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  • 1 University of Debrecen, Hungary
  • | 2 Debrecen Reformed Theological University, Hungary
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Foreign language skills come under the spotlight in higher education (HE) in Hungary. At present, Hungarian HE students are required to pass at least one intermediate level general or professional language exam in order to earn a degree, but from 2020, having an intermediate language exam will be a requirement for admission to HE. Thus, it is important to examine the foreign language-learning attitude of HE students as well as their family background that could affect their attitude. Expansion brought several non-traditional student groups to HE, which used to attract only the most talented upper-class students. However, a number of research studies highlight that motivation, attitude to learning, and the socioeconomic background of the students are influential factors not only in HE but also in foreign language learning. In this study, we present the results of our quantitative analysis performed on the Hungarian subset of the IESA-TESSCEE II. 2014 database developed by CHERD-Hungary. Using cluster analysis, the students could be clustered into four categories. Our results show that students whose parents have a low level of education are mainly motivated by the requirement to pass the necessary language exam to earn a degree. Students with a language certificate are driven by cultural interest to learn a foreign language. Students in Master Degree programs experience the practical benefits of learning a foreign language. Significant correlations between language attitude and the financial status of the family were not detected.

Abstract

Foreign language skills come under the spotlight in higher education (HE) in Hungary. At present, Hungarian HE students are required to pass at least one intermediate level general or professional language exam in order to earn a degree, but from 2020, having an intermediate language exam will be a requirement for admission to HE. Thus, it is important to examine the foreign language-learning attitude of HE students as well as their family background that could affect their attitude. Expansion brought several non-traditional student groups to HE, which used to attract only the most talented upper-class students. However, a number of research studies highlight that motivation, attitude to learning, and the socioeconomic background of the students are influential factors not only in HE but also in foreign language learning. In this study, we present the results of our quantitative analysis performed on the Hungarian subset of the IESA-TESSCEE II. 2014 database developed by CHERD-Hungary. Using cluster analysis, the students could be clustered into four categories. Our results show that students whose parents have a low level of education are mainly motivated by the requirement to pass the necessary language exam to earn a degree. Students with a language certificate are driven by cultural interest to learn a foreign language. Students in Master Degree programs experience the practical benefits of learning a foreign language. Significant correlations between language attitude and the financial status of the family were not detected.

Introduction

In this study, we endeavor to map the foreign language learning attitude of higher education (HE) students as well as the social background of these student groups. Good command of foreign languages is of key importance both in Hungary and Europe and it is of high priority among HE students in Hungary, who are required to obtain a language certificate to earn a degree (Act CXXXIX of 2005). By 2020, a language certificate will be an entrance requirement for HE. Foreign language knowledge is an essential prerequisite for employment both in Hungary and abroad and students are in need of it when they socialize with foreign students at the campus. A recent study conducted at the University of Debrecen by Dusa (2017) identified four distinct groups of students according to their motives to study abroad. The results clearly showed that language skills and social background play a key role in their decision. Language learning needs to be looked at from a broader perspective, but we believe it is worth putting it in social context. In our earlier study (Novak & Morvai, 2017) on the 2012 Magyar Ifjusag database, we made an attempt to study the social background of language learning among young students between the ages of 15–29 years. In this study, we would like to focus on HE students; yet, this time we would like to put the emphasis on their language learning attitude. We are aware of the fact that the focus group of this study is relatively more engaged in learning; however, we assume that there will be different attitude patterns in their language learning similarly to their general attitude to higher-level studies. In this study, we consider language learning as an investment in human capital.

In the past decades, radical changes took place in the social composition of HE students as a result of expansion; therefore, we believe it is even more important to analyze the connection between student success and social background. In this study, we attempt to examine the language-learning goals of students in Eastern Hungarian HE institutions and to analyze how they correlate with their social background.

