View More View Less
  • 1 School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (HESS), Khazar University, Neftchilar Campus, 41 Mehseti Str., AZ1O96, Baku, Azerbaijan, Email address: Abdul.Rahman@khazar.org, ORCID: 0000-0002-2141-2632
Open access

Introduction

The present research is about scholarship as a practice of academic award or financial assistance and support for students to their further education and to enable them to perform excellently. Researchers have dealt with the concepts of scholarship and academic procrastination but separately.

Methods

This is the first study to investigate the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination among the students. The study adds to the literature by exploring scholarship impact on academic procrastination through a unique sample of students of a private university as a control group. The students were grouped into four categories according to their scholarship status, and questionnaires measuring academic procrastination were randomly distributed across the participants of 205.

Results

As hypothesized, scholarship was found to be significantly impacted academic procrastination among the students. Recipients of full scholarship with monthly stipends were found with the lowest level in all selected areas of academic procrastination. On the contrary, non-scholarship recipients among the students were reported with the highest values of academic procrastination in all targeted domains of this study as outlined above.

Discussion

Mere assessment of the two outcomes indicates a positive impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination. Accordingly, the study tested whether there is an impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination regarding gender. It was confirmed that female students procrastinate slightly higher than male students. In terms of generalizability, the approach in which the data of this study were gathered and also with the considerable size out of the population make the findings generalizable.

Abstract

Introduction

The present research is about scholarship as a practice of academic award or financial assistance and support for students to their further education and to enable them to perform excellently. Researchers have dealt with the concepts of scholarship and academic procrastination but separately.

Methods

This is the first study to investigate the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination among the students. The study adds to the literature by exploring scholarship impact on academic procrastination through a unique sample of students of a private university as a control group. The students were grouped into four categories according to their scholarship status, and questionnaires measuring academic procrastination were randomly distributed across the participants of 205.

Results

As hypothesized, scholarship was found to be significantly impacted academic procrastination among the students. Recipients of full scholarship with monthly stipends were found with the lowest level in all selected areas of academic procrastination. On the contrary, non-scholarship recipients among the students were reported with the highest values of academic procrastination in all targeted domains of this study as outlined above.

Discussion

Mere assessment of the two outcomes indicates a positive impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination. Accordingly, the study tested whether there is an impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination regarding gender. It was confirmed that female students procrastinate slightly higher than male students. In terms of generalizability, the approach in which the data of this study were gathered and also with the considerable size out of the population make the findings generalizable.

Introduction

In contemporary ages, there is evidence to buttress the fact that investigations dealing with scholarships or financial aids and academic procrastination are the subject of widespread attention but discretely. The present research is about scholarship as a practice of academic award or financial assistance and support for students to further their education and to enable them to perform excellently. This is the first study to investigate the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination among the students. According to Pascarella and Terenzini (2005), financial assistance, particularly for needy students, was found advantageous and positive on their academic accomplishment and perseverance. Scholarships are granted following the various criteria (Goroshit, 2018); these criteria are strictly attached to the values and purposes of the founder cum donors of the grant.

For instance, one of the well-known and the largest state merit-based scholarship programs is the “Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally” (HOPE) in Georgia, which came to existence in 1993. The main criterion for HOPE scholarship program assessment is B average equivalent to 3.0 out of 4.0 scale in required curriculum subjects (Mumper, 1999). Millea, Wills, Elder, and Molina (2018) emphasized that institutional scholarships are often distributed to the students in accordance with academic merit or for athletics, whereas government-supported aid, loans, or grants are naturally meant for need-based. A need-based scholarship was identified for having the highest correlation with less privileged families in terms of college accessibility and persistence (St. John, Hu, Simmons, Carter, & Weber, 2004; Wetzel et al., 1999).

However, for instance, Coonrod (2008) projected scholarship as a technique to discriminate price among the students in institutions. Similarly, another study by Kim and Seo (2015) confirmed that financially buoyant students pay more at the college, whereas the indigent students pay less (Pindyck & Rubinfeld, 2005). In some cases, scholarship, grants, and financial aid are intertwined. Sometimes, financial aids are distributed as scholarships, grants, and or loans by policymakers and universities (Millea et al., 2018). Scholarship is an advantage, given that the scholarship or grant money is not required to be repaid (Toby, 2010).

Scholarship is one of the obvious advantages of getting rid of economic and financial anxiety during the students’ academic career. Having a scholarship will allow students to lessen that inevitable financial burden if it cannot be eliminated (Gross, Hossler, & Ziskin, 2007). Relatively, earlier studies have essentially discovered a strong and multifaceted impact of the scholarship on students’ success in general, but specifically on academic procrastination requires more investigations. A clear result of scholarship being highly effective has been recognized within the higher education literature (Robbins et al., 2004).

As expected, a scholarship-based student does not need to work at all to support himself or must work less for fewer hours, which may have promoted more academic and social engagement during enrollment (Ramsey, 2010; Trent & St. John, 2008), unlike other students studying without any assistance or scholarship. Therefore, lessened financial and stress can be explained as having more time and energy to study, also to carry out all the academic-related tasks.

