campaigns, the illiteracy rates for young and middle-aged peasants had decreased from 80% in 1949 to 30% in the early 1980s (Bhola, 1984). However, the education system that Mao had behind was broken. Universities were severely damaged, and schools valued practical labour over academic subjects. The growing literate population needed an efficient education system which could provide higher levels of knowledge, training and development. In response to these educational demands, a new wave of reform rose amidst the pieces of Mao’s legacies.

The emergence of shadow education

An important theme of China’s policy framework in the 1980s was its turn toward a market economy and neoliberalism led by the “reform and opening-up” policy (Hannum, Behrman, Wang, & Liu, 2008; So & Chu, 2012). In education, the new policy direction led to two important developments: the restoration of examinations in the education system, and financial reforms in basic education (Tsang, 1996; Yu & Suen, 2005).

In 1977, the restoration of China’s National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) signalled the beginning of policy reforms in education. More than 5.7 million candidates, some of whom had waited for 10 years, took the first test of the resumed NCEE; and it has been considered to be a crucial determinant of a Chinese student’s life chances since then (Feng, 1995; Postiglione, 2014). The NCEE is widely compared with a “conductor’s baton” which directs the subordinate secondary and elementary education focuses (Liu & Wu, 2006, p. 11). Following the baton of the NCEE, entrance examinations to lower and upper secondary schools were also restored. The purpose of restoring the examinations was to select qualified individuals for higher levels of schools or universities, but the examinations soon became the centre of education for many students and families. At the same time, as the government decided to abandon the egalitarian model and pursue quality education, there were changes in the schools’ financial structures. Across the country, funding and support were concentrated to small numbers of key schools (You, 2007), while many schools were left with budget cuts and lack of resources (Tsang, 1996).

Both of these contexts were conducive to shadow education’s emergence in the 1980s. The restored examination system offered a meritocratic solution to social mobility (Liu & Wu, 2006), and it fuelled the demand for private tutoring as parents wanted their children to succeed in the high-stakes examinations (Yu & Suen, 2005; Zhang & Bray, 2015). On the providing end, schools and teachers facing financial difficulties had to support themselves with alternative sources of income outside the public system, and tutoring could serve this purpose by bringing in additional fees (Tsang & Ding, 2005).

During the 1980s and 1990s, different forms of shadow education started to emerge across China. As in many post-socialist countries, underpaid teachers played a central role in the provision of tutoring classes (Kobakhidze, 2018; Silova, 2009). In Shanghai, Zhuang (1990) reported that 20% of the graduates from 10 local primary schools had received home tutoring from a teacher in order to enhance their chances to enrol in better secondary schools or to catch up with their peers. Other individuals, especially students from teachers’ colleges or normal universities and retired teachers, were also reported to have provided individual-based home tutoring (Yang, 1986; Zhuang, 1990). Various forms of home tutoring characterised the initial shape of shadow education in China. In after-school hours and at weekends, tutoring might take place at the students’ or the tutors’ homes, and could involve one or more students in each session.

More organised tutoring also emerged during this period as schools sought additional incomes from tutoring to fund their operations amid financial insufficiency (Hannum et al., 2008; Tsang & Ding, 2005). Unlike tutoring provided by individual tutors which could take place during both school days and holidays, the tutoring classes organised by schools mostly operated during school holidays (Li, 2009; Wu & Wang, 1996). Compared to individual provisions, school-organised tutoring classes were more institutionalised forms of shadow education as teachers of different subjects were mobilised and collaborated to provide fee-charging tutoring. Wu and Wang (1996) argued that the schools’ tutoring activities were inevitable because schools were under the triple-pressure to meet the performance indicators set by managerialist policies, the teachers’ needs for compensating their low salaries, and the parents’ demand for additional academic help.

These had long been vital for a Confucian heritage society, and the financial restrictions in basic education propelled teachers’ engagement in private tutoring operations. In addition, as a relatively new phenomenon, private tutoring received little policy attention at its emergence stage. Many of the teachers’ and schools’ tutoring activities crossed the boundaries of professionalism and sometimes raised ethical concerns about corruption along the same lines as in other Asian countries (Bray, Kobakhidze, & Kwo, 2020; Bray, Kobakhidze, Liu, & Zhang, 2016; Silova, 2009). These activities were not sufficiently regulated, and regulations on teachers’ professional conduct were not strictly implemented at this early stage of development.

Industrialised provision of shadow education

From the late 1990s to the new millennium, private tutoring in China moved through a fast-changing stage of industrialisation. Individual-based home tutoring or schools’ holiday tutoring classes slowly diminished, and the services provided by commercial tutoring companies outside schools became the primary form of tutoring provision.