About expansion in a nutshell

Article no. 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations confirms that everyone should have access to education. However, there are huge differences between the countries in terms of representation in HE. While in some countries, the representation of the cohort is around 50%; there are too many countries with a low rate of the cohort in HE. The tendency is that, as compared to richer countries, poorer countries represent a lower rate of the cohort in HE and the participants fail to represent the society as a whole. Getting access to HE is still the privilege of a small segment of the society (Altbach, Reisberg, & Rumbley, 2009).

According to Trow (1974), 15% representation of the age group means the elite phase of HE, expansion starts from 30%–35% while HE can be considered general over 50%. As a result of this self-inducing process, having a HE degree is not a privilege anymore, yet, lacking it is a risk. These boundaries reflect the transition in the relationship between the society and HE (Trow, 1974).

HE expansion is a relatively explored research area in the Hungarian special literature, abundant studies date back to the 1990s. In Hungary, the quick expansion of HE was brought about by the political changes in the 1990s; however, there are other reasons in the background. One reason can be demography, as populous age groups stepped into HE age in the 1990s. Another reason can be the demand for getting closer to Europe (Gazso, 1997).

Between 1995 and 2004, the number of students entering HE doubled. The number of students graduating from university increased from 29% to 36% in the 2004/2005 academic year, reaching the average of OECD countries. The increase seemingly stopped in 2005 and showed a decrease by 2007 (Kozma, 2004). However, Kozma states that this drop was due to the decrease in the attendance at evening and distance courses and the attendance at full-time courses kept increasing. After the expansion in the number of traditional students, the appearance of non-traditional student groups also contributed to expansion (Kozma, 2004) including students entering through non-academic way (that is not right after their secondary studies), children of the working class and ethnic minorities, students with small children (Engler, 2011, 2014) as well as older students, and those studying beside full-time employment (Polonyi, 2014). Among the students, we can find the resilient students whose performance is successful, despite their disadvantaged social background. Cegledi (2012) found out that resilient students can explore the resources of their milieu to compensate for their detriment.

Reasons for expansion

When analyzing the reasons for expansion, we have to mention demography in the first place (Polonyi, 2014) as the baby boom generation following the 1973 population policy program (Vukovich, 1991) stepped into HE age in the 1990s. The education policy also supported expansion on the grounds that it is better to keep the baby boom generation in the school system to avoid unemployment (Kozma, 1998).

The increased demand for HE was also fueled by economic factors. The education policy was hoping to see economic growth as a result of the investment in education (Polonyi, 2002, 2014). Right after the political transformation, there was a significant rise in the salaries of professionals and the demand for workers with a degree exceeded the supply (Kertesi & Kollo, 2006).

From a sociological point of view, the phenomenon of expansion can also be explained by social mobility to the middle class (Polonyi, 2010). One way to reproduce the middle class status was to inspire their children to earn a degree (Polonyi, 2014).

The effect of expansion on the composition of HE students

A number of studies have examined the effect of expansion on the composition of students in HE institutions. According to Polonyi (2014), it is not the elite that gives the majority of the students anymore and the rate of non-traditional students is increasing. However, despite the broadened scale of social classes appearing in HE due to expansion, in a number of countries, the privileged classes retained their relative advantage (Altbach et al., 2009). Although there are initiatives all over the world to involve the underrepresented social groups in HE, students and lecturers disfavor the appearance of new social groups as they expect some deterioration in the quality of the degrees (Gupta, 2006).

Financial problems can still be an important obstacle to the participation in HE and the positive effect of HE on the financial status of the individual is not always obvious for the social groups that earlier did not take part in HE (Altbach et al., 2009).

Gabor and Dudik (2000) as well as Robert (2000) stated that children of the lower social classes tend to choose shorter HE courses such as engineering and teacher training and they favor college courses to university courses.

