View More View Less
  • 1 The University of Pécs, Hungary
Open access

Our general knowledge of the social situation of Roma women (traditional female roles, early drop out of the school system, early childbirth, harder getting job) is supported by many studies. Most of these are interviews to explore their life paths or research focusing on women’s roles. There is less empirical data that can be obtained from studies on the social situation of Roma women at a statistical level. This is understandable, as research on the Roma population is already facing several questions and dilemmata. In this study, we are referring to the problem of ethnic demarcation, the legal issues of freedom of identity, or opinions that impeach the representativeness of the samples of Roma focused examinations. Obviously, research data of Roma women, in addition to those mentioned above, also face the statistical obstacle that databases, in addition to the ethnic ones, do not show gender distributions. The article attempts to give an overview of the situation of Roma women, which is less analyzed by previous figures, using a measurement system that provides separate data on the status and integration of these women. This measurement system, developed under the Decade of Roma Inclusion initiative, is the Roma Integration Index.

Abstract

Our general knowledge of the social situation of Roma women (traditional female roles, early drop out of the school system, early childbirth, harder getting job) is supported by many studies. Most of these are interviews to explore their life paths or research focusing on women’s roles. There is less empirical data that can be obtained from studies on the social situation of Roma women at a statistical level. This is understandable, as research on the Roma population is already facing several questions and dilemmata. In this study, we are referring to the problem of ethnic demarcation, the legal issues of freedom of identity, or opinions that impeach the representativeness of the samples of Roma focused examinations. Obviously, research data of Roma women, in addition to those mentioned above, also face the statistical obstacle that databases, in addition to the ethnic ones, do not show gender distributions. The article attempts to give an overview of the situation of Roma women, which is less analyzed by previous figures, using a measurement system that provides separate data on the status and integration of these women. This measurement system, developed under the Decade of Roma Inclusion initiative, is the Roma Integration Index.

Introduction

We have a great deal of knowledge about the social situation of Roma women, which can be categorized as being in a more marginalized position within the already disadvantaged Roma group; the possibility of their advancement is worse than that of the Roma men; their main tasks in their traditional communities are still restricted to supplying the family and childbearing; that is one of the important reasons for them to drop out of the school system sooner than their peers; and their role according to community standards makes it difficult for them to start working. Naturally, we know different examples counter to these generalizations, different ways of life, real Roma women’s careers. Typically, the women who break out of the traditional community will soon become known, and will both play an exemplar role in their Roma community and become iconic faces of different tolerance campaigns in the media, setting a pattern for the major society.

The issue of the multiple disadvantages of Roma women is increasingly becoming a part of the public discourse: scientific conferences and political statements often highlight the topic and many NGOs are working to improve the current social situation of these women (Bernát & Páthy-Dencső, 2009). However, most of the publications on this topic are either interviews made to observe and explore life paths or research focusing on examining women’s changing – or stagnating – social roles.

Unfortunately, there is less empirical data that can be obtained from studies on the social situation of Roma women at a statistical level. This is understandable, as research on the Roma population is already facing several questions and dilemmata. In this study, we are referring to the problem of ethnic demarcation, the legal issues of freedom of identity, or opinions that impeach the representativeness of the samples of Roma focused examinations. Obviously, research data of Roma women, in addition to those mentioned above, also face the statistical obstacle that databases, in addition to the ethnic ones, do not show gender distributions.

The article attempts to give an overview of the situation of Roma women, which is less analyzed by previous figures, using a measurement system that provides separate data on the status and integration of these women. This measurement system, developed under the Decade of Roma Inclusion initiative, is the Roma Integration Index.

Roma Decade (between 2005 and 2014) was the joint commitment of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe (and Spain in addition) to strengthen the social integration of the Roma living in the region. With government projects, the Roma Decade attempted to compensate for the disadvantages of the Roma and reduce their backlog relative to the majority population. (Kurt Lewin Foundation, 2010). In order to monitor the progressing achievement of the goals, a measurement system was developed, which tried to reveal the gap with 27 indicators in the initial year and thus captured the tendencies and direction of the changes in the final year on four priority areas (education, employment, housing, and health). The great advantage of the measuring system is that by recognizing the more specific situation of Roma women, it collected the data concerning them separately (Roma Integráció Évtizede Titkárság Alapítvány, 2014).