Many factors underlay the shift. First, the under-addressed issues about mainstream teachers’ involvement in shadow education and challenges to fairness in education gradually gained policy attention, and laws and regulations were draughted to restrict tutoring provided by schools and teachers. The authorities at different levels considered the fee-paying tutoring provided by school-teachers unethical and introduced prohibitions; tutoring classes into schools were also removed when the government targeted arbitrary charges of school fees (Ministry of Education, 2015; Zhu, 1996). These policies effectively reduced the involvement of mainstream teachers and schools in shadow education. Facing the choice between maintaining their jobs and earning additional wages, most teachers chose to cease their tutoring practices, but some decided to become full-time tutors or to found commercialised tutorial centres.

Another important driver was the intensification of China’s examination culture which provided a further ground for tutoring to prevail. Between 1998 and the early 2004, China expanded university enrolments by more than 400% (Wan, 2006). The expansion of higher education was initially proposed to ease the immediate pressure of unemployment in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis, but it also gave more students the opportunity to join the race in higher education. At the same time, China’s economy began to grow rapidly, and the general Chinese families had more financial means to purchase tutoring services in the exam-driven education fever (Yu & Suen, 2005).

These elements allowed for the tutoring industry’s fast expansion in terms of both influence and economic importance. In 2004, the Urban Household Education and Employment Survey of 4,772 households indicated that 73.8% of primary school students had received tutoring lessons in both academic and non-academic subjects (Xue & Ding, 2009). By 2016, the market value of China’s private tutoring business in primary and secondary education had reached 800 billion RMB (Ma, 2016).

At this stage, the division of labour and more standardised operation procedures in tutoring companies constituted an important feature of China’s tutoring industry. Sales and operations staff in tutorial centres brought more clients to tutors than individual provision could possibly do, and revenue-driven managers pushed the tutors to design their instruction to fit the students’ needs. At the previous emergence stage, the content of instruction was mainly determined by the teachers, but in the commercialised tutorial centres, it was highly concentrated on examination preparation and test-taking techniques (Chen & Chen, 2015). Using uniform teaching materials and curricula, the tutoring courses also became more standardised in the companies, making the success in one company’s operation more repeatable in another. When the provision of tutoring became industrialised, national and regional chains of tutorial centres started to expand, overshadowing the smaller and independent ones (Ren, 2018). During this process, a few successful tutoring companies took the lead in the market, which eventually became capitalised corporations.

Capitalised tutoring corporations and beyond

The capitalisation of China’s tutoring industry mainly occurred in the new millennium, and the listed tutoring corporations in global stock markets marked this process.

In the 2000s, a few tutoring companies became successful and operated hundreds of branches. Their expansion and the exponential growth of the tutoring market attracted the attention of international investors. With hopes to profit from the financial market, venture capital and private equities introduced millions worth of capital to large tutoring companies, the leaders of which became tutoring tycoons (Li, 2012). By 2019, there were more than 20 listed Chinese tutoring companies on stock markets in Mainland China, Hong Kong and the United States (Lyu & Lyu, 2019). Although there are precedents for Japanese and South Korean tutoring companies to become listed on stock markets (e.g. Riso Kyoiku Co., Ltd., Chungdahm Learning Inc.), their connections to the market capital are mostly confined to the respective domestic market. However, in the Chinese case, the tutorial centres embraced international capitals and utilised the vast amount of investment to extend their reach even further, representing a shadow education industry that operates on a more globalised stage.

The capitalisation has brought major changes to China’s tutoring industry and transcended many boundaries of conventional tutoring. Traditionally, tutorial centres mimicked the operation and teaching of mainstream schools, and the range of courses that they could provide was limited to certain subjects or grades. Large tutorial chains could develop more inclusive tutoring services offered by multiple departments under the same company to maximise profitability. Some of the tutoring services that the tutorial chains provide today, such as arts, music, robotics and programming, have evolved beyond the scope of mainstream schooling, and the parameters of tutoring have thus become blurred (Bray, 2010).

At the stage of capitalisation, the tutoring industry has also developed beyond geographical boundaries. This is not only because more tutorial centres are cloned in different places through chained or franchised operations, but also because new technologies have created new ways of tutoring instructions. Since the early 2010s, online tutoring has been increasingly visible in China’s major tutoring companies, and the internet allows tutors from one city to communicate with students in multiple places simultaneously (Mindtime Think Tank, 2019). Further, an online-offline dual-tutors model has gained popularity in some of China’s tutoring giants (iResearch Consultancy, 2018). In this model, the online tutor mainly delivers the course through live streaming, and the offline assistant tutor helps to interact with students, answer their questions, and review their homework. These changes manifest how the tutoring industry has gradually grown larger than the “shadow” of mainstream education, while developing its own logic of operation.

At the stage of capitalisation, leading tutoring corporations have become new forces in the capital market. With the revenue generated from their key business of tutoring services, these corporations have invested in a wider range of areas connected with private tutoring, such as private schooling, textbooks, tutor training, online streaming platforms, and overseas education (Bai, Tang, Li, & Fan, 2019; New Oriental, 2019; TAL Education Group, 2020).