A study argues that engaging in work while enrolled in university has little effect on academic performance (Nonis & Hudson, 2006), while working in another research was regarded as an inhibitor toward students’ academic excellence and retardation to completion of academic degree promptly (DeSimone, 2008; Stinebrickner & Stinebrickner, 2003). Having more and enough time cum energy to study can, in turn, facilitate students’ academic assertiveness and enhance their higher and strong motivational achievement. DesJardins, McCall, Ott, and Kim (2010) proclaimed that the provision of students’ financial aid plays an income increase role to students by suppressing financial obstacles. Such an income relief and inspires students to avoid or reduce working hours during their study at the college, thereby liberating time to other academic and non-academic activities.

Subsequently, other studies buttressed the notion that students enjoying scholarships, especially grant aid, work less, and alternatively spend more time on valuable activities and experiences outside the classrooms, possibly attaining higher course grades and higher rates of academic eagerness and completion than their colleagues who work more hours (Boatman & Long, 2016). Researchers, such as Hamrick, Schuh, and Shelley (2004), affirmed that distributions of capital and funds across functional groups imply a university’s priorities and can accelerate substantial influence on student outcomes (Rozental, Forsström, Tangen, & Carlbring, 2015).

Importantly, Robbins et al. (2004) have made immense contribution by conducting the utmost extensive meta-analysis to date on the prognosticators of university students’ victory. By manufacturing old theories of educational persistence and motivational theories from the psychological point of view, literature highlights the significance of contingent impacts, such as financial aid (Tinto, 1975). It could have an absolute effect on the academic motivation of the student, especially, in a case when the sustainability of the scholarship depends on student academic success. Therefore, such a student needs to maintain a scholarship in the short term or allows the repayment of loans in the longer term. A scholarship could strengthen a student’s integration into the community, if the form of provisions such as work–study or athletic scholarship leads the student to connect with a huge number of individuals across university ground (Adelman, 2006).

Financial aids (scholarships) differ prominently in the range of the amount they offer. In most cases, full coverage of tuition fees is rarely awarded to the lucky few. Some of these scholarships cater only for the expenses of conference trips or other such as accommodation and textbooks. Remarkably, Alon’s findings signify a pattern revealed in other researches that the natures of scholarship may affect the affiliation between scholarship and academic achievement and account for certain variation across studies.

However, in another research, Gansemer-Topf and Schuh (2005) confirmed that university scholarship positively influenced retention and graduation rates only for schools with low admissions selectivity. They claimed that universities admit a higher number of applicants that were most likely to enroll low-income candidates who have a greater need for scholarship.

However, education nowadays is seriously facing many impediments, in which academic procrastination can be considered as one of the major impediments. Given that, almost every student engages in this. Thus, it is a retardation for educational advancement. Academic procrastination has to do with time, and the students’ ways of allocating their times can either directly or indirectly influence their academic and non-academic retention in the college (DesJardins et al., 2010). The researchers further outline the common choices students face in the college: to spend their time focusing on reading and studying, working for pay, or taking part in extracurricular events. Evidence suggests that academic and social integrations together with institutional commitment are described as the major three areas of integration for student engagement in the college, and that students who are academically and socially connected to the institution have tendency to stay enrolled and succeeded than those who are either academically or socially disconnected (Kuh et al. 1991; Tinto, 1975).

Academic procrastination is one of the five categories of procrastination outlined by Milgram, Batori, and Mowrer (1993). At present, investigations focusing on procrastination and academic procrastination affirmed that procrastination has been believed to have a long history as it affects anybody that has blood running in his veins. Starting from industrial revolution era, Samuel (1751) described the procrastination as one of the general weaknesses, which, even with the instructions from moralists, and the dissent of drive, conquer either a greater or lesser degree in every mind.

Works have been carried out investigating the impact of the scholarship on academic success (Gross et al., 2007), performance, and achievement of the students. However, little work has investigated the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination of students (Hamrick et al., 2004). No work has been conducted to investigate the impact of the scholarships on academic procrastination. This study is important as it contributes and adds to the literature by investigating scholarship impact on academic procrastination of the students.

Theoretical Background

Basically, academic scholarship has become a global trend in academic settings in general. It plays a crucial role in making education affordable for the students, especially those from less privileged families (Coonrod, 2008). Thus, considering certain criteria that vary from an institution to another; individuality influences how the institutions charge their academic tuitions and award their scholarships.

Despite that academic procrastination has received thorough attention from many researchers, it is equally important to declare that no study has yet investigated the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination. This can be attributed to the fact that prevalence, areas, and reasons are found to be concentrations of most researchers (Hooda & Saini, 2016).

It has been assumed that financial stress is a foremost stressor among undergraduate students (American College Health Association, 2013). Working to suppress financial stress can lead to students’ academic procrastination, as students may experience serious stress, while striving to maintain a balance justification between their academic and work responsibilities. For the past few decades, numerous traditional theories were pinpointing the fact that students tend to work and work for a considerable number of hours (Scott-Clayton, 2012). Hence, numerous students without scholarship need to work to meet up with their payments for the college and living expenses, which in one way or another retard their academic commitments. In a survey conducted in America, 35% of students confirmed that their academic finances were traumatic and so difficult to control (American College Health Association, 2013).

