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László Kojanitz Office of Education, Hungary

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Abstract

In 2005 the Hungarian school-leaving examination system underwent a significant transformation. In case of history the aim was to give a greater role to the development of students' knowledge acquisition and source analysis skills by more focusing on students' work with historical sources in classes. However, it was clear that the achievement of these goals would also depend on the new exam tasks. Those determine whether the reform will be able to get real change. So I carefully examined those tasks of the past fifteen years exams that contained primary sources. I wanted to give an accurate picture of which types of tasks were most frequent and how they could be assessed in terms of the original objectives of the reform and the competency requirements of the school leaving examination. Based on the conclusions drawn from the results of the investigation, I formulate proposals for changing the composition of the exam tasks and preparing for writing the tasks.

Abstract

In 2005 the Hungarian school-leaving examination system underwent a significant transformation. In case of history the aim was to give a greater role to the development of students' knowledge acquisition and source analysis skills by more focusing on students' work with historical sources in classes. However, it was clear that the achievement of these goals would also depend on the new exam tasks. Those determine whether the reform will be able to get real change. So I carefully examined those tasks of the past fifteen years exams that contained primary sources. I wanted to give an accurate picture of which types of tasks were most frequent and how they could be assessed in terms of the original objectives of the reform and the competency requirements of the school leaving examination. Based on the conclusions drawn from the results of the investigation, I formulate proposals for changing the composition of the exam tasks and preparing for writing the tasks.

The 2005 examination reform

The reform aimed to focus on the development of competences, to create standardisation, to increase students' choices and to harmonise the requirements for admission to higher education and secondary school (Horváth-Lukács, 2005). The introduction of the new two-level examination system also brought significant changes in the case of history, especially with regard to the competence requirements. “It is hoped that this focus on competences will not only bring results in terms of developing students' skills, but will also contribute to moving beyond the oversimplifying view of history that is fundamental to current practice” (F. Dárdai Ágnes & Kaposi, 2008, 173–174).

Similar to other subjects, students now have a choice of two different exam levels. The easier, intermediate level exam can be taken by everyone at their school. The more difficult, advanced level exams take place in centrally designated secondary schools under the supervision and assessment of teachers from other schools. This is necessary because the marks obtained in the advanced level exams are also taken into account for admission to higher education institutions. Previously, universities of humanities, law or economics selected their students on an other history entrance exam, ignoring the results of the secondary school leaving exam. For the written exams, all universities used the same set of centrally prepared tasks, but the oral exams were conducted according to their own requirements and rules. This has been replaced since 2005 by the advanced level school leaving exam.

Another significant novelty of the reform was the introduction of the written exam. Previously, the school leaving exam was only an oral exam. Pupils had to present a World or a Hungarian historical period in an 8–10 min answer, depending on what they had drawn from the 20–30 topics given in advance by their teacher. Pupils developed and learned their answers to all the required topics by repeating what they had learned over the four years, and this was presented in the exam to their teacher and the exam committee. From 2005 onwards, however, students had to complete a centrally prepared two parts written test at both intermediate and advanced level. The first part consisting of 12 short-answer questions and the second part consisting of three essay questions. For the essay questions, students can choose themselves which three of the offered World and Hungarian history topics they will work on. Students had a total of 180 min to complete the tasks. The advanced level worksheet also consists of two parts. There are 12 short-answer questions (90 min) and four essays (150 min). At advanced level an oral exam is also required.

It is important to note that there were serious concerns before the introduction of the intermediate level written exam. On the one hand, many were afraid of the risk of mass failure, and on the other hand, that in order to strive for comparability, the writers would avoid taking risks and the tasks would either be too simple or would require easy-to-question lexical knowledge (F. Dárdai Ágnes & Kaposi, 2008).

In 2017, based on the evaluation of previous experience, changes were made in the requirements of each subject and in the rules for compiling and conducting tasks. In the case of history, the competency requirements have been slightly modified and the thematic scope narrowed by 15%. As one of the 12 short-answer tasks, a so-called complex test task was introduced, which aims to enable the candidate to carry out a more complex, multi-competence source analysis on a given topic using several sources at once. The number of essay questions has been reduced to two at intermediate level and three at advanced level.

Due to introducing of a new national curriculum, the content and competency requirements for the history school leaving exam will be changed again from 2024. Importantly for our study, students will still be required to use primary sources and draw conclusions from them. And the means and delivery of the written and oral examinations will remain essentially unchanged.