Returns from the various sectors can enhance the tutoring corporations’ ability to compete and to cope with market recessions (Lyu & Lyu, 2019). In 2016, different levels of governments in China started to tighten restrictions on private tutoring. Many new regulations were enacted to regulate the contents, durations, venues and qualifications in the tutoring industry (Liu, 2018). These policies have had a significant impact on the private tutoring industry, but the capitalised corporations have suffered fewer losses because of their better compliance capabilities compared to smaller centres. Similar remarks applied during the COVID-19 outbreak, when the whole tutoring industry had to suspend face-to-face classes due to social distancing orders and was forced to switch to online tutoring (China Association for Non-Government Education, 2020). In this situation, the larger tutoring corporations with financial stability and quality online platforms could better survive the health and economic crises.

Discussion and conclusion

This paper has provided an overview of the forms and trends of shadow education in China. It has demonstrated how the industry evolved from individual teachers’ after-class instructions to a multi-billion education market, with various factors contributing to these changes.

An important context for the development of the private tutoring industry in China is the heavy emphasis of education in society, and the associated examination culture. In this social and cultural context, families are willing to make private investments in their children’s education, and their engagement in private tutoring is an ongoing drive for the sector to emerge, thrive and evolve further. Much research has associated the participation in private tutoring with national examination preparations, especially in the Chinese context (Bray, 2009; Zeng, 1999). The Chinese case of the evolving private tutoring provision may provide some insights for understanding this relationship from a sociocultural perspective.

The private tutoring sector is also part of the reason for its own evolution once it becomes an influential industry operating by its own logics. To a large extent, commercialised provisions of private tutoring in China were influenced by the market force which propelled tutorial providers to upgrade their educational services as commodified products and to cultivate consumer demand for private tutoring. The marketised competitions among different tutoring companies allowed some to further capitalise their operations and become dominant actors in the private education market.

The policy context is also crucial for the development of China’s private tutoring sector. An underlying factor for the tutoring industry’s remarkable expansion has been the neoliberal reforms in China’s society and education (Hannum et al., 2008). These reforms contributed to the fast growth in the economic domains, but they also resulted in inequities among the teachers and school systems in mainstream education (You, 2007). The development of shadow education was not isolated from these essential contexts as the industry could profit from both the economic growth and educational inequities.

From the individual-based tutoring classes to the capitalised tutoring corporations, the evolution of China’s private tutoring has shifted the sector from a non-formal, almost non-visibleeducation phenomenon to a huge profit-driven business. When tutoring becomes more specialised and standardised, and when industrialised supplies meet Chinese parents’ diverse demands in an increasingly competitive society, tutoring becomes an important way through which families purchase the positional goods of quality education for their children’s better life opportunities (Liu & Bray, 2020; Wang, 2018).

Many of the challenges from shadow education that China has faced at different stages may be found elsewhere. In different settings, researchers have addressed how underpaid school teachers have provided tutoring to their own students (Bray et al., 2020; Brehm & Silova, 2014), how private tutoring became increasingly industrialised (Mori & Baker, 2010), and how the growing phenomenon might contribute to social inequality (Entrich, 2018). Therefore, a better understanding of the Chinese case may provide a useful reference to research about the issues elsewhere.

At the same time, China’s policy makers might benefit from other countries’ experiences in managing private tutoring. In recent years, China primarily relied on restrictive policies to regulate the tutoring industry with aims to ease students’ heavy study burden and promote educational equality (Liu, 2018). In other countries, a possible policy option besides this restrictive approach is for governments to work with the private sector and provide subsidised forms of tutoring as an alternative to the families’ expenditure (e.g. Dawson, 2010; Entrich & Lauterbach, 2019; Lubienski & Lee, 2013; Mori, 2013; Yamato & Zhang, 2017).

In conclusion, private supplementary tutoring has become a major component of Chinese students’ educational experiences, and its changing forms require further research effort and policy response. This study has unfolded the pathways of China’s private tutoring industry and discussed characteristics of its development at different stages. Future empirical and policy research could benefit from this review and extend the discussion particularly on the recent phenomenon of capitalisation.