This phenomenon can be explained by capital theories: Coleman’s (1988) social capital and Bourdieu’s (1999) cultural capital theory in which he stated that different social classes consider investing in education in different ways; therefore, they pass on cultural capital to a different extent from generation to generation. Boudon (1998) expresses that different social classes regard success in a different way. Lower classes believe that success is only a matter of luck or fortune, so they have no influence on reaching it and they do not see any investment in education. They tend to overestimate the costs of HE and underestimate the benefits.

Foreign language performance and social background

Several studies have focused on parental influence on foreign language learning. Gardner (1985) differentiated types of parents who actively or passively, positively or negatively influence their children’s foreign language learning career. In a qualitative study among eight grader primary school students, Kormos and Csizer (2005) explored how the family could positively influence language learners. Butler (2014), when examining parental socioeconomic status (SES) and beliefs about English among primary school children, found that parental socioeconomic factors appear to be correlated with differences in students’ foreign language-speaking skills. In their study, Kormos and Kiddle (2013) found that SES had a medium effect on English language-learning motivation among Chilean secondary school students and most importantly it had an effect on their self-efficacy beliefs. The results of our previous study (Novak & Morvai, 2017) show that the SES of the parents significantly influences the students’ success in foreign language learning and passing language exams.

In their study, Mattheoudakis and Alexiou (2009) examined how SES affected the English language-learning progress of Greek young students. Their findings show that although the majority of students received some additional foreign language education, students with higher SES status can afford private lessons, which can speed up their progress. They also conclude that the social and cultural atmosphere of students plays a key role in success at the onset of language learning.

Language-learning attitude and motivation

Other factors of language learning, which may not be eliminated from the social background, are attitude and motivation. Gardner and Lambert (1972) introduced two types of motivation: integrative and instrumental. Gardner (1985) highlighted the importance of integrative motivation, according to which being closely connected to the culture of the target language results in stronger language-learning motivation. The psycholinguist Dornyei (2005) presented a new theoretical approach: the L2 Motivational Self System, which had a crucial influence on the studies of language learning motivation.

Studies on language-learning attitude often complement motivation studies. According to Smith (1971), attitude is a strong belief about a thing or a situation that can compel positive reactions from the individual. Oroujlou and Vahedi (2011) believe that language-learning attitude is a learnt and teachable factor, which is important to enhance the efficiency of language learning. According to Lennartsson (2008), attitude to language learning is a changeable factor; therefore, the negative attitude can be changed into a positive one. Several Hungarian studies have examined attitude and language learning. Csapo (2002) revealed that students’ attitude to foreign language subjects is one of the most favorable among the school subjects. Csizer and Dornyei (2002) examined the language-learning attitude and motivation of Hungarian primary school students using cluster analysis. Nikolov (2003) investigated the language-learning motivation and attitude of primary and secondary schools students learning English and German. The results of the cluster analysis on the language-learning attitude and motivation of 14-year-old students by Tanczos and Math (2005) revealed that one in four students studies the foreign language just because it is compulsory. The authors conclude that without intrinsic motivation, no significant success can be reached and they highlight the key role of parents and teachers in the motivation of students.

The Attitude to Language Learning Among Higher Education Students in Eastern Hungary

Our research and the sample

We conducted our research with the aim to get an insight into higher education students’ attitude to language learning, their motivation, and how these two factors are influenced by their family background. Based on the special literature, we formulated the following hypotheses:

  • H1: We assume that among HE students perceptible groups can be detected according to their attitude to language learning.

  • H2: For a certain group of students the primary motivation of learning a foreign language is to pass a language exam necessary for graduation.

  • H3: Students who already have a language certificate show cultural interest in language learning. Therefore we assumed that the language learning attitude of MA/MSc students will strongly differ from that of the students in other degree programs, on the one hand, because they already have a language exam and on the other hand because being involved in campus life they can benefit from the multicultural atmosphere of the HE institution.

  • H4: The language learning attitude of students with lower social status parents can be characterized by concentrating on earning a degree.