However, this indicator system will not provide an accurate and clear picture of the status and problems of Roma women. There are several reasons for this. The first is that (as a result of nature of ethnic statistics), most of the requested data were not available in the individual states at the level of official statistics for the Roma, especially not as a separate set concerning Roma women. Therefore, indicators were collected from a wide range of sources during the reporting period (data from government agencies, sociological surveys, microsurveys, occasionally data from Roma organizations, opinions of civil actors, etc.), although these were neither comparable nor accurate at all (Roma Inclusion Index, 2015). As we will see, data are missing at many points, making it difficult to interpret processes and trends. Still, let us now try to construe the image of the situation and circumstances of Gypsy women living in Hungary using the measurement system of the Decade as a unique database.

The Situation of Roma Women in the Education System

Participation in the education system in the Hungarian Roma population at all levels indicates more or less lagging behind the indicators of the majority. And where it provides comparative data on Roma women, it shows even more exclusion.

It seems that the trend of kindergarten attendance reaches a higher percentage of Gypsy families in 2014 compared to the data presented in the 2005 survey. At least according to statistics, Roma in this indicator caught up with the major society in those 10 years. However, there is a 3% lag in 2014 that can be seen if we compare the situation of girls to their boy counterparts (Cserti Csapó, 2016a).

We do not know whether this is the effect of inaccurate data provision, or whether it already appears in the field of preschool attendance that more boys are involved in. It is also worth considering the following: can we, behind the figures, assume a real progress, or do different background factors result the unequal proportions of majority and Roma children?

For example, the data suggesting that the proportion involved in preschool education has risen from 42% to 70% among Roma children are in fact the result of a different trend, namely that among major society parents it is becoming more and more widespread to send their children to the first class at the age of 6 years (as required by law). Certainly, this may be achieved by their better interconnection system and their stronger ability to enforce advocacy. Roma parents who are less embedded in the social system are consequently less able to achieve such a status or seize such an opportunity (if this strategy appears among them at all). The big difference between the whole population and the Roma in 2005 may also be due to the fact that children from inadequate socioeconomic status were not able to bring back their lag and reach school maturity during the last preschool year, thus keeping them in higher proportion in kindergartens, worsening the statistical value. Behind the closing scissors of 2014, another factor might play a crucial role as well. By that year, it became more popular among disadvantaged Gypsy families to let their children spend not only the last compulsory year in kindergarten, thereby helping these children become mature enough to get admitted to primary school as they reached the proper age. Perhaps, the kindergarten teachers judge their school maturity more positively because these Roma children spend not just the last and compulsory year in kindergartens, therefore converting (or at least diversifying) the ethnic composition and proportions and probably causing the imaginary or real problems, conflicts. In addition, it seems clear that the closing of scissors is also caused by a decrease in the statistics of the majority. Indeed, the measuring system compares the rate of enrollment with the proper age group – in Hungary, 6 years old – and because of the former statements and data, it obviously registers a lower value.

Equal opportunities for gypsy girls at the basic level of the education system are a little bit more balanced, but compared to the average of Gypsy pupils (who had already a 16% gap in the field of finishing the primary school in 2014), girls still had 4% less success at the appropriate age. Obviously, many of them have a role as a woman after adolescence, and preparation for family life hinders the focus on learning. Even if they continue to study, they are still more likely to prefer short-term schooling and trainings that promise faster profit on the labor market. This is indicated by the third line of indicators on the completion rate of secondary education, where the Roma population is still lagging behind, and compared to this, girls still get 3% less leaving certification. There is no gender difference in the data on higher education participation; obviously, the resilience prevails here, so that those girls who get to the matriculation exam can successfully reach for a diploma. In addition, the illiteracy rate is only 1% higher among Roma females than among Roma males, but it does not show a significant lag in comparison with the Hungarian population (Table 1).

Table 1.

Indicators of education

IndicatorsABCDE
20052014Gap to the total population in 2005Gap to the total population in 2014Changing of the gap of Roma between 2005 and 2014
Total populationRoma populationRoma femalesTotal populationRoma populationRoma females
Preschool education8842md697067461−45
Primary education9996md967773319+16
Secondary education5115md6919163650+14
Tertiary education131md18111217+5
Literacymdmdmd989594md3md

Note. Sources: Columns A and B: Roma Inclusion Index, 2015; Columns C and E: own calculation; Column D: Polónyi, 2016; md: missing data.