References

  • Andreas, J. (2004). Leveling the little pagoda: The impact of college examinations, and their elimination, on rural education in China. Comparative Education Review, 48(1), 147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aurini, J., Davies, S., & Dierkes, J. (Eds.). (2013). Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bai, Y., Tang, X., Li, X., & Fan, S. (2019). Explorations in teaching research by a tutoring institution in China. ECNU Review of Education, 2(1), 8794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhola, H. S. (1984). The anti-illiteracy campaigns in the People’s Republic of China: from the 1950s to the 1980s. In H. S. Bhola (Ed.). Campaigning for literacy: Eight national experiences of the twentieth century, with a memorandum to decision-makers (pp. 7390). Paris: UNESCO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring?. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2010). Blurring boundaries: The growing visibility, evolving forms and complex implications of private supplementary tutoring. Orbis Scholae, 4(2), 6172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2017). Schooling and its supplements: Changing global patterns and implications for comparative education. Comparative Education Review, 61(3), 469491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2020). Shadow education: Scale, drivers, and future directions in the global spread of private supplementary tutoring Humanist futures of learning: Perspectives from UNESCO chairs and UNITWIN networks (pp. 100104). Paris: UNESCO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M., Kobakhidze, M. N., & Kwo, O. (2020). Shadow education in Myanmar: Private supplementary tutoring and its policy implications. Paris & Hong Kong: UNESCO & Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M., Kobakhidze, M. N., Liu, J., & Zhang, W. (2016). The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia. International Journal of Educational Development, 49, 291299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M., & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), The University of Hong Kong.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brehm, W. C., & Silova, I. (2014). Hidden privatization of public education in Cambodia: Equity implications of private tutoring. Journal for Educational Research Online, 6(1), 94116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C., & Chen, Y. (2015). 中小学生课外学习的应试性特点与问题. [The exam-driven nature and problem of school students’ extracurricular learning.]. 教育研究与实验. [Educational Research and Experiment.], (5), 4348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China Association for Non-Government Education (2020). 疫情期间培训教育行业状况调研报告. [Research report on the private training education industry during the epidemic.]. Beijing: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coase, R., & Wang, N. (2012). How China became capitalist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • iResearch Consultancy (2018). 中国K12双师课堂研究报告. [Resaerch report on China’s dual-tutor classrooms.]. Retrieved from https://www.iresearch.com.cn/Detail/report?id=3322&isfree=0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, W. (2010). Private tutoring and mass schooling in East Asia: Reflections of inequality in Japan, South Korea and Cambodia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11, 1424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elman, B. A. (2013). Civil examinations and meritocracy in late imperial China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

  • Entrich, S. R. (2018). Shadow education and social inequalities in Japan. Evolving patterns and conceptual implications. Heidelberg: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Entrich, S. R., & Lauterbach, W.(2019). Shadow education in Germany: Compensatory or status attainment strategy? Findings from the German LifE study. International Journal of Research on Extended Education, 7(2), 143159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, Y. (1995). From the imperial examination to the national college entrance examination: The dynamics of political centralism in China’s educational enterprise. Journal of Contemporary China, 4(8), 2856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, S., & Bray, M. (2019). Outside-school-time activities and shadow education. In L. E. Suter, E. Smith, & B. D. Denman (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of comparative studies in education (pp. 359373). London: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, M. (2004). 论苏联教育理论对中国教育的影响. [Influence of Soviet Union’s Educational theory on Chinese education.]. Journal of Beijing Normal University(Social Science Edition), (1), 513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, M. (2006). An analysis of the impact of traditional Chinese culture on Chinese education. Frontiers of Education in China, 1(2), 169-190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hannum, E., Behrman, J., Wang, M., & Liu, J. (2008). Education in the reform era. In L. Brandt & T. G. Rawski (Eds.), China’s great economic transformation (pp. 215249). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, M., & Wang, N. (1976). 发达”的“望子成龙”术. [The “advanced” method for “success in the next generation”.]. 吉林师范大学学报. [Journal of Jilin Normal University.], (1), 8586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y. C., & Jung, J.-H. (2019). Shadow education as worldwide curriculum studies. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Kobakhidze, M. N. (2018). Teachers as tutors: Shadow education market dynamics in Georgia. Dordrecht: Springer, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), The University of Hong Kong.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y. (2009). 辽宁省中学非正常补课行为的调查与分析. [Survey and analysis on secondary informal summer tutoring programme in Liaoning province.]. 现代教育管理. [Modern Education Management.] , (11), 2224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, W. (2012). 中国民营培训教育的三大趋势. [Three trends of private training education in China.]. 中国经贸导刊. [China Economic & Trade Herald.], (16), 3839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J. (2018). Review of regulatory policies on private supplementary tutoring in China. ECNU Review of Education, 1(3), 143153.

  • Liu, J., & Bray, M. (2020). Evolving micro-level processes of demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications at primary and lower secondary levels in China. Educational Studies, 46(2), 170187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, H., & Wu, Q. (2006). Consequences of college entrance exams in China and the reform challenges. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 3(1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lubienski, C., & Lee, J. (2013). Making markets: Policy construction of supplementary education in the United sates and Korea. In J. Aurini, S. Davies, & J. Dierkes (Eds.), Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education (pp. 223244). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyu, J., & Lyu, Q. (2019, January 11). 监管升级促行业出清 教育企业资本化路径日渐清晰. [Regulatory upgrades prompt industry clearance: The path to capitalization of education companies is becoming clearer.]. China Business News , p. A08.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, H. (2016). 今年中国中小学辅导机构市场规模超8000亿元. [Market for primary and secondary tutoring reached 800 billion yuan this year.]. Retrieved from http://edu.qq.com/a/20161228/022425.htm.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manzon, M., & Areepattamannil, S. (2014). Shadow educations: Mapping the global discourse. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 389402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mindtime Think Tank (2019). 2017–2018 培训教育年鉴. [2017–2018 Training education data yearbook.]. Changchun: The Time Literature and Art Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Education (2015). 严禁中小学校和在职中小学教师有偿补课的规定. [Regulations on prohibiting primary and secondary schools and teachers to provide paid tutoring.]. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A10/s7002/201507/t20150706_192618.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mori, I. (2013). Supplementary education in the United States: Policy, context, characteristics, and challenges. In J. Aurini, S. Davies, & J. Dierkes (Eds.), Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education (pp. 191207). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mori, I., & Baker, D. (2010). The origin of universal shadow education: What the supplemental education phenomenon tells us about the postmodern institution of education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 3648.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • New Oriental. (2019). Corporate profile. Retrieved from http://investor.neworiental.org/corporate-profile.