Researchers have discovered many reasons for academic procrastination, which can be experienced by non-scholarship-based students. For example, higher stress as predicted in a study is conducted by the procrastination research group at Carleton University in Ottawa (Sirois & Pychyl, 2002), lack of energy and life displeasure (Effert & Ferrari, 1989). Flet, Blankestein, and Martin (1995) revealed strong correlation between academic procrastination, emotional consciousness, and stability.

Subsequently, detachment from academic procrastination through absolute engagement and total involvement of the student were identified in various empirical studies as keys to student victory in higher institution. Therefore, students’ connectivity to their academic endeavors is the determinant of their success (Allen, Robbins, Casillas, & Oh, 2008; Baker & Robnett, 2012; Hunt, Boyd, Gast, Mitchell, & Wilson, 2012; Morrow & Ackermann, 2012; Svanum & Bigatti, 2009).

Academic scholarship

Scholarship is one of the obvious advantages of getting rid of economic and financial anxiety during the students’ academic career, most especially, students at higher institution. Having a scholarship will allow students to lessen that inevitable financial burden if it cannot be eliminated.

In addition, learning with a scholarship, prominently a prestigious type of scholarships, is the dream of every student. There are numerous advantages and benefits for a scholarship, which extend far beyond ordinary immediate financial achievement calmness and peace of mind that is attached to it. The scholarship may be a great and better opportunity, as it may contribute to student’s self-esteem and natural built-in calmness cum relaxation to succeed in time management and simultaneously encourage the student to get rid of academic procrastination.

Academic scholarship at Khazar University

Khazar University is a private university for undergraduate and postgraduate education. It was established in 1991 under the name “Azerbaijan University with English as a medium of instruction” and later renamed to Khazar University in 1992 by the Academic Council of the University.

Academic tuition scholarship is a practice at Khazar University. The usual measure of scholarship at this university is based on percentages. The university maintains a global trend by providing merit-based and need-based scholarships for different category of students following their circumstances (Isakhanli, 2018).

A certain category of students is studying on state scholarship with monthly stipends. It is noteworthy to clarify the fact that scholarships – during this study – at Khazar University are strictly about tuition waiver scholarship on percentage basis, ranging from either full (100%) or partial (75%, 50%, and 25%) and do not include any monthly stipends or allowances, which may cover other expenses of students, such as, dormitory, feeding, books, clothes, or travel expenses (Isakhanli, 2018).

However, there are Azerbaijani government scholarships for both local and international students, which cover the whole tuition fees and include monthly stipend as well. This is offered to the local students who scored highest in the state centralized entrance exam, also to the citizens of the member countries of Organization of Islamic Cooperation and Non-Aligned Movement countries. The selection of the international candidates is conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Isakhanli, 2018).

Roots and problematic nature of academic procrastination

Basically, several researches (Díaz-Morales & Ferrari, 2015) have examined academic procrastination from different dimensions, depending on the aim, goal, and objective of the researchers. Jimenez (2003) illustrated that several ideas are linked to how procrastination came to be in its current state. Habitually, procrastination is a learnable attitude; this claim coincided with a view of the behaviorists, which claimed that procrastination is a learned habit developing from human the preference for pleasurable activities cum short-term rewards, for instance, writing an academic paper or preparing for exam versus shopping (Haycock, 1998). Contrarily, another view that consists of three main ideas outlined the psychodynamic lens of psychology. Beswick, Rothblum, and Mann (1988) described the first idea through Baumeister (1984) who believes the causal roots of procrastination to be either two of the two extremes of child-rearing: an overindulgent parent encouraging underachievement, or an overdemanding parent encouraging a rebellious attitude.

The last view from McCown, Johnson, and Petzel (1989) affirms that “procrastination is a method of circumventing an unconscious death anxiety.” Historically, it was assumed in a term paper from the University of Oregon that academic procrastination is the result of deficits in study habit, time management, and organizational skills (Brown, 1991; Green, 1982; Ziesat, Rosenthal, & White, 1978). Subsequently, studies have revealed that it is much complicated, involving an interaction of behavior, cognitive, and affective components (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). McCown and Johnson (1991) established correlations between variables such as psychoticism, extroversion, neuroticism, and procrastination-related behaviors (such as anxiety in anticipation of examinations, avoidance of studying due to lack of interest for the subject, and involvement in social or impulsive activities that interfere with completing course requirements).

Hence, Solomon and Rothblum (1984) speculated that individuals tend to avoid tasks, which they perceive unpleasant and engaged in more rewarding activities, especially with a short-term over long-term gain. That is, procrastination does not mean the inability to perform excellently but implies that procrastinators are surrounded by different circumstances, which trigger their procrastinating attitudes. For instance, lack of self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-conscious, and highly self-critical were demonstrated as the procrastinators’ impediments (Effect & Ferrari, 1989). They further expatiated that fear of failure, eagerness for success, and perfectionism of ideology can lead to neurotic avoidance. Unsurprisingly, Noran (2000) describes a procrastinator as somebody who adequately understands what should be done and even how it should be done, planning on how to get it done but having difficulty in implementation of the plan to do it.