  • H5: The language learning attitude of the majority of students with families struggling with financial problems will aim at fulfilling the requirements of graduation.

In this study, we used the IESA-TESSCEE II.2014 database built by CHERD-Hungary (N = 2,017), in which the answers of students from 13 HE institutions from five countries (Hungary, Romania, The Ukraine, Serbia and Slovakia) are stored. The details of the sampling can be consulted at the edited collection of Pusztai, Bocsi, and Cegledi (2016). In the first place, we analyzed the data both on the institutions in Hungary and the trans-border regions. However, in this article, we are presenting the results of our research only on the three HE institutions located in Hungary: University of Debrecen (n = 1,061), Debrecen Reformed Theological University (n = 22), and University of Nyiregyhaza (n = 134).

More than half (57.9%) of the sample were second-year students, nearly one third (30%) were first-year students, and half of the remaining (about a fifth) segment were third-year students. The students questioned were all full-time students during the survey. The majority (60.8%) was Bachelor students, one fourth (26%) were Master students, slightly over one tenth (13.2%) took part in undivided Master courses. As for the financing of the course, 12.2% of the sample took part in fee-paying courses. Considering the gender ratio of the sample, the dominance of female students was noticeable, which could be explained not only by the prevalence of courses traditionally pursued by women but also by the fact that women are more willing to fill in questionnaires in general. As far as the education of the parents is concerned, only a quarter of the fathers and a third of the mothers have a degree, presumably the majority of the HE students will be first-generation intellectuals in the family. There is a relatively high rate of fathers (36.6%) and mothers (22.5%) without a certificate of secondary education, which indicate a higher rate of students with a disadvantageous background. Only 29.4% of the sample affirmed that the family has all the necessities and can afford outstanding expenditure (e.g., holidays). Although the majority of the families of the students (58%) has all the necessities, they cannot afford considerable expenses.

From the database, we used the question block referring to language studies and language learning (v.5.24–v.5.33-as)3. Based on the special literature, we expected that there will be different attitude groups among the students. To put it to the test, we performed a cluster analysis. We examined the nature of the clusters in connection with the following five variables: degree program, gender, the education of the mother and that of the father, as well as the financial status of the family.

Limitations

This study has potential limitations. First, the sample is a regional one. Second, the University of Debrecen is predominant over the other HE institutions in terms of the number of students; therefore, the results of the other institutions can only be reflected a lesser extent. Third, the sample does not represent the distribution of the different types of degree programs; Master students are overrepresented in the sample, but this made it easier to perform a more thorough analysis on their data.

Characteristic attitude groups

As Tanczos and Math (2005) grouped primary school students into different clusters, we assumed that well-definable groups can be distinguished among HE students as well in respect of their language learning attitude. Therefore, during data analysis, we performed a cluster analysis on the sample. Students were put into the following clusters according to their answers to the questions in Table 1: (a) culturally interested, (b) multiculturally interested careerist, (c) degree-motivated, and (d) job-motivated. The culturally interested students are driven in the first place by their intention to keep in contact with foreigners and get to know their culture. They try to avoid getting into awkward situations in a foreign language environment. Their degree-earning motivation is relatively weak. The multiculturally interested careerist put “better opportunities to find a job” at the first place; besides, they are interested in getting to know people of different cultures. The degree-motivated HE students ranked getting their degree to the first place. All the other statements were much weaker in their case. We hypothesized that, thanks to the 2005 law on Higher Education, a certain group of HE students will be motivated primarily by the compulsory language certificate required to earn a degree. The degree-motivated group confirmed our hypothesis. For the job-motivated group in addition to earning a degree, finding a better job was also a motivating factor. They also try to avoid getting into awkward situations in a foreign language environment.

Table 1.