Requirements for the use of primary sources

The history school leaving exam requirements including those on the use of primary sources was introduced in 2005. The 1997 Government Decree (Government Decree 100/1997), which contains the general requirements, states that one of the general aims of history exam is to measure students' “ability to examine and analyse historical sources, whether original or later, and to realistically imagine the life of people of the past”. The skills requirements include a specific section on the use of primary sources and the evaluation of source material (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1.

The skills requirements of leaving exam introduced in 2005

Use of primary sources
Intermediate levelAdvanced level
Presentation of knowledge drawn from historical sources.Reconstructing the intentions behind political positions and actions through contemporary works, newspaper articles, memoirs, speeches and speeches and diaries.
Drawing conclusions based on material or written sources.
Making claims about the social and political conditions of the time based on legal documents (laws, charters, etc.).Demonstration of how the author's personal situation (e.g. emotions, values, interests) is reflected in the source.
Gathering and comparing information from different types of sources.Analysis of international treaties, peace agreements, federal agreements, the statutes of international organizations in terms of contemporary power struggles and international power relations.
Interpreting photos, cartoons, and other image sources.Analysis of party documents, programs, minutes, reports.
Table 2.

The skills requirements of leaving exam introduced in 2005

Evaluation of the sources
Intermediate levelAdvanced level
A comparison of the available resources according to which is the most appropriate to solve the problem under study.Evaluation of available source material for credibility and usability.
Describe what questions the available historical resource can help answer.Sensitivity to detail when processing and analysing sources.

The detailed examination requirement issued in 2002 (Educational Department Decree 40/2002) contained even more detailed tasks related to the use of resources.

Since 2005, two sets of written assignments have been completed each year for both the intermediate and advanced exams, one for the May and the other for the October exams. An exception to this was 2006, when a third set of assignments was prepared for the February exam. The task sets of previous years and the solution keys for them can be viewed and downloaded from the website of the Office of Education.1 These are used willingly and frequently by teachers and students alike to prepare for the school-leaving examination. However, the previous sets of exam questions have also had a continuing impact on the practice of history teaching. Teachers naturally devote more time to developing the knowledge and skills that are regularly included in the examination tasks. From this point of view, the types of questions that have been included in the written examination for primary sources over the last seventeen years have not been indifferent.

Types of questions and tasks

For the analysis of the primary source tasks, I have prepared a levelled assessment grid. I distinguished five levels of questions and tasks according to the depth and complexity of analysis and evaluation of the sources required to solve them, ranging from knowledge-testing tasks, through understanding the content of the sources, to examination of the value of the sources.

The first level consists of questions that do not require any source analysis, but are essentially designed to test students' subject knowledge on the topic to which the source in the task relates. Such questions do not require a study of the sources and the sources do not help to answer them. Questions on such specific names, events, dates and concepts may be needed in the exam papers for the school leaving exams. It is also acceptable to link these kind of questions to primary sources. This would provide some historical context for questions which are not very interesting in themselves and help to recall the period in history.

To answer the questions in the second level, it is sufficient to read the source passage and to observe what you see in the visual and material sources. Such tasks require the pupils to find and understand relevant information in the source texts, often in a different language from today's, which is a prerequisite for drawing any further correct conclusions. These tasks therefore test skills that are important for working with sources, but do not require the application of historical knowledge.

For the third level, the questions require some kind of link between the content of the source and the historical knowledge on the topic. In the case of the school leaving exam tasks, this usually means that students have to guess who or what the source passage is about, or, as in a puzzle, fill in the blanks. Tasks at this level also include those in which students have to correctly interpret and explain references in the text or pictorial representation, or when they have to provide further details about events evoked by the source.

At the fourth level, I have included questions and exercises that ask students to draw some sort of conclusion on the basis of what they have read in the sources or seen in the source. These inferences may relate to the events presented in the source, the author of the source or the way in which the events are presented. The point is that students need to reflect on and interpret what they find in the source independently in order to complete the task. Only from this level onwards can we talk about real source analysis (Havekes, Aardema, & de Vries, 2010).