Moreover, University of Oregon term paper also states that working under dire time limits with minimal sleep earnestly impairs attentiveness, cognition, and performance, leading to physical discomfort, emotional upset, and work that is below ability (Milgram, Yearwood, Khurgel, Ivy, & Racine, 1991). In addition, in another research, academic procrastination was found as an indicator that increases stress and illness (Tice & Baumesiter, 1997).

Furthermore, numerous studies have confirmed that procrastination often produces academic problems for students (Beck, Koons, & Milgrim, 2000; Beswick et al., 1988; Lay & Burns, 1991; Wesley, 1994).

Procrastination prevents brilliant students to display their exact ability on their academic tasks, either in writing a term paper or while preparing for the examinations, especially when the deadline is approaching. Past study on the subject argues that taking appropriate time over such academic-related tasks, not hurrying them unduly, or failing to submit them time are essential for academic success, especially on the courses that are continuously assessed (Ellis & Knaus, 1977). Another study supports the argument claiming that it is not surprising that academic procrastination should be negatively related to performance on college and university courses (Beswick et al., 1988; Solomon & Rothblum, 1984).

Procrastination is widespread among students, meaning that many students have postponed undertakings and even key decisions on their academic program, despite some acknowledgment that they can and should do them at the present and this notion of postponement or delaying is palpably an inhibitor toward students’ excellent learning and performance. As suggested by many researchers, procrastination impedes academic success because it decreases the quality and quantity of learning while increasing the severity of stress and negative outcomes in students’ lives (Ferrari, 1995; Milgram, Gehrman, & Keinan, 1992).

Accordingly, to be able to answer a sole research question of this study, which is “Do various types of scholarships impact academic procrastination of Khazar university students?,” the following threefold hypotheses were generated:

  • H1: Scholarship value impacts academic procrastination of Khazar University students.

  • H2: Scholarship has a positive impact on decreasing academic procrastination of local/Azerbaijani students compared to international students of Khazar University.

  • H3: Scholarship impact on academic procrastination does not change with gender difference among Khazar University students.

Methods

It is significantly important that any research must adopt a scientific approach. It provides researchers with the amount of confidence required to justify the claims that their research findings are scientific. Failure to apply scientific methods will jeopardize the quality of research even when the findings of such research correspond to the phenomena in the real world (Hussain, 2006). He further elaborates that without applying scientific methods, the correspondence between the findings and the phenomena in the real world may be a sheer coincidence.

Within the tradition of quantitative research, survey research methodology was selected, and Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS) was adopted to examine the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination among the Khazar university students. The PASS is an established and developed survey of Solomon and Rothblum (1984).

The authors have concluded that the PASS is useful in both identifying possible principal areas for interference, and in getting rid of procrastination in subsequent time. The scale uses a 5-point scale from “never procrastinate” (1) to “always procrastinate” (5). Ethically, this instrument was adopted after a due ethical process by obtaining a licence to use it from the author Rothblum, E. D.

Research design as defined by Yin (1994) is the logical sequence that connects the empirical data to a study’s initial research questions and, ultimately, to its conclusion. The sample comprises the population of Khazar university students at all categories, males, females, undergraduate, postgraduate, local, and international.

Researcher suggested precedence in the selection of population over the selection of sampling state and must be done carefully regarding the principles of selection, preferred size, and the limitations for the population of survey (Powell & Manion, 1997). The instrument (PASS) entails a little modification at which aspects of administrative and attendance-related tasks, such as meeting with your advisor, were removed for the suitability of the undergraduates among the population. As a result of that modification, academic procrastination of the participants was evaluated based on the following domains: writing a term paper, studying for exams, and keeping up weekly reading assignments.

The groups were systematically divided into four categories based on their academic scholarship status at the university. That is, (a) 25% of scholarship recipients among the control group were grouped with non-scholarship recipients as “non-scholarship,” (b) those with 50% and 75% were in the same group as “partial tuition scholarship,” (c) students with full-tuition waiver (100%) were made as a separate group and tagged as “full-tuition scholarship,” and finally (d) students with full (100%) tuition and monthly stipends were in the same group as “full tuition with stipends.”

The participants were randomly selected through the database of the admissions office, international affairs office, financial department and dean’s office school of humanities, and social sciences in Khazar University. Gay, Mills, and Airasian (2012) reported that simple random sampling is a method in which all individuals in the selected population have an equal and independent chance of being selected for the sample. A total number of 205 questionnaires with an additional page of consent and personal data for important demographic variables were administered across the entire control groups as stipulated above. The page was attached to convey the basic and necessary ideas about the study to the participants, to ensure anonymity with regard to their participation, and to provide the procedures to administer the questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were missed during the data collection process and the number of recovered questionnaires was 197.

However, another 12 questionnaires were removed due to lack of adequate administration. Therefore, 185 responses of the control group were considered for data analysis of this study. Approximately, the total number of active students’ population during this study was 2,000 and 205 questionnaires were distributed on a random basis. Gay et al. (2012) reported that a good sample is one that is a representative of the population, so that the findings can be generalized. Table 1 displays an overview of the respondents’ method of distribution according to their scholarship status.