  • Park, H., Buchmann, C., Choi, J., & Merry, J. J. (2016). Learning beyond the school walls: Trends and implications. Annual Review of Sociology, 42, 231252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pepper, S. (2000). Radicalism and education reform in 20th-century China: The search for an ideal development mode. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Postiglione, G. A. (2014). China: Reforming the Gaokao. International Higher Education, (76), 1718.

  • Ren, Q. (2018). 培训机构20年班型演变史. [A 20-year history of the evolution in training institutions’ class types.]. Retrieved from https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/mxUNgfDwIq56zolYOyUHXw.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saywell, W. G. (1980). Education in China since Mao. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 10(1), 127.

  • Silova, I. (2009). Examining the scope, nature and implications of private tutoring in Central Asia. In I. Silova (Ed.), Private supplementary tutoring in Central Asia: New opportunities and burdens (pp. 6992). Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • So, A. Y., & Chu, Y.-w. (2012). The transition from neoliberalism to state neoliberalism in China at the turn of the Twenty-First Century. In C. Kyung-Sup, B. Fine, & L. Weiss (Eds.), Developmental politics in transition: The neoliberal era and beyond. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevenson, D. L., & Baker, D. P. (1992). Shadow education and allocation in formal schooling: Transition to university in Japan. American Journal of Sociology, 97(6), 16391657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, P. (2000). 中国教育史. [History of education in China.]. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.

  • Sun, A. (2013). Confucianism as a world religion: Contested histories and contemporary realities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TAL Education Group (2020). Investor relations: Advancing education through science and technology. Retrieved from https://ir.100tal.com/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsang, M. C. (1996). Financial reform of basic education in China. Economics of Education Review, 15(4), 423444.

  • Tsang, M. C., & Ding, Y. (2005). Resource utilization and disparities in compulsory education in China. China Review, 5(1), 131.

  • Walder, A. G. (2015). China under Mao: A revolution derailed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Havard University Press.

  • Wan, Y. (2006). Expansion of Chinese higher education since 1998: Its causes and outcomes. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(1), 1932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J. (2013). Confucian heritage cultural background (chcb) as a descriptor for Chinese learners: The legitimacy. Asian Social Science, 9(10), 105113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, R. (2018). 总报告. [General Report.]. In R. Wang (Ed.), 中国教育新业态发展报告2017. [Annual report on new types of education suppliers 2017.] (pp. 128). Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press (China).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, S. (2019). China: How science made a superpower. Nature, 574(7776), 2528.

  • Wu, T., & Wang, F. (1996). 挡不住的办班潮——中小学校假期补课现象忧思录. [The unstoppable wave for organising classes——Reflections on primary and secondary schools’ holiday tutoring phenomenon.]. 中小学管理. [Journal of Primary and Secondary School Management.], (1), 3435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xue, H., & Ding, X. (2009). 中国城镇学生教育补习研究. [A Study on additional instruction for students in cities and towns in China.]. 教育研究. [Educational Research.], 30(1), 3946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamato, Y., & Zhang, W. (2017). Changing schooling, changing shadow: Shapes and functions of juku in Japan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(3), 329-343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, Q. (1986). 南京师范大学四百四十多名学生担任家庭教师. [More than 440 students of nanjing normal university participated in home tutoring.]. 江苏教育. [Jiangsu Education.] , (11), 5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, R. (2011). Educational research in confucian cultural contexts: Reflections on methodology. Comparative Education, 47(3), 395405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You, Y. (2007). A deep reflection on the “key school system” in basic education in China. Frontiers of Education in China, 2(2), 229239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, L., & Suen, H. K. (2005). Historical and contemporary exam-driven education fever in China. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 2(1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeng, K. (1999). Dragon gate, competitive examinations and their consequences. London, New York: Cassell.