The types of language learning attitude in the sample (n = 914)a

1. Culturally interested (n = 176)2. Multiculturally interested careerist (n = 285)3. Degree-motivated (n = 172)4. Job-motivated (n = 281)
I would like to lead conversations with people of different mother tongue and culture3.603.582.432.88
I am interested in the culture and customs of other nations3.453.452.592.63
I would like to study/work/live abroad2.902.921.642.36
It is essential for earning a degree1.613.692.973.61
I will need it for my job3.093.201.502.83
For better opportunities to find a job3.333.722.413.51
For the better understanding of films, games, books, and lyrics3.053.372.332.52
It is essential for me to be successful in my home country1.892.521.471.83
To have one or more language certificates2.563.532.022.28
I would not like to get into awkward situations in a foreign language environment3.393.682.602.95

Note. Source: CHERD-Hungary IESA-TESSCEE II. 2014 database (N = 2,017).

a The original question was the following: Think about your foreign language learning goals. Evaluate on a scale between 1 and 4 how relevant the above statements on language learning are for you.

Degree program

Regarding the degree program (Table 2), the culturally interested group deviated from the sample mean. In the Bachelor programs, the ratio of the culturally interested group was lower; however, in the Master programs, the culturally interested students were overrepresented. This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that students in MA/MSc programs already have a language certificate and they are aware of the positive experience of getting to know other cultures using a foreign language. The other clusters showed the sample mean in this respect. According to Gardner (1985), cultural interest can bring along the most successful language learners because of the integrative motivation; therefore, we assumed that students already having a language certificate would show cultural interest in language learning. We hypothesized that the language learning attitude of Master students will strongly differ from that of the students of other programs. The ratio of culturally interested students is higher among them first because they already have a language certificate and second because they can benefit from the multicultural atmosphere of campus life. Thus, our first hypothesis proved to be true.

Table 2.

The division of students according to the degree program (n = 896, p = .004)

Bachelor’sMaster’sUndivided master’sTotal
1. Culturally interestedn876621174
%503812100
2. Multiculturally interested careeristn1777623276
%64288100
3. Degree-motivatedn934631170
%552718100
4. Job-motivatedn1727331276
%622611100
Complete samplen529261106896
%592912100

Note. Source: CHERD-Hungary IESA-TESSCEE II. 2014 database (N = 2,017).

Gender

The analysis by the gender of the students was significant (Table 3). In the whole sample, the distribution of the students was 70% women and 30% men. The degree-motivated group diverged from the mean; there were 10% more men in the group than the sample mean, which means that this cluster was more typical among men than the other three clusters. It appears that as far as language attitude is concerned, men prefer well-defined goals, they can attach to well-defined goals with stronger determination than to more abstract ones.

Table 3.

The gender ratio of HE students (n = 901, p = .012)

WomenMenTotal
1. Culturally interestedn12449173
%7228100
2. Multiculturally interested careeristn20672278
%7426100
3. Degree-motivatedn10368171
%6040100
4. Job-motivatedn20277279
%7228100
Complete samplen635266901
%7030100

Note. Source: CHERD-Hungary IESA-TESSCEE II. 2014 database (N = 2,017). HE: higher education.

Education of parents

Although our finding was not significant by the education of the fathers, it is noticeable that 43% of the fathers (over the sample mean, 36%) did not have a certificate of secondary education in the degree-motivated cluster.

The finding by the education of the mothers was significant (Table 4). The highest ratio, 44%, of the students’ mothers had a certificate of secondary educating, 35% had a degree, and only 20% were without a secondary school certificate. Among the clusters, the degree-motivated group deviated from the sample mean; 29% of their mothers were without a certificate of secondary education. This can be explained by the fact that parents from the lower strata not only choose shorter higher education courses for their children, but they also target the closest goal in language learning. Based on Gabor and Dudik (2000) and Robert (2000), we hypothesized that the language-learning attitude of students with lower strata parents will primarily aim at earning a degree. The results confirmed our hypothesis. The rate of mothers with a degree was the highest (42%) among the culturally interested group.