Table 1.

Classification of respondents according to their scholarship status

ValidFrequency%Valid %Cumulative %
No scholarship4624.924.924.9
Partial scholarship4926.526.551.4
Full-tuition scholarship4725.425.476.8
Full-tuition with monthly stipends4323.223.2100.0
Total185100.0100.0

Data analysis

A quantitative nature of data analysis is concerned with development or application of the methods and techniques for organizing and analyzing statistical data (Powell & Manion, 1997). Therefore, the obtained data were coded numerically for subsequent analysis. The data were analyzed using different tests but majorly concentrate on descriptive statistics in SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 23.0, Armonk, NY, USA) to answer the research question.

To explore the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination, the study focuses on measures used in grouping the participants, and the differences in means of these groups were compared based on their scholarship categorizations to establish the impact of the scholarship on their academic procrastination. In the models of this study, students’ gender, nationality, and level of study were tested through frequency counts and percentages to determine whether scholarship has a different impact on academic procrastination in men and women, or among undergraduate and postgraduate students, or in local and international students.

Results

To provide insights into the impact of the scholarships on academic procrastination of the students, raw standard deviation and mean values of the item of selected academic procrastination domains were displayed through descriptive statistics (Table 2). The students of no-scholarship category showed a notably higher mean value on all domains than other categories (writing a term paper, mean = 4.50; studying for exam, mean = 4.39; and keeping up weekly reading assignments, mean = 4.48). This estimation indicates that students of no scholarship involved in academic procrastination than other students with scholarships, irrespective of the nature and type of their scholarship. Interestingly, the finding of this study revealed that partial scholarship recipients among the control group engage in academic procrastination but slightly better (writing a term paper, mean = 3.59; studying for exams, mean = 4.50; and keeping up weekly reading assignments, mean = 4.48) compared to those students with full-tuition scholarship (writing a term paper, mean = 3.85; studying for exam, mean = 3.70; and keeping up weekly reading, mean = 3.79). As hypothesized, category of students with full-tuition and monthly stipends were found with lower mean value (writing a term paper, mean = 3.49; studying for exams, mean = 2.91; and keeping up weekly reading assignments, mean = 2.98). Despite these observable differences in the range of prevalence of academic procrastination among the population of this study, it is important to report that all the four groups registered a high level of academic procrastination on “writing a term paper” as indicated in the histogram’s boxplots in Figure 1.

Table 2.

Descriptive statistics of the selected items of academic procrastination domains, raw standard deviation (SD), and mean values

Respondents’ scholarship levelWriting a term paper: to what degree do you procrastinate on this taskStudying for exam: to what degree do you procrastinate on this taskWeekly reading: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task
No scholarshipMean4.50004.39134.4783
SD0.936900.930430.88792
Partial scholarshipMean3.59183.48983.5918
SD1.116511.101561.33726
Full tuition scholarshipMean3.85113.70213.7872
SD1.122471.159361.10210
Full tuition with monthly stipendsMean3.48842.90702.9767
SD1.681441.615611.61080
TotalMean3.85953.63243.7189
SD1.286101.316711.35411
Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Histogram’s boxplots

Citation: Hungarian Educational Research Journal 9, 4; 10.1556/063.9.2019.4.55

Concerning the impact of the scholarships on academic procrastination of international students among the control group. On the contrary to the hypothesis of this study, local students were reported with a higher degree in all the selected areas of academic procrastination than international students (Table 3).

Table 3.

Means comparison report: international and local students

Country of originWriting a term paper: to what degree do you procrastinate on this taskStudying for exam: to what degree do you procrastinate on this taskWeekly reading: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task
InternationalMean3.66003.50003.5200
SD1.205601.216381.38858
Azerbaijani (local)Mean3.93333.68153.7926
SD1.311261.353011.33884
TotalMean3.85953.63243.7189
SD1.286101.316711.35411

Note. SD: standard deviation.

Subsequently, the mean values of female and male students were equally compared to test the hypothesis regarding gender. Both genders confirmed their academic procrastination on writing a term paper, but female students procrastinate somewhat higher (mean = 3.98) than male students (mean = 3.72). With regard to studying for exams, the mean values of female students were higher (mean = 3.78) than mean values of male students (mean = 3.47); the trend was comparable in keeping up weekly reading assignments where male students’ mean value was 3.46 and female students’ mean value was 3.95 (Table 4). This study also tested whether scholarship has different impacts on academic procrastination in undergraduate and postgraduate, or in marital students’ marital status. Meanwhile, as no significant results were found, the results from this interaction analysis are not shown.

Table 4.

Mean values for writing a term paper, studying for exam, and weekly reading based on gender

Participants’ genderWriting a term paper: to what degree do you procrastinate on this taskStudying for exam: to what degree do you procrastinate on this taskWeekly reading: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task
MaleMean3.72413.47133.4598
N878787
SD1.395091.437371.52350
FemaleMean3.97963.77553.9490
N989898
SD1.175171.188701.14309
TotalMean3.85953.63243.7189
N185185185
SD1.286101.316711.35411

Note. SD: standard deviation.