The Situation of Roma Women in Employment

In the case of Hungary, the difference between the official employment rates of the Roma and the majority in 2005 was slightly smaller than in most of the countries in the region, but it only constituted the half of the total population. This difference also decreased by 2014, but we can still not talk about equal opportunities in the world of work. The employment rate of Roma women is still lower by 6%, even in comparison with their male counterparts. Obviously, it is caused by the higher number of births and more children, which results in difficulties when they come to getting a job. The proportion of people working in the informal sector is high on average, but in the case of Roma it is almost twice as much as in the case of the non-Roma population. Roma women are drifting toward the black economy at a rate that is roughly the same as the social average. In addition, this sector is primarily occupied by the Gypsy male workforce.

The unemployment rate (at least according to the official data provided) was not overwhelmingly higher in the Roma labor force in 2005, but by 2014, besides the improving domestic indicators, the indicator of the Roma depraved. In this area, the social distance increased by 18% in the examined period. Although there is no basic data on long-term unemployment, it is still very likely that the above trend is typical, as the 2014 indicators show a big difference regarding the disadvantage of the Roma, as more than half of the unemployed have not worked for at least 1 year. The latest employment relationship does not show any difference or discrimination in the labor market, and similar to this, the proportion of those who have no work experience shows no great disparity (Cserti Csapó, 2016b). However, the proportion of young people dropping out of education, training, and employment is significantly higher among the Roma, and this indicator is even more apparent among Roma women (Table 2).

Table 2.

Indicators of employment

IndicatorsABCDE
20052014Gap to the total population in 2005Gap to the total population in 2014Changing of the gap of Roma between 2005 and 2014
Total populationRoma populationRoma femalesTotal populationRoma populationRoma females
Employment5021155432md2922−7
Informal employmentmdmdmd112214md11md
Unemployment712md730md523+18
Long-term unemploymentmdmdmd4254mdmd12md
Last employment experiencemdmdmd4.03.95.4md−0.1md
No employment experiencemdmdmd141414md0md
Youth NEET ratemdmdmd182534md7md

Note. Sources: Columns A and B: Roma Inclusion Index, 2015; Columns C and E: own calculation; Column D: Polónyi, 2016; md: missing data; NEET: Not in Education, Employment, or Training.

Housing Situation of Roma Women

In the process of monitoring actual results in the area of housing, Hungary did not provide any data on the phenomenon of homelessness, nor on the former rate of persons holding property documents and electricity supply as well as later data of segregation. These missing data make it difficult to interpret changes during the decade. Data on Roma women were not recorded in case any of these indicators, so housing conditions can only be outlined from the average circumstances of the Roma population (Cserti Csapó, 2017). (It is likely that dividing data by gender is complicated because these indicators are mostly generated at the level of families and family members living together.).

However, the strong measure in the territorial separation of the Gypsies is indicated by the difference in the infrastructure supply of the dwellings. In the case of fixed-line drinking water, this phenomenon decreased from 22 points (in 2005) to 16 points (till 2014), but compared to the total population, there are still many Roma people living in the apartments without safe drinking water at home. In 2005, the indicator was 4% nationally and 26% among the Roma. In 2014, it sinks to 2% of the total population and will decrease to 18% for the Roma. We have only output data for homes that are not powered by electricity, but the problem is not that serious. Still, compared to the total population (85%), we see a worse indicator among the Roma in the proportion of property owners (78%).

The difference in living conditions appears in the indicator of territorial exclusion, which in 2005 affected almost three quarters of the Roma. Overcrowding is also a major problem, as the difference between the two studied groups has hardly decreased. In both 2005 and 2014, the density among the Roma was more than twice the national average. In all likelihood, it is the consequence of the smaller number of rooms in the dwellings and naturally the demographic differences (more children, bigger average family size) also play a role (Table 3).

Table 3.

Indicators of housing

IndicatorsABCDE
20052014Gap to the total population in 2005Gap to the total population in 2014Changing of the gap of Roma between 2005 and 2014
Total populationRoma populationRoma femalesTotal populationRoma populationRoma females
Homelessnessmdmdmdmdmdmdmdmdmd
No drinking water at home426md218md2216−6
No electricity at homemdmdmd01mdmd1md
Holding property documentsmdmdmd8578mdmd7md
Segregated housingmd72mdmdmdmd72mdmd
Overcrowding1.42.9md1.02.1md1.51.1−0.4

Note. Sources: Columns A and B: Roma Inclusion Index, 2015; Columns C and E: own calculation; Column D: Polónyi, 2016; md: missing data.

Health Situation of Roma Women

In Hungary, 3% fewer Roma people have health insurance than the national average. This data also applies to Roma women.