Table 4.

The education level of mothers (n = 878, p = .011)

Without a certificate of secondary educationWith a certificate of secondary educationWith degreeTotal
1. Culturally interestedn287171170
%164242100
2. Multiculturally interested careeristn5912983271
%224831100
3. Degree-motivatedn486257167
%293734100
4. Job-motivatedn44126100270
%164737100
Complete samplen179388311878
%204435100

Note. Source: CHERD-Hungary IESA-TESSCEE II. 2014 database (N = 2,017).

The financial status of the family

The examination by the financial status of the family did not yield significant results, which indicate that the financial background of HE students does not affect their foreign language learning attitude as much as it does at secondary school level.

Discussion

Presumably, the approach of HE students to language learning is determined by ambition, motivation, and most importantly by attitude rather than by efficiency. In this study, we examined the foreign language learning attitude of HE students as well as the effect of family background on their language learning attitude. Our first hypothesis that there will be well-definable attitude groups among HE students proved to be true. Using the answers to the related question block, we established four clusters of the students. Our second hypothesis was also confirmed, in which we assumed that there exists a certain group of HE students whose main motivation to learn a foreign language is to get a degree. The results verified our assumption that students already having a language certificate learn foreign languages because of cultural interest. In the case of Master students, the practical benefits of language learning come into view as they use English for specific purposes, get to know other cultures, and keep in touch with foreigners on the campus. Our hypothesis was also confirmed in which we assumed that the language learning attitude of students with less educated parents would concentrate primarily on passing a language exam to get a degree. Based on the literature, we hypothesized that students from families with financial difficulties will concentrate on getting a language exam to be able to fulfill the graduation requirements. However, the statistical test did not show any significance between language learning attitude and the financial status of the family.

Conclusions

A key finding of this study is that social background is an influencing factor in language learning at higher education as well. It comes clear that Master students are not only more committed in other areas of their studies, but they are more self-confident foreign language users. Nowadays, the labor market requires practical foreign language skills rather than language certificates; therefore, it is hazardous if students concentrate only on obtaining language certificates. Furthermore, in their future career, it can be an obstacle to getting promoted. Besides earning a degree, acquiring strong language skills is also an important means for social mobility. Hence, we believe it would be worth expanding our analysis on a nationwide sample.

3

The original question was the following: Think about your foreign language learning goals. On a scale between 1–4, evaluate how relevant the following statements on language learning are for you.

Acknowledgements

No funding was received to produce this article.

About the Authors

IN is a teacher of English and a PhD student in the Doctoral Program on Educational Sciences, University of Debrecen. Her research interest focuses on the social background of language learning.

LM, PhD, works at Debrecen Reformed Theological University and she is a researcher of CHERD and a member of HERA. She takes part in the Doctoral Program on Educational Sciences, University of Debrecen as a teacher. She is the associate editor of HERJ.

IN conceived the idea for the study concept and drafted the article. LM took the lead in doing the statistical analysis. Both IN and LM designed the model and the computational framework and contributed to the interpretation of the results and to the final version of the manuscript. In addition, both authors had full access to all data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Ethics

The study procedures were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

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  • Mattheoudakis, M., & Alexiou, T. (2009). Early foreign language instruction in Greece: Socioeconomic factors and their effect on young learners’ language development. In M. Nikolov (Ed.), The age factor and early language learning (pp. 227252). Berlin, Germany/New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nikolov, M. (2003). Angolul es nemetul tanulo diakok nyelvtanulasi attitudje es motivacioja [Language learning attitude and motivation of students learning English and German]. Iskolakultura, 13(8), 6173

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Novak, I., & Morvai, L. (2017). Fiatalok nyelvtanulasanak eletkori es tarsadalmi osszefuggesei [Age-related and socioeconomic correlations of language learning: A study of the Hungarian Youth]. PedActa, 7(1), 4758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oroujlou, N., & Vahedi, M. (2011). Motivation, attitude, and language learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 9941000. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.333

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polonyi, I. (2002). Az oktatas gazdasagtana [The economics of education]. Budapest, Hungary: Osiris Kiado.