To investigate the research question of this study regarding the impact of the scholarships types on academic procrastination among Khazar university students, independent variable and control variables were regressed onto the classifications of scholarship. Variables were systematically placed into a multiple regression grouping the participants into four categories according to their scholarship status. Consistent results across models were indicated in Table 5. The logged entire classifications of scholarship predicted academic procrastination of students through the three selected domains, F(5, 179) = 5.777, p < .0005, R² = .139, making the variables statistically significant (Tables 5 and 6).

Table 5.

Analysis of variancea

Model 1Sum of squaresdfMean squareFp
Regression31.13856.2285.777.000b
Residual192.9491791.078
Total224.086184

Note. aDependent variable: scholarship–financial aid. bPredictors: (constant); School activities: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task; writing a term paper: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task; academic admin tasks: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task; studying for exam: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task; weekly reading: to what degree do you procrastinate on this task.

Table 6.

Model summarya

ModelRR2Adjusted R2SE of the estimate
1.373a.139.1151.038

Note. SE: standard error.

aDependent variable: scholarship–financial aid.

Discussion

In this empirical study, a unique sample of private university students was used to investigate whether the scholarship types have an impact on academic procrastination of students analyzing the following research question: “Do various types of scholarships impact academic procrastination of Khazar university students?” Certain demographic controls for gender, nationality, level of education, marital status, and classifications of scholarship were included in the questionnaire of this study. As there were no consistent a priori theoretical expectations about the impacts of some of these controls, only variables that were expected to be positive (such as gender, nationality, and scholarship classifications) were included in the analysis of this study. Relevantly, it is important to emphasize the fact that findings of this unique study were not adequately buttressed with previous studies, as no study has been previously carried out to investigate the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination before this study.

The prior studies on scholarship and or financial aid focused on other areas such as effects of scholarships on students’ decisions toward their enrollment in college (Dynarski, 2000; Hurwitz, 2012; Kim, 2012; Kane, 2003; Leslie & Brinkman, 1987; Long, 2008) and students’ persistence (DesJardins, Ahlburg, & McCall, 2002; Dynarski, 2003; Scott-Clayton, 2011). Descriptively, the study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different types of Khazar University scholarships on academic procrastination of students. The evaluation was performed on 185 students as the control group of the study. These 185 participants were grouped as representative of four modules of common scholarships existing in the university. The students’ procrastinating attitudes were based on three different areas, namely “writing a term paper,” “studying for exams,” and “keeping up with weekly reading assignments” in accordance with their scholarship status.

As hypothesized, the scholarship was found to be significantly impacted academic procrastination among the students. Recipients of full scholarship with monthly stipends were found with the lowest level in all selected areas of academic procrastination. On the contrary, non-scholarship recipients among the students were reported with the highest values of academic procrastination in all targeted domains of this study as outlined above. Mere assessment of the two outcomes indicates a positive impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination, although astonishing results were discovered while comparing mean values of the recipients of partial and full-tuition scholarships.

The study confirmed that recipients of full-tuition scholarship procrastinated slightly higher than students with a partial scholarship. Not just in one or two but all the three selected areas of academic procrastination are included in this study. However, among all the four categories, the findings of this study that recipients of full-scholarship with monthly stipends procrastinate but with the lowest rate compared to those students in other categories. Despite the wide range in the academic procrastinating attitude of the students with full-tuition and monthly stipends, a high mean value of 3.48 was reported for them on their academic procrastination in writing a term paper.

This attracts two scenarios. First, regardless of the nature of scholarship, students generally procrastinate in writing term papers compared to other areas within their academic activities. Second, it affirms the problematic nature of procrastination which affects anybody that vein running in his or her vein (Samuel, 1751).

Accordingly, the study tested whether there is an impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination regarding gender. It was confirmed that female students procrastinate slightly higher than male students. This is relevantly allied to what has been discovered in some previous studies. For example, Haycock, McCarthy, and Skay (1998) as well as Paludi and Frankell-Hauser (1986) have proclaimed that there is tendency that women are at greater risk to procrastinate than men and consequently women can undergo the serious and dangerous anxiety related to procrastination than do men (Rothblum, Solomon, & Murakami, 1986). The findings according to the international and local students in this study were not as it was predicted in the hypothesis that international students procrastinate more than do local students. Even though the two categories confirmed that they procrastinate in the three domains, it was glaringly reported that local students engage more in all the areas of academic procrastination.

In summary, all the previously analyzed findings should be observed in the context of the limitations of this study. This suggests avenues for forthcoming research. Due to data limitations, the researcher had to classify the control group of this study according to their scholarship status in the university, to generate an accurate number for the study, and to access the scholarship impact on academic procrastination through the comparison of their responses. The future study should focus on a large sample of scholarship recipients of the same nature to generate more accurate results. As this study focuses on scholarships, the future study may consider the comparison between different channels of financial aid, such as grants, loans, and work–study opportunities.

This study contributes to the literature in some major ways but most importantly, it is regarded as the first study to be conducted investigating the impact of the scholarship on academic procrastination. Researchers have taken several approaches to deal with the concept of scholarship as a motivator that influence students’ decision for college enrollment, retention, persistence, and graduation rate at the college (Dynarski, 2000; Hurwitz, 2012; Leslie & Brinkman, 1987; Long, 2008; Kane, 2003; Kim, 2012). Similarly, the concept of academic procrastination has been dealt with as an impediment toward students’ success (Beswick et al., 1988; Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). In terms of generalizability, the approach in which the data of this study were gathered and also with the considerable size out of the population make the findings generalizable. The study investigated the general population of students, as it provided participation right to all students of different academic level.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge Esther D. Rothblum, PhD, Professor, one of the inventors of the adopted instrument (PASS), for issuing official permission and providing her personal research link for relevant exploration on academic procrastination related articles. A-RBM-S would equally appreciate the control group of the study and everyone with any form of contribution to the success of the study.

About the Author

A-RBM-S was graduated at Al-Azhar university, Cairo-Egypt in Education in 2006. His Master of Education was obtained at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) in 2009. He has worked at various academic institutions in his home country and abroad. He is currently doing his Ph.D program at Khazar university, Baku-Azerbaijan. He has participated in many conferences and published some academic papers. He is interested in issues concerning educational psychology, management, administration and religion.

Ethics

The study procedures were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The Institutional Review Board of the Khazar University (Baku, Azerbaijan) approved the study. All subjects were informed about the study and all provided informed consent.

References

  • Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, J., Robbins, S. B., Casillas, A., & Oh, I. S. (2008). Third-year college retention and transfer: Effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 647664. doi:10.1007/s11162-008-9098-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American College Health Association. (2013). National College Health Assessment II: Reference group data report spring 2013. Hanover, MD: American College Health Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, C. N., & Robnett, B. (2012). Race, social support and college student retention: A case study. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 325335. doi:10.1353/csd.2012.0025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(3), 610620. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.46.3.610

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, B. L., Koons, S. R., & Milgrim, D. L. (2000). Correlates and consequences of behavioural procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem, and self-handicapping. In J. R. Ferrari & T. A. Pychyl (Eds.), Procrastination: Current issues and new directions (special issue). Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 15(3), 313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23(2), 207217. doi:10.1080/00050068808255605

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boatman, A., & Long, B. T. (2016). Does financial aid impact college student engagement? Evidence from the gates millennium scholars program. Research in Higher Education, 57(6), 653681. doi:10.1007/s11162-015-9402-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R. T. (1991). Helping students confront and deal with stress and procrastination. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 6(2), 87102. doi:10.1300/J035v06n02_09

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coonrod, L. (2008). The effects of financial aid amounts on academic performance. The Park Place Economist, 16, 2425. Retrieved from www.iwu.edu/economics/PPE16/PPE2008-3.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeSimone, J. S. (2008). The impact of employment during school on college student academic performance (). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2002). Simulating the longitudinal effects of changes in financial aid on student departure from college. The Journal of Human Resources, 37(3), 653679. doi:10.2307/3069685

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DesJardins, S. L., McCall, B. P., Ott, M., & Kim, J. (2010). A quasi-experimental investigation of how the gates millennium scholars program is related to college students’ time use and activities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(4), 456475. doi:10.3102/0162373710380739

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Díaz-Morales, J. F., & Ferrari, J. R. (2015). More time to procrastinators: The role of time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; review, research and application (pp. 305321). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dynarski, S. (2000). Hope for whom? Financial aid for the middle class and its impact on college attendance. National Tax Journal, 53(3), 629661. Retrieved from https://users.nber.org/~dynarski/2000%20Hope%20for%20Whom.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dynarski, S. (2003). Does aid matter? Measuring the effect of student aid on college attendance and completion. American Economic Review, 93(1), 279288. doi:10.1257/000282803321455287

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Effert, B. R., & Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Decisional procrastination, examining personality correlates. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 4, 151156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York, NY: Signet Books.

  • Ferrari, J. R. (1995). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 455458. doi:10.2466/pr0.1991.68.2.455

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrari, J. R., & Emmons, R. A. (1995). Methods of procrastination & their relation to self-control and self-reinforcement. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 10(1), 135142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flet, G., Blankenstein, K. R., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Procrastination, negative self-evaluation, and stress in depression and anxiety: A review of preliminary model. In J. R. Ferrari, J. Johnson, & W. G. McCown (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment (p. 137). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gansemer-Topf, A. M., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Institutional grants: Investing in student retention and graduation. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 35(3), 520. Retrieved from http://www.nasfaa.org/research/Journal/Journal_of_Student_Financial_Aid.aspx

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goroshit, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 131142. doi:10.1080/10852352.2016.1198157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, L. (1982). Minority students’ self-control of procrastination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(6), 636644. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.29.6.636

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross, J. P. K., Hossler, D., & Ziskin, M. (2007). Institutional aid and student persistence: An analysis of the effects of institutional financial aid at public four year institutions. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 37(1), 2839. Retrieved from http://pas.indiana.edu/pdf/Institutional%20Aid.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamrick, F. A., Schuh, J. H., & Shelley, M. C., II. (2004). Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(19), 1. doi:10.14507/epaa.v12n19.2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haycock, L. A. (1998). Good teaching matters: How well-qualified teachers can close the gap. Thinking K–16, 3(2), 314. Retrieved from https://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/NES_Publications/1999_04Haycok_397_1.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counselling and Development, 76(3), 317324. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1998.tb02548.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hooda, M., & Saini, A. (2016). Academic procrastination; A critical issue for consideration. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 6(8), 9899. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327337740_Academic_Procrastination_A_Critical_Issue_for_Consideration

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunt, P. F., Boyd, V. S., Gast, L. K., Mitchell, A., & Wilson, W. (2012). Why some students leave college during their senior year. Journal of College Student Development, 53(5), 737742. doi:10.1353/csd.2012.0068

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurwitz, M. (2012). The impact of institutional grant aid on college choice. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(3), 344363. doi:10.3102/0162373712448957

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussain, E. W. (2006). Towards development an integrated research method in human sciences. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Research Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isakhanli, H. (2018, October 23). Financial aid. Retrieved from http://www.khazar.org

  • Kane, T. J. (2003). A quasi-experimental estimate of the impact of financial aid on college-going (). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J. (2012). Exploring the relationship between state financial aid policy and postsecondary enrollment choices: A focus on income and race differences. Research in Higher Education, 53(2), 123151. doi:10.1007/s11162-011-9244-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 2633. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuh, G. D., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., Andreas, R., Lyons, J., Strange, C. C., Krehbiel, L. E., & MacKay, K. A. (1991). Involving colleges: Successful approaches to fostering student learning and development outside the classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lay, C. H., & Burns, P. (1991). Intentions and behaviour in studying for and examination: The role of trait procrastination and its interaction with optimism. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 6, 605617.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leslie, L., & Brinkman, P. (1987). Student price response in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 58, 181204. doi:10.2307/1981241

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long, B. T. (2008). What is known about the impact of financial aid? Implications for policy (). Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/impact-financial-aid-ncpr.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCown, W., & Johnson, J. (1991). Personality and chronic procrastination by university students during an academic examination period. Personality and Individual differences, 12(5), 413415. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90058-J

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCown, W., Johnson, J., & Petzel, T. (1989). Procrastination, a principal components analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(2), 197202. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(89)90204-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgram, N. A., Batori, G., & Mowrer, D. (1993). Correlates of academic procrastination. Journal of School Psychology, 31(4), 487500. doi:10.1016/0022-4405(93)90033-F

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgram, N. A., Gehrman, T., & Keinan, G. (1992). Procrastination and emotional upset: A typological model. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(12), 13071313. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(92)90173-M

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgram, N. A., Yearwood, T., Khurgel, T., Ivy, G. O., & Racine, R. (1991). Changes in inhibitory processes in the hippocampus following recurrent seizures induced by systemic administration of kainic acid. Brain Research, 551, 236246. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(91)90938-R

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millea, M., Wills, R., Elder, A., & Molina, D. (2018). What matters in college student success? determinants of college retention and graduation rates. Education, 138(4), 309322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrow, J., & Ackermann, M. (2012). Intention to persist and retention of first-year students: The importance of motivation and sense of belonging. College Student Journal, 46(3), 483491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mumper, M. (1999). HOPE and its critics: Sorting out the competing claims about Georgia’s HOPE scholarship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, San Antonio, TX.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nonis, S. A., & Hudson, G. I. (2006). Academic performance of college students: Influence of time spent studying and working. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 151159. doi:10.3200/JOEB.81.3.151-159

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noran, F. Y. (2000). Procrastination among students in institutes of higher learning: Challenges for K-Economy. Retrieved from http://www.mahdzan.com/papers/procrastinate/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paludi, M. A., & Frankell-Hauser, J. (1986). An idiographic approach to the study of women’s achievement striving. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 10(1), 89100. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1986.tb00738.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pindyck, R. S., & Rubinfeld, D. L. (2005). Microeconomics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

  • Powell, R. L., & Manion, L. (1997). Basic research methods for librarians (3rd ed.). Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

  • Ramsey, J. (2010). Expanding access and opportunity: The impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., & Carlstrom, A., (2004). Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 261288. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.2.261

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387394. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.33.4.387

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Tangen, J. A., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Experiences of undergoing internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: A qualitative study. Internet Interventions, 2(3), 314322. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2015.05.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samuel, J. (1751). As quoted in Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A metal–analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 6594. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott-Clayton, J. (2011). On money and motivation: A quasi-experimental analysis of financial incentives for college achievement. Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 614646. doi:10.1353/jhr.2011.0013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). What explains trend in labor supply among U.S undergraduates, 1970–2009? National Tax Journal, 65(1), 181210. doi:10.17310/ntj.2012.1.07

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sirois, F. M., & Pychyl, T. A (2002, August 22). Academic procrastination: Cost health and well-being. Paper presented at APA convention, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://www.carleton.ca/~typcy1/prg/conferences/apa2002/apaslides2002/sld001.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioural correlates. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 31(4), 503509. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St. John, E. P., Hu, S., Simmons, A