Although the national data on infant mortality in Hungary show a steady decline, in 2014, it is still higher than in the countries of Western and Northern Europe. Interestingly, the result included in the database of the decade shows differences when compared to the figures released by the Hungarian statistics officials (2005: 6.2‰; 2014: 4.5‰), which again indicates the uncertain reliability of these indicators. The data provided present us with the fact that the infant mortality indicator is 1.6 times higher in the case of the Roma than the Hungarian average.

There is also a lag in life expectancy when it comes to the Roma population, with an average of 5.9 years less than the Hungarian average in 2014. A small catch-up can be perceived because, while the rate has grown nationally during the decade, it has grown slightly more intensely among the Roma, with a lag of 6.5 years in 2005 (Cserti Csapó, 2018). The life expectancy of Roma women in European countries is higher than that of their male counterparts. On average, they are expected to live 9.1 years longer in 2005 when compared to an average Gypsy man. The variation in total data in Hungary in this same year is 8.5 years for women. This year, the domestic female indicator is 77.2 years, whereas the same indicator for Roma women is 5.9 years lower. In other words, the backwardness of women’s health status within the Gypsy group compared to the status of women nationally is less apparent than the negative difference between Roma men’s and the national male data.

In Hungary, the risk of poverty poses a greater risk to Roma people. In addition, the situation has deteriorated nationally: compared to 12% in 2005, we already had 13% risk in 2014. Among Gypsies, this decade has led to more probable and more intensive impoverishment and slipping: 37% of them were exposed to poverty in 2005, and in 2014 this rate rises to two thirds (59%). In this area, one example of the most dominant exclusive systems and an exceptionally high increase of social distance can be observed in Hungary (where the distance increased by 21 points). The risk of absolute poverty has also increased greatly (both nationally and regarding the Roma), while among the average population exposed to this risk, it has increased from 1% to 24%. Among the Roma population, this rate has risen from 2% to 67%, thus resulting in the risk of absolute poverty being 46% higher among them. Therefore, the gap of social distance has deepened, namely from 1 unit in 2005 to 43 units in 2014.

When we compare the average income, it is fairly obvious that Hungary provided the data of 2 years with a different approach. It is clear from 2005 that the average income of the actively employed Roma is only 58% of the national average. However, the 2014 results (which are given in Euro) show some deterioration in social retreat, as the average income of the Roma in this year is only 57% of the average.

There was a slight increase in the proportion of those who have been discriminated from 62% to 64% (Cserti Csapó, 2018). However, in these areas, Hungary did not provide separate data for men and women (Table 4).

Table 4.

Indicators of health and crosscutting issues

IndicatorsABCDE
20052014Gap to the total population in 2005Gap to the total population in 2014Changing of the gap of Roma between 2005 and 2014
Total populationRoma populationRoma femalesTotal populationRoma populationRoma females
Health
Access to health insurancemdmdmd979494md3md
Infant mortalitymdmdmd5.99.5mdmd3,6md
Life expectancy68.762.271.370.764.8md6.55.9−0.6
Crosscutting issues
At-risk of poverty1237md1359md2546+21
Average income100%58%md5.0732.893md58%57%+1%
Absolute poverty12md2467md143+42
Discrimination experiencemd62mdmd64md6264+2

Note. Sources: Columns A and B: Roma Inclusion Index, 2015; Columns C and E: own calculation; Column D: Polónyi, 2016; md: missing data.

Summary

As we can see, these statistical data are not suitable to give an accurate picture of the social situation of Roma women. However, they are appropriate to support and specify with data the position of women within Roma communities and to justify their social disadvantages resulting from these roles as described in other sociological studies.

About the Author

TCC is an associate professor and Deputy head of Department, Faculty of Humanities, Institute of Education, University of Pécs, and belongs to Department of Gypsy Studies and Sociology of Education. He is also a Deputy leader of “Education and Society” Doctoral School of Education, University of Pécs. His research interests include social situation of Roma, demography, sociology, and minority low.

