Bradley, D. (1970). The western crisis and the attraction of Asian religions. Concilium: Theology in the Age of Renewal, 9(6), 1–4.
Sia, S. (2001). Teaching ethics in a core curriculum: Some observations. Teaching Ethics, 2(1), 69–76. doi:10.5840/tej2001213
Sia, S. (2010). Ethical contexts and theoretical issues: Essays in ethical thinking. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Sia, S. (2013). The marketplace, academia and education: A philosophical assessment of the Bologna process. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 3(1), 1–13. doi:10.14413/herj.2013.01.01
Sia, S. (2015). Society in its challenges: Philosophical considerations of living in society. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Sia, S. (2016). From vision to mission: A philosophical interpretation. DIWA, Studies in Philosophy and Theology, 41(1–2), 47–64.
Sia, M. F., & Sia, A. (2010). From question to quest: Literary-philosophical enquiries into the challenges of life. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Sia, M. F., & Sia, A. (2015). That elusive fountain of wisdom: A tale of the human quest for knowledge. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Sia, M. F., & Sia, S. (2019). From education to life: A review of its role and tasks. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
In this respect, as a consequence of these developments, there has been a shift in emphasis in university education in Europe effected by what is referred to as the Bologna Process. Intended to create the European Higher Education Area in 2010, it was launched on June 19, 1999, with the signing of the Bologna Declaration by 29 Education Ministers of Europe. Preceded by the Sorbonne Declaration of 1998, it aimed, among others, to make academic degree standards and quality assurance procedures more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. The Bologna Process continues to increase in membership. Its official website is http://www.ehea.info/.
The “Communiqué of the Conference of Ministers responsible for Higher Education: Realising the European Higher Education Area” (Berlin, 2003) reaffirms the notion that “higher education is a public good and a public responsibility.” The Bergen 2005 Communiqué stresses the “social dimension” of education: “The social dimension includes measures taken by governments to help students, especially from socially disadvantaged groups, in financial and economic aspects and to provide them with guidance and counselling services with a view to widening access.”
I have illustrated and developed this point in my articles: Sia, 2001, 2010. In that article, I argue that in our exploration of ethical cases, we need to develop our moral sense as human beings and not just as engineers or scientists.
Personal experience, rather than an a priori claim, backs this point.
This concern for the pursuit of wisdom within the context of academia is the theme of our novel, cf. Sia & Sia, 2015. See the review of this book by Abulad, R. in DIWA: Studies in Philosophy and Theology, Vol. 41, pp. 93–98.
He also states in “Theory of Human Education” that “the ultimate task of our existence is to give the fullest possible content to the concept of humanity in our own person...through the impact of actions in our lives”, a task that “can only be implemented through the links established between ourselves as individuals and the world around us.” ibid. I, p. 283.
Wilhelm von Humboldt argues that “self-education can only be continued...in the wider context of the development of the world.” ibid. VII, pp. 33. He also wrote that “the education of the individual requires his incorporation into society and involves his links with society at large.” Also, ibid. XIV, p. 155.
See Chapter 4: “Relationships and Communal Living: A View on Types of Relatedness” and Chapter 6: “Ethical Thinking and Formation: A Challenge for Life in Society” in Santiago Sia, Society in its Challenges, op. cit., pp. 65–85, 113–128.
These are stages in my methodology of teaching: evoke (gaining the interest of the students), provoke (critically reflecting on possible answers), invoke (drawing on the sources), and convoke (enabling them to think through and develop their answers) resulting in the acronym: EPIC. See Chapter 9: “On a E.P.I.C Trek: A Pedagogical Strategy for Living,” in From Education to Life, op. cit., pp. 133–140.
The issue of autonomy and pressure on students because of course assignments/examinations inevitably arises, given this emphasis on their personal development. Admittedly, there is always a tension. On the other hand, part of the educational process (and thus of the student’s personal development) is to help students to cope with pressure and to organize their work accordingly. Moreover, in the workplace, performance review is regularly carried out. What is crucial, in the light of the argumentation in this essay, is that this aspect does not become the most important consideration.
Subjects in the humanities particularly lend themselves to this task of linking the students’ concrete experiences with the academic study.
A particularly helpful and relevant book in this respect is the collection of essays by Bergan, 2011 in his aptly titled book “Not by Bread Alone.”
Cf. Chapter 7: “Images, Reality and Truth: Some Philosophical Considerations” in Society in its Challenges, op. cit., pp. 131–148.