At the top fifth level, the tasks that test critical attitudes and skills in relation to sources have been placed. In addition to the content of the sources, students must also consider the purpose and the circumstances in which the sources were generated in order to assess their credibility and reliability (Lévesque, 2008; VanSledright, 2011; Wineburg & Fournier, 1994, Wineburg, 2001). In the case of the relevance of the source, it is also necessary to compare it with the historical question to be answered. Such tasks require that students treat sources primarily not as sources of knowledge but as possible evidence for inferences about the past VanSledright (2013).

Examination of the tasks with primary sources

The task analysis I presented covered short-answer task sets for intermediate and advanced level from 2005 to 2007 and from 2018 to 2021.2 Within these, only those tasks were included that contained textual or other primary sources (picture, cartoon, photograph, building, object) from a the period.

The aim of the task analysis was to explore and document factually the type of knowledge and skills that the written tasks of the school-leaving examination most demanded from students in the use of primary sources. What proportion of questions and tasks of different quality levels were included in the tasks? How consistent was this with the objectives and requirements of the 2005 reform?

Before starting the analysis, I have grouped the general and detailed competency requirements set out in the 2005 School Leaving Exam Regulations into five broad types, as well as the types of tasks used in teaching practice (Table 3). In the analysis I classified the subtasks according to these types. The sub-tasks are often very different in nature, in many cases involving knowledge-testing, text comprehension and application of knowledge tasks for the same source. I have therefore never classified the whole task as a whole, but the subtasks separately into each type.

Table 3.

Types of graduation requirements and tasks related to the use of resources

1. Knowledge test questions and tasks (Knowledge)
Questions on knowledge (e.g. names, years, events) which, although they touch on a topic that appears in the primary source, are not directly related to the source.
2. Questions and tasks to test reading comprehension skills (Reading comprehension)
Sensitivity to detail in the processing and analysis of sources.
Ability to answer simple questions about the content of the source.
Ability to describe visual sources.
Ability to group pictorial sources according to major historical periods and styles.
  1. a)Questions to understand the content of the text or the pictures.
  2. b)Link-finding tasks, which require learners to link different primary sources to each other or to descriptions of them using information from the sources.
  3. c)Recognition and identification of stylistic features of buildings and works of art.
3. Questions and tasks to check the application of historical knowledge (Application of knowledge)
Ability to interpret the main textual sources of Hungarian and World history.
Ability to use sources to explain the role of historical figures in the development of events.
Ability to define historical concepts from sources.
Ability to identify elements of content, genre, language and historical background when analysing and interpreting sources.
  1. a)Identification tasks, where the author or title of a text or image source needs to be determined.
  2. b)Recognition tasks, where you have to identify the event, person, concept, social group, period, place, building, historical situation, etc., that a source passage describes or depicts, or determine when, where and under what circumstances it was produced. Recognise what religious, philosophical, political, economic, cultural or historical views it reflects. Collect from the source a typical example of some historical phenomenon, view or other characteristic of the period.
  3. c)Explanatory tasks, where you have to explain concepts or references to persons, events and circumstances in the source. Fill in details of content omitted from the source (e.g. persons, countries, concepts).
  4. d)Other questions and tasks which relate directly to the content of the source and which require historical knowledge for a correct interpretation of the source.
4. Questions and tasks to test the ability to draw conclusions independently (Conclusions)
Presentation of knowledge drawn from historical sources.
Formulation of conclusions based on material or written memories.
Formulation of statements about contemporary social and political conditions based on legal documents (laws, diplomas, etc.).
Comparison of information collected from different types of sources.
Interpret photos, cartoons, and other image sources.
Reconstructing the intentions behind political positions and actions through contemporary works, newspaper articles, memoirs, speeches, and diaries.
Demonstration of how the author's personal situation is reflected in the source being examined (e.g. emotions, values, interests).
International treaties, peace treaties, federal agreements, analysis of the statutes of international organizations, contemporary power struggles, international power relations, etc. in terms of.
Party documents, analysis of programs, minutes, reports.
Ability to draw simple conclusions based on the source according to the given criteria.
Ability to reconstruct and present the intentions behind positions and actions using contemporary sources (e.g. newspaper articles, memoirs, speeches, diaries).
Ability to use a given source to recognize that in difficult historical situations, people's views, decisions, and actions are influenced by their life situation.
Ability to show how the author is personal in the source being examined situation.
Ability to determine the content and form between two historical sources with the same subject matter differences and be able to make simple assumptions about the reason for the difference (s) between the two sources.
  1. a)Questions and tasks that require conclusions about the persons or events described or depicted in the source (eg, causes, consequences, changes).
  2. b)Questions and tasks regarding the identity, views and purposes of the author of the resource.
  3. c)Questions and tasks about how the author related to the events, people, or views he or she presents.
  4. d)Questions and tasks requiring conclusions based on a comparison of sources.
  5. e)Questions and tasks that require inference about some feature of the historical context.
5. Questions and tasks for checking the abilities to assess resource value (Source criticism)
Describe what questions the available historical resource can help answer.
Evaluation of available source material for credibility and usability.
Ability to gather information from sources based on given criteria, and be able to compare the information with your own previous knowledge, formulate and justify any differences.
Ability to compare the content of secondary and primary sources, to identify similarities and differences.
Ability to explain, from given sources, how they reflect the perception of the person or event presented.
  1. a)Comparing the content of the source with what we currently know about the people and events it describes.
  2. b)Assess the value of the source in terms of relevance.
  3. c)Assess the source value in terms of credibility and reliability.
  4. d)Use of the source as evidence or refutation.