References

  • Bernát, A., & Páthy-Dencső, B. (2009). A roma nők helyzete kelet-európai összehasonlításban az ezredforduló után [The situation of Roma women in Eastern Europe after the millennium]. In I. Nagy & T. Pongrácz (Eds.), Szerepváltozások. Jelentés a nők és férfiak helyzetéről 2011 [2011 changing roles: Report on the situation of women and men] (pp. 165176). Budapest: TÁRKI. Retrieved from http://www.tarsadalomkutatas.hu/kkk.php?TPUBL-A-885/publikaciok/tpubl_a_885.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2016a). Elillant évtized? A cigány, roma csoportok társadalmi integrációjának alakulása a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban az oktatás területén a Roma Integráció Évtizede eredményeinek tükrében [Disappeared decade? The development of the social integration of Roma groups in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the field of education in the light of the results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion]. Romológia, 11, 1028. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/romologia_11_BELIV_PRINT_FULL.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2016b). Elillant évtized II. A cigány, roma csoportok foglalkoztatás-politikai integrációjának alakulása a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban a Roma Integráció Évtizede eredményeinek tükrében [Disappeared decade? II. Development of employment policy integration of Roma groups in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the light of the results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion]. Romológia, 12, 626. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/romologia_12_BELIV_FULL.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2017). Elillant évtized III. – A cigány, roma csoportok társadalmi integrációjának alakulása a lakhatási körülmények terén a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban a Roma Integráció Évtizede eredményeinek tükrében [Disappeared Decade? III. Development of the social integration of Roma groups in housing conditions in the countries of the Central and Eastern European region in the light of the results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion]. Romológia, 14, 110133. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/romologia_14.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2018). Elillant évtized IV. A Roma Integráció Évtizede Program eredményei, s a cigány, roma csoportok társadalmi integrációjának alakulása az egészségügy prioritási területén, illetve a horizontális vizsgálati témák tekintetében a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban [Disappeared Decade? IV. Results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion Program and the development of the social integration of Roma groups in the priority area of health care, and horizontal research topics in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe]. Romológia, 16–17, 98123. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/WEB_romologia_16_17_BELIV-honlapra.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kurt Lewin Alapítvány. (2010). A Roma Integráció Évtizede Program által megjelölt célok megvalósulási folyamatának monitoring-vizsgálata Magyarországon a 2005–2009 közötti időszakra vonatkozóan [Monitoring of the implementation process of the goals indicated by the Decade of Roma Integration Program in Hungary for the period 2005–2009]. Budapest, Hungary: Kurt Lewin Alapítvány. Retrieved from http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9317_file3_decade_of_roma_inclusion_hu_fin.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polónyi, I. (2016). Emberi erőforrásaink 21. százada [Human resources in 21 century]. Budapest, Hungary: Gondolat Kiadó.

  • Roma Inclusion Index. (2015). Decade of roma inclusion secretariat foundation, September 2015. Retrieved from http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9810_file1_roma-inclusion-index-2015-s.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roma Integráció Évtizede Titkárság Alapítvány. (2014). Kutatási Jelentés -Decade Intelligence. A romák társadalmi befogadását előmozdító projektek sikerességét vagy kudarcát befolyásoló tényezőkről [Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005–2015. Research report]. Budapest, Hungary: Roma Integráció Évtizede Titkárság Alapítvány. Retrieved from http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9791_file13_evtized-kutatasi-jelentes.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernát, A., & Páthy-Dencső, B. (2009). A roma nők helyzete kelet-európai összehasonlításban az ezredforduló után [The situation of Roma women in Eastern Europe after the millennium]. In I. Nagy & T. Pongrácz (Eds.), Szerepváltozások. Jelentés a nők és férfiak helyzetéről 2011 [2011 changing roles: Report on the situation of women and men] (pp. 165176). Budapest: TÁRKI. Retrieved from http://www.tarsadalomkutatas.hu/kkk.php?TPUBL-A-885/publikaciok/tpubl_a_885.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2016a). Elillant évtized? A cigány, roma csoportok társadalmi integrációjának alakulása a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban az oktatás területén a Roma Integráció Évtizede eredményeinek tükrében [Disappeared decade? The development of the social integration of Roma groups in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the field of education in the light of the results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion]. Romológia, 11, 1028. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/romologia_11_BELIV_PRINT_FULL.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2016b). Elillant évtized II. A cigány, roma csoportok foglalkoztatás-politikai integrációjának alakulása a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban a Roma Integráció Évtizede eredményeinek tükrében [Disappeared decade? II. Development of employment policy integration of Roma groups in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the light of the results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion]. Romológia, 12, 626. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/romologia_12_BELIV_FULL.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2017). Elillant évtized III. – A cigány, roma csoportok társadalmi integrációjának alakulása a lakhatási körülmények terén a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban a Roma Integráció Évtizede eredményeinek tükrében [Disappeared Decade? III. Development of the social integration of Roma groups in housing conditions in the countries of the Central and Eastern European region in the light of the results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion]. Romológia, 14, 110133. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/romologia_14.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cserti Csapó, T. (2018). Elillant évtized IV. A Roma Integráció Évtizede Program eredményei, s a cigány, roma csoportok társadalmi integrációjának alakulása az egészségügy prioritási területén, illetve a horizontális vizsgálati témák tekintetében a kelet-közép-európai régió országaiban [Disappeared Decade? IV. Results of the Decade of Roma Inclusion Program and the development of the social integration of Roma groups in the priority area of health care, and horizontal research topics in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe]. Romológia, 16–17, 98123. Retrieved from http://romologiafolyoirat.pte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/WEB_romologia_16_17_BELIV-honlapra.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kurt Lewin Alapítvány. (2010). A Roma Integráció Évtizede Program által megjelölt célok megvalósulási folyamatának monitoring-vizsgálata Magyarországon a 2005–2009 közötti időszakra vonatkozóan [Monitoring of the implementation process of the goals indicated by the Decade of Roma Integration Program in Hungary for the period 2005–2009]. Budapest, Hungary: Kurt Lewin Alapítvány. Retrieved from http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9317_file3_decade_of_roma_inclusion_hu_fin.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polónyi, I. (2016). Emberi erőforrásaink 21. százada [Human resources in 21 century]. Budapest, Hungary: Gondolat Kiadó.