  • Zhang, W., & Bray, M. (2015). Shadow education in Chongqing, China: Factors underlying demand and policy implications. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 12(1), 83106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, W., & Bray, M. (2017). Micro-neoliberalism in China: Public-private interactions at the confluence of mainstream and shadow education. Journal of Education Policy, 32(1), 6381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, G. (2005). 从接办改造到合并: 建国初期私立大学的变迁及其原因探析. [From takeover to combination: The transformation of private universities in early days of the people’s Republic of China.]. 党史研究与教学. [Party History Research & Teaching.], (5), 4853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, K. (1996, February 7th). 标本兼治切实解决中小学乱收费问题. [Solving the problem of arbitrary charges in primary and secondary schools from its bottom.] China Education Daily, (p. 1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhuang, J. (1990). 聘请家庭教师利弊析. [The pros and cons of hiring a home tutor.]. 广州教育. [Guangzhou Education.], (4), 8486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, J. (2004). Leveling the little pagoda: The impact of college examinations, and their elimination, on rural education in China. Comparative Education Review, 48(1), 147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aurini, J., Davies, S., & Dierkes, J. (Eds.). (2013). Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bai, Y., Tang, X., Li, X., & Fan, S. (2019). Explorations in teaching research by a tutoring institution in China. ECNU Review of Education, 2(1), 8794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhola, H. S. (1984). The anti-illiteracy campaigns in the People’s Republic of China: from the 1950s to the 1980s. In H. S. Bhola (Ed.). Campaigning for literacy: Eight national experiences of the twentieth century, with a memorandum to decision-makers (pp. 7390). Paris: UNESCO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring?. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2010). Blurring boundaries: The growing visibility, evolving forms and complex implications of private supplementary tutoring. Orbis Scholae, 4(2), 6172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2017). Schooling and its supplements: Changing global patterns and implications for comparative education. Comparative Education Review, 61(3), 469491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M. (2020). Shadow education: Scale, drivers, and future directions in the global spread of private supplementary tutoring Humanist futures of learning: Perspectives from UNESCO chairs and UNITWIN networks (pp. 100104). Paris: UNESCO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M., Kobakhidze, M. N., & Kwo, O. (2020). Shadow education in Myanmar: Private supplementary tutoring and its policy implications. Paris & Hong Kong: UNESCO & Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M., Kobakhidze, M. N., Liu, J., & Zhang, W. (2016). The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia. International Journal of Educational Development, 49, 291299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bray, M., & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), The University of Hong Kong.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brehm, W. C., & Silova, I. (2014). Hidden privatization of public education in Cambodia: Equity implications of private tutoring. Journal for Educational Research Online, 6(1), 94116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C., & Chen, Y. (2015). 中小学生课外学习的应试性特点与问题. [The exam-driven nature and problem of school students’ extracurricular learning.]. 教育研究与实验. [Educational Research and Experiment.], (5), 4348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China Association for Non-Government Education (2020). 疫情期间培训教育行业状况调研报告. [Research report on the private training education industry during the epidemic.]. Beijing: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coase, R., & Wang, N. (2012). How China became capitalist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • iResearch Consultancy (2018). 中国K12双师课堂研究报告. [Resaerch report on China’s dual-tutor classrooms.]. Retrieved from https://www.iresearch.com.cn/Detail/report?id=3322&isfree=0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, W. (2010). Private tutoring and mass schooling in East Asia: Reflections of inequality in Japan, South Korea and Cambodia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11, 1424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elman, B. A. (2013). Civil examinations and meritocracy in late imperial China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

  • Entrich, S. R. (2018). Shadow education and social inequalities in Japan. Evolving patterns and conceptual implications. Heidelberg: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Entrich, S. R., & Lauterbach, W.(2019). Shadow education in Germany: Compensatory or status attainment strategy? Findings from the German LifE study. International Journal of Research on Extended Education, 7(2), 143159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, Y. (1995). From the imperial examination to the national college entrance examination: The dynamics of political centralism in China’s educational enterprise. Journal of Contemporary China, 4(8), 2856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, S., & Bray, M. (2019). Outside-school-time activities and shadow education. In L. E. Suter, E. Smith, & B. D. Denman (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of comparative studies in education (pp. 359373). London: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, M. (2004). 论苏联教育理论对中国教育的影响. [Influence of Soviet Union’s Educational theory on Chinese education.]. Journal of Beijing Normal University(Social Science Edition), (1), 513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, M. (2006). An analysis of the impact of traditional Chinese culture on Chinese education. Frontiers of Education in China, 1(2), 169-190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hannum, E., Behrman, J., Wang, M., & Liu, J. (2008). Education in the reform era. In L. Brandt & T. G. Rawski (Eds.), China’s great economic transformation (pp. 215249). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, M., & Wang, N. (1976). 发达”的“望子成龙”术. [The “advanced” method for “success in the next generation”.]. 吉林师范大学学报. [Journal of Jilin Normal University.], (1), 8586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y. C., & Jung, J.-H. (2019). Shadow education as worldwide curriculum studies. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Kobakhidze, M. N. (2018). Teachers as tutors: Shadow education market dynamics in Georgia. Dordrecht: Springer, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), The University of Hong Kong.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y. (2009). 辽宁省中学非正常补课行为的调查与分析. [Survey and analysis on secondary informal summer tutoring programme in Liaoning province.]. 现代教育管理. [Modern Education Management.] , (11), 2224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, W. (2012). 中国民营培训教育的三大趋势. [Three trends of private training education in China.]. 中国经贸导刊. [China Economic & Trade Herald.], (16), 3839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J. (2018). Review of regulatory policies on private supplementary tutoring in China. ECNU Review of Education, 1(3), 143153.