  • Polonyi, I. (2010). Foglalkoztathatóság, túlképzés, Bologna [Employability, overeducation, Bologna]. Educatio, 19(2), 384401.

  • Polonyi, I. (2014). Regi, uj felsooktatasi expanzio [Old, new expansion of higher education]. Educatio, 23(2), 185204.

  • Pusztai, G., Bocsi, V., & Cegledi, T (Eds.). (2016). A felsooktatas (hozzaadott) erteke [The (added) value of higher education]. Nagyvarad, Romania/Debrecen, Hungary: Partium-PPS-Uj Mandatum. Retrieved from http://ni.unideb.hu/sites/ni.unideb.hu/files/oldal/250/a_felsooktatas_hozzaadott_erteke_2016_06.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robert, P. (2000). Bovulo felsooktatas: Ki jut be? [Expanding higher education: Who can enter?]. Educatio, 11(1), 7994.

  • Smith, A. N. (1971). The importance of attitude in foreign language learning. Modern Language Journal, 55(2), 8288. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1971.tb00916.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanczos, J., & Math, J. (2005). Attitudbeli es motivacios sajatossagok az idegen nyelv tanulasaban [Attitude and motivation in learning a foreign language]. Iskolakultura, 5(12), 4347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trow, M. (1974). Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. Paper presented at the Conference on Future Structure of Post-Secondary Education of Higher Education, Berkeley, CA. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED091983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vukovich, Gy. (1991). Magyarorszag Nepesedespolitikaja [Hungary’s population policy]. Demografia, 34(1–2), 6170.

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Senior Editors

Founding Editor: Tamás Kozma (Debrecen University)

Editor-in-ChiefAnikó Fehérvári (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Assistant Editor: Eszter Bükki (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Associate editors: 
Karolina Eszter Kovács (Debrecen University)
Valéria Markos (Debrecen University)
Zsolt Kristóf (Debrecen University)

 

Editorial Board

  • Tamas Bereczkei (University of Pécs)
  • Mark Bray (University of Hong Kong)
  • John Brennan (London School of Economics)
  • Carmel Cefai (University of Malta)
  • Laszlo Csernoch (University of Debrecen)
  • Katalin R Forray (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Zsolt Demetrovics (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Csaba Jancsak (University of Szeged)
  • Gabor Halasz (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Stephen Heyneman (Vanderbilt University, Nashville)
  • Katalin Keri (University of Pecs)
  • Marek Kwiek (Poznan University)
  • Joanna Madalinska-Michalak (University of Warszawa)
  • John Morgan (Cardiff University)
  • Roberto Moscati (University of Milan-Bicocca)
  • Guy Neave (Twente University, Enschede)
  • Andrea Ohidy (University of Freiburg)
  • Bela Pukanszky (University of Szeged)
  • Gabriella Pusztai (University of Debrecen)
  • Peter Toth (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Juergen Schriewer (Humboldt University, Berlin)
  • Ulrich Teichler (University of Kassel)
  • Voldemar Tomusk (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallin)
  • Horst Weishaupt (DIPF German Institute for International Educational Research, Frankfurt a.M)
  • Pavel Zgaga (University of Ljubljana)

 

Address of editorial office

Dr. Anikó Fehérvári
Institute of Education, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: 23-27. Kazinczy út 1075 Budapest, Hungary
E-mail: herj@ppk.elte.hu

2020  
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WoS Cites 10
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2019  
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Hungarian Educational Research Journal
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Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2011
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 11
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Nevelés- és Oktatáskutatók Egyesülete – Hungarian Educational Research Association
Founder's
Address
H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary Pf 17
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2064-2199 (Online)

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