Results of the study

The study found that a large number of the short-answer tasks in each year included some primary sources (Figs 1 and 2). In the first years, there seems to be some uncertainty as to how many of these tasks should be included in a set. However, after the changes in 2017, there is a clear decision to make primary sources a dominant feature of the examination papers at intermediate and advanced level. From then on, all but one or two tasks will include textual or visual sources from the period, in many cases more and several types at the same time.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The number of tasks with primary resources intermediate level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The number of tasks with primary resources advanced level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

Such a large and regular presence of primary sources in the written examination can be appreciated, as it has had a lasting positive impact on the practice of history teaching. The textbooks and school leaving exam exercise books that have been produced in the meantime are full of longer and shorter excerpts from sources, as well as illustrations and photographs from the period. It can also be said that these were no longer just used to illustrate the textbook texts, but were also accompanied by a wide range of questions. More important than the quantity of sources, however, is the conditions they provide for in-depth questioning: e.g. whether they can be compared with each other and whether they contain sufficient information about the context in which they were produced.

If we look at the results in terms of task types, the picture is not so positive. The proportions of the different types of tasks in each series have varied from year to year (Figs 3 and 4). In the case of intermediate level, there were some written tests where one third of the tasks related to sources were knowledge test questions in which the source was only an illustration and a reminder for the solution of the task. In another year there were hardly any such tasks. The same fluctuation was observed for text comprehension tasks and knowledge application tasks. This suggests that the work of the task writers was quite haphazard in this respect. It is likely that there were no well-defined and explicit expectations for these types of tasks.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The number of different tasks intermediate level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The number of different tasks advanced level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

Unfortunately, the picture is more consistent for conclusion and source criticism tasks. Such tasks were hardly ever found in the intermediate level examination papers. Of the fourteen sets analysed, five did not contain any questions of these types and only two contained questions requiring source criticism. There was some improvement after 2017 for conclusion tasks, but not for source criticism tasks.

The situation is not much better at the advanced level. Here, too, the proportion of questions of the first three types varies widely across the tests. It is interesting to note that the number of knowledge-testing questions was lower for the first time after 2017, but increased again in 2020 and 2021. There is, however, an awareness of the increasing dominance of knowledge-application tasks in the higher level tasks. Surprisingly, conclusion and critical tasks were also very rare in the higher level final exam sets.

In addition to the lack of conclusion and source criticism tasks, there are two other problems that emerged from the analysis of the primary source tasks. Firstly, the vast majority of the tasks treated documents and letters from the period in the same way as passages from textbooks or quotations from historians. They were textual sources from which the students had to gather information about the past or guess which event they were about. Except for one or two cases, there were no questions that addressed specific opportunities and problems associated with the use of primary sources. The second problem is related to this. The final exam tasks provided no help in contextualizing resources, although this has a significant impact on resource use. In most cases, the task writers did not consider it important to provide clues for the author, the time, the circumstances, and reason behind the source. Often, task writers could not do this because the tasks they gave were puzzles rather than source analyzes. Both problems risk that such tasks may create or reinforce false ideas about the use of resources. For example, students are tending to see sources as mirrors of history that provide direct insight into what happened in the past, and to believe that the opinions of individuals can be generalized to an entire group (Van Nieuwenhuyse, 2016).