  • Liu, J., & Bray, M. (2020). Evolving micro-level processes of demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications at primary and lower secondary levels in China. Educational Studies, 46(2), 170187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, H., & Wu, Q. (2006). Consequences of college entrance exams in China and the reform challenges. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 3(1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lubienski, C., & Lee, J. (2013). Making markets: Policy construction of supplementary education in the United sates and Korea. In J. Aurini, S. Davies, & J. Dierkes (Eds.), Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education (pp. 223244). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyu, J., & Lyu, Q. (2019, January 11). 监管升级促行业出清 教育企业资本化路径日渐清晰. [Regulatory upgrades prompt industry clearance: The path to capitalization of education companies is becoming clearer.]. China Business News , p. A08.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, H. (2016). 今年中国中小学辅导机构市场规模超8000亿元. [Market for primary and secondary tutoring reached 800 billion yuan this year.]. Retrieved from http://edu.qq.com/a/20161228/022425.htm.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manzon, M., & Areepattamannil, S. (2014). Shadow educations: Mapping the global discourse. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 389402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mindtime Think Tank (2019). 2017–2018 培训教育年鉴. [2017–2018 Training education data yearbook.]. Changchun: The Time Literature and Art Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Education (2015). 严禁中小学校和在职中小学教师有偿补课的规定. [Regulations on prohibiting primary and secondary schools and teachers to provide paid tutoring.]. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A10/s7002/201507/t20150706_192618.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mori, I. (2013). Supplementary education in the United States: Policy, context, characteristics, and challenges. In J. Aurini, S. Davies, & J. Dierkes (Eds.), Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education (pp. 191207). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mori, I., & Baker, D. (2010). The origin of universal shadow education: What the supplemental education phenomenon tells us about the postmodern institution of education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 3648.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • New Oriental. (2019). Corporate profile. Retrieved from http://investor.neworiental.org/corporate-profile.

  • Park, H., Buchmann, C., Choi, J., & Merry, J. J. (2016). Learning beyond the school walls: Trends and implications. Annual Review of Sociology, 42, 231252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pepper, S. (2000). Radicalism and education reform in 20th-century China: The search for an ideal development mode. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Postiglione, G. A. (2014). China: Reforming the Gaokao. International Higher Education, (76), 1718.

  • Ren, Q. (2018). 培训机构20年班型演变史. [A 20-year history of the evolution in training institutions’ class types.]. Retrieved from https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/mxUNgfDwIq56zolYOyUHXw.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saywell, W. G. (1980). Education in China since Mao. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 10(1), 127.

  • Silova, I. (2009). Examining the scope, nature and implications of private tutoring in Central Asia. In I. Silova (Ed.), Private supplementary tutoring in Central Asia: New opportunities and burdens (pp. 6992). Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • So, A. Y., & Chu, Y.-w. (2012). The transition from neoliberalism to state neoliberalism in China at the turn of the Twenty-First Century. In C. Kyung-Sup, B. Fine, & L. Weiss (Eds.), Developmental politics in transition: The neoliberal era and beyond. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevenson, D. L., & Baker, D. P. (1992). Shadow education and allocation in formal schooling: Transition to university in Japan. American Journal of Sociology, 97(6), 16391657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, P. (2000). 中国教育史. [History of education in China.]. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.

  • Sun, A. (2013). Confucianism as a world religion: Contested histories and contemporary realities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TAL Education Group (2020). Investor relations: Advancing education through science and technology. Retrieved from https://ir.100tal.com/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsang, M. C. (1996). Financial reform of basic education in China. Economics of Education Review, 15(4), 423444.

  • Tsang, M. C., & Ding, Y. (2005). Resource utilization and disparities in compulsory education in China. China Review, 5(1), 131.

  • Walder, A. G. (2015). China under Mao: A revolution derailed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Havard University Press.

  • Wan, Y. (2006). Expansion of Chinese higher education since 1998: Its causes and outcomes. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(1), 1932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J. (2013). Confucian heritage cultural background (chcb) as a descriptor for Chinese learners: The legitimacy. Asian Social Science, 9(10), 105113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, R. (2018). 总报告. [General Report.]. In R. Wang (Ed.), 中国教育新业态发展报告2017. [Annual report on new types of education suppliers 2017.] (pp. 128). Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press (China).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, S. (2019). China: How science made a superpower. Nature, 574(7776), 2528.