  • Roma Inclusion Index. (2015). Decade of roma inclusion secretariat foundation, September 2015. Retrieved from http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9810_file1_roma-inclusion-index-2015-s.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roma Integráció Évtizede Titkárság Alapítvány. (2014). Kutatási Jelentés -Decade Intelligence. A romák társadalmi befogadását előmozdító projektek sikerességét vagy kudarcát befolyásoló tényezőkről [Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005–2015. Research report]. Budapest, Hungary: Roma Integráció Évtizede Titkárság Alapítvány. Retrieved from http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9791_file13_evtized-kutatasi-jelentes.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
The author instruction is available in PDF. Please download the file from HERE
 
The Submissions template is available in MS Word.
Please, download the file from HERE
Please, download the file from HERE (For book reviews).

 

 

Senior Editors

Founding Editor: Tamás Kozma (Debrecen University)

Editor-in-ChiefAnikó Fehérvári (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Assistant Editor: Eszter Bükki (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Associate editors: 
Karolina Eszter Kovács (Debrecen University)
Valéria Markos (Debrecen University)
Zsolt Kristóf (Debrecen University)

 

Editorial Board

  • Tamas Bereczkei (University of Pécs)
  • Mark Bray (University of Hong Kong)
  • John Brennan (London School of Economics)
  • Carmel Cefai (University of Malta)
  • Laszlo Csernoch (University of Debrecen)
  • Katalin R Forray (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Zsolt Demetrovics (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Csaba Jancsak (University of Szeged)
  • Gabor Halasz (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Stephen Heyneman (Vanderbilt University, Nashville)
  • Katalin Keri (University of Pecs)
  • Marek Kwiek (Poznan University)
  • Joanna Madalinska-Michalak (University of Warszawa)
  • John Morgan (Cardiff University)
  • Roberto Moscati (University of Milan-Bicocca)
  • Guy Neave (Twente University, Enschede)
  • Andrea Ohidy (University of Freiburg)
  • Bela Pukanszky (University of Szeged)
  • Gabriella Pusztai (University of Debrecen)
  • Peter Toth (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Juergen Schriewer (Humboldt University, Berlin)
  • Ulrich Teichler (University of Kassel)
  • Voldemar Tomusk (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallin)
  • Horst Weishaupt (DIPF German Institute for International Educational Research, Frankfurt a.M)
  • Pavel Zgaga (University of Ljubljana)

 

Address of editorial office

Dr. Anikó Fehérvári
Institute of Education, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: 23-27. Kazinczy út 1075 Budapest, Hungary
E-mail: herj@ppk.elte.hu

2020  
CrossRef Documents 36
WoS Cites 10
Wos H-index 3
Days from submission to acceptance 127
Days from acceptance to publication 142
Acceptance Rate 53%

2019  
WoS
Cites
22
CrossRef
Documents
48

 

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge none
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency  
Further Discounts Gold Open Access
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2011
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 11
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Nevelés- és Oktatáskutatók Egyesülete – Hungarian Educational Research Association
Founder's
Address
H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary Pf 17
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2064-2199 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Feb 2021 0 19 5
Mar 2021 0 26 5
Apr 2021 0 20 2
May 2021 0 11 10
Jun 2021 0 7 7
Jul 2021 0 9 8
Aug 2021 0 0 0