Have the complex test tasks used since 2017 improved the situation? It is definitely a way forward to have more and different types of sources in a task on the same topic. Such a task is much better at modeling how historians examine a set of sources, and thus the relationship between sources, evidence, and statements becomes clear. Especially when students try to find such connections themselves (Chapman, 2011). But that was not the case in the complex test tasks I examined. There were no tasks to compare sources or to organize the information from them according to some common question or aspect. Here, too, the usual knowledge, comprehension and application tasks were related to the resources separately.

If we compare the task sets of the first years of the school-leaving examination reform with those of the most recent years, we can see that the proportion of knowledge test questions in the tasks containing primary sources has decreased from 26% to 17% (Figs 5 and 6). The proportion of comprehension tasks also decreased slightly, from 44 to 37%, while the proportion of knowledge application tasks increased significantly, from 27% to 42%. However, there was no change in the conclusion and source-critical tasks. Only 4% of the tasks were conclusion and criticism in both periods, which means that these types of tasks were are not actually part of their written part of school leaving exam. Therefore, they were probably not given much attention in history teaching either, so in practice the key elements of the requirements for the use of sources were not enforced and were unlikely to have been met.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Proportion of task types 2005–2007 intermediate level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Proportion of task types - 2018–2021 intermediate level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

At the advanced level, the most striking change is that in the period after 2017, the proportion of knowledge application tasks increased significantly at the expense of knowledge and reading comprehension tasks: from 27% to 42% (Figs 7 and 8). It can also be considered a positive change that the proportion of conclusion tasks has also increased, from 3% to 11%, while source criticism tasks have completely disappeared from the advanced level question sets. Students who pass the advanced level exam are usually the most successful in learning history and are very interested in the events of the past. Many of them are preparing for some kind of career in history or history teaching. In their last two years of secondary school, they take part in special history courses. All the conditions would therefore be in place to move them to a higher level in terms of activities with resources. As we have seen, however, the development and practice of such skills were not expected of them in the school-leaving examination, and therefore did not need to play a special role in their learning. There is a lot of pressure on teachers to prepare and practice what is worthy of points in the final exam. This, in turn, has the consequence that time-consuming resource analysis tasks are used only carefully and rarely in their lessons by teachers. Even those who would otherwise consider it important and useful to practise such activities do so infrequently.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Proportion of task types - 2005–2007 advanced level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Proportion of task types - 2005–2007 advanced level

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

The new final examination requirements will take effect in 2024. It could provide an opportunity to renew activities and expectations related to primary sources. To this aim it would be an important step increasing the number of conclusion and source-critical tasks in written sets of final examination. It would have a positive impact on the teaching of history if there would be at leat two source questions that included conclusion and source criticism questions among the 12 short answer questions at intermediate level. The proportion of these types of question items could then be around 15–20%. At the advanced level, there should be at least three such tasks, and their proportion should be increased to 25–30%. The question is whether such a change will happen or not.

Preparatory exercise book

To prepare for the new final exam requirements that will take effect in two years, an exercise book with sample advanced level tasks has been developed for teachers and students.3 What changes can be inferred from the exercises of this book? To check this, I have made an analysis of the Chapter V. I have chosen the sample tasks given for learning themes of the 1914–1945 period. There were 34 tasks in this section, containing a total of 142 sub-tasks. The results of the analysis show that there has been no change in the conclusion and source criticism tasks (Fig. 9). Only 10% of the tasks were of these types. A significant change, however, is that the proportion of knowledge-testing questions is 27%. This is much higher than in the previous years' sets of advanced level final exam.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Proportion of task types - 2022 exercise book

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 13, 4; 10.1556/063.2023.00167

The essay questions

This analysis did not cover essay questions, although they always include primary sources as well. These will be discussed later in another analysis. However, it is worth noting here that the essay questions also encourage students to simply reproduce what they have learned rather than to solve problems and analyse sources. The revision guidelines on the use of sources ask only for generalisations that can be formally deduced: ‘The candidate will incorporate the information in the sources into his/her answer and draw conclusions from it.' And this has been recognised by the instructors of the exam preparation courses. An extract from a guide on an online portal: ‘At intermediate and advanced level, all essay tasks are accompanied by some resources… Very important: you must write something about each source! Whether it's text, pictures, maps, cartoons - you have to do something with it! For each source, you need to record two elements: read out some important information from the source and write it down in your own words in one - or at most two - sentences! The second element is that you have to draw some conclusion from it, adding something from your own knowledge. Don't overdo it, an analysis of a source should be 2-3 sentences max… I suggest that before writing any essay, you make an outline in which you describe these two elements, source by source. Then incorporate them into your essay’. Perhaps this is enough for now to show that the essay questions did not provide sufficient stimulus to develop real source analysis skills “Don't overdo it”.

Conclusions

The results of the study demonstrate a contradictory situation. The school leaving exam tests of recent years were full of textual and pictorial primary sources. However, most of the tasks associated with them did not require a source analysis approach and skills from the students. In many cases, the sources served only as a reminder for the usual knowledge-testing questions. Those that gave more importance to the sources were mostly reading comprehension tasks requiring retrieval. Sometimes with fairly long source texts to make it not too easy to find the right snippets of text in them. Real source analysis exercises were very rare in the tests, even at the advanced level. There were many sources in the examination papers, but the vast majority of the questions treated them as direct sources of knowledge, ignoring tasks requiring independent inference or assessment of the relevance and reliability of the sources. In this sense, therefore, the school leaving tasks could not have had a positive impact and did not provide good models for secondary school teachers to encourage new methods. It is a bad sign that the share of knowledge-testing tasks has increased, rather than the share of source analysis papers even in a new exercise book that was developed to prepare for the new school leaving examination to be introduced in 2024. This has happened and is happening despite the fact that the requirements of history examination on the use of sources would require both inferential and source criticism tasks in the written question sets.

The use of primary documents such as diaries, letters, newspaper accounts and oral interviews can deepen students' historical understanding of a particular historical situation and of the problems of exploring and interpreting the past in general. However, this requires resources and tasks that really allow them to engage with them critically and with a historical perspective. Thus, source-based examination questions should always include those that ask for an understanding of the contextualised content of the source; that require a comparison of sources; that ask for an assessment of the usefulness or reliability of a source in relation to a particular issue; and that require the exercise of judgement based on sources and one's own knowledge (Kitson, 2003).

With two years to go before the new school-leaving exams start, it would be a good idea to use this time to think about the tasks and conditions associated with writing the exam tasks. The lesson of this study is that important objectives and examination requirements can be missed if task writers do not pay enough attention to them or fail to prepare adequate tasks for their checking and assessment. In order for the tasks used in examinations not only to serve objectivity and not only to preserve existing teaching practices, but also to have a real developmental impact on the whole teaching and learning process, the professional background for task development needs to be strengthened. It should be clearly defined who can become assignment writers and under what conditions, and what internal training they must undergo, as well as how and according to what criteria the assignments produced are to be monitored and evaluated on an ongoing basis.

Acknowledgement

The author thanks prof. Ágnes F. Dárdai, who inspired this study and who has done a lot to strengthen Hungarian history didactics.

About the author

Dr. László Kojanitz is a chief advisor at the Office of Education of Hungary, and a boardmember of the Hungarian Historical Society Teacher Division. His main research interests include: history teaching, historical consciousness, exam tasks and taxonomy, school leaving examination.

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1

On the website of the Education Office: Written task sets and correction-assessment guidelines

https://www.oktatas.hu/kozneveles/erettsegi/feladatsorok.

2

I chose the sample in order to be able to compare the questionnaires from the first years of the reform with those from the most recent years. I analysed 14 intermediate and 14 advanced level tests. This meant analysing a total of 911 sub-tasks from 231 tasks.

3

Gyűjtemény a Történelem emelt szintű oktatásához 11–12. Oktatási Hivatal, 2022 (Collection for Advanced Education in History 11–12.) Office of Education, 2022.

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Senior Editors

Founding Editor: Tamás Kozma (Debrecen University)

Editor-in-ChiefAnikó Fehérvári (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Assistant Editor: Eszter Bükki (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Associate editors: 
Karolina Eszter Kovács (University of Debrecen)
Krisztina Sebestyén (Gál Ferenc University)

 

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Institute of Education, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: 23-27. Kazinczy út 1075 Budapest, Hungary
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Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
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Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Nevelés- és Oktatáskutatók Egyesülete – Hungarian Educational Research Association
Founder's
Address
H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary Pf 17
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
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ISSN 2064-2199 (Online)

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