  • Wu, T., & Wang, F. (1996). 挡不住的办班潮——中小学校假期补课现象忧思录. [The unstoppable wave for organising classes——Reflections on primary and secondary schools’ holiday tutoring phenomenon.]. 中小学管理. [Journal of Primary and Secondary School Management.], (1), 3435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xue, H., & Ding, X. (2009). 中国城镇学生教育补习研究. [A Study on additional instruction for students in cities and towns in China.]. 教育研究. [Educational Research.], 30(1), 3946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamato, Y., & Zhang, W. (2017). Changing schooling, changing shadow: Shapes and functions of juku in Japan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(3), 329-343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, Q. (1986). 南京师范大学四百四十多名学生担任家庭教师. [More than 440 students of nanjing normal university participated in home tutoring.]. 江苏教育. [Jiangsu Education.] , (11), 5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, R. (2011). Educational research in confucian cultural contexts: Reflections on methodology. Comparative Education, 47(3), 395405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You, Y. (2007). A deep reflection on the “key school system” in basic education in China. Frontiers of Education in China, 2(2), 229239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, L., & Suen, H. K. (2005). Historical and contemporary exam-driven education fever in China. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 2(1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeng, K. (1999). Dragon gate, competitive examinations and their consequences. London, New York: Cassell.

  • Zhang, W., & Bray, M. (2015). Shadow education in Chongqing, China: Factors underlying demand and policy implications. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 12(1), 83106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, W., & Bray, M. (2017). Micro-neoliberalism in China: Public-private interactions at the confluence of mainstream and shadow education. Journal of Education Policy, 32(1), 6381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, G. (2005). 从接办改造到合并: 建国初期私立大学的变迁及其原因探析. [From takeover to combination: The transformation of private universities in early days of the people’s Republic of China.]. 党史研究与教学. [Party History Research & Teaching.], (5), 4853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, K. (1996, February 7th). 标本兼治切实解决中小学乱收费问题. [Solving the problem of arbitrary charges in primary and secondary schools from its bottom.] China Education Daily, (p. 1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhuang, J. (1990). 聘请家庭教师利弊析. [The pros and cons of hiring a home tutor.]. 广州教育. [Guangzhou Education.], (4), 8486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
The author instruction is available in PDF. Please download the file from HERE
 
The Submissions template is available in MS Word.
Please, download the file from HERE
Please, download the file from HERE (For book reviews).

 

 

Senior Editors

Founding Editor: Tamás Kozma (Debrecen University)

Editor-in-ChiefAnikó Fehérvári (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Assistant Editor: Eszter Bükki (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Associate editors: 
Karolina Eszter Kovács (Debrecen University)
Valéria Markos (Debrecen University)
Zsolt Kristóf (Debrecen University)

 

Editorial Board

  • Tamas Bereczkei (University of Pécs)
  • Mark Bray (University of Hong Kong)
  • John Brennan (London School of Economics)
  • Carmel Cefai (University of Malta)
  • Laszlo Csernoch (University of Debrecen)
  • Katalin R Forray (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Zsolt Demetrovics (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Csaba Jancsak (University of Szeged)
  • Gabor Halasz (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Stephen Heyneman (Vanderbilt University, Nashville)
  • Katalin Keri (University of Pecs)
  • Marek Kwiek (Poznan University)
  • Joanna Madalinska-Michalak (University of Warszawa)
  • John Morgan (Cardiff University)
  • Roberto Moscati (University of Milan-Bicocca)
  • Guy Neave (Twente University, Enschede)
  • Andrea Ohidy (University of Freiburg)
  • Bela Pukanszky (University of Szeged)
  • Gabriella Pusztai (University of Debrecen)
  • Peter Toth (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Juergen Schriewer (Humboldt University, Berlin)
  • Ulrich Teichler (University of Kassel)
  • Voldemar Tomusk (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallin)
  • Horst Weishaupt (DIPF German Institute for International Educational Research, Frankfurt a.M)
  • Pavel Zgaga (University of Ljubljana)

 

Address of editorial office

Dr. Anikó Fehérvári
Institute of Education, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: 23-27. Kazinczy út 1075 Budapest, Hungary
E-mail: herj@ppk.elte.hu

2020  
CrossRef Documents 36
WoS Cites 10
Wos H-index 3
Days from submission to acceptance 127
Days from acceptance to publication 142
Acceptance Rate 53%

2019  
WoS
Cites
22
CrossRef
Documents
48

 

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge none
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency  
Further Discounts Gold Open Access
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2011
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 11
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Nevelés- és Oktatáskutatók Egyesülete – Hungarian Educational Research Association
Founder's
Address
H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary Pf 17
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2064-2199 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Apr 2021 0 0 0
May 2021 0 0 0
Jun 2021 0 0 0
Jul 2021 0 76 67
Aug 2021 0 141 151
Sep 2021 0 103 118
Oct 2021 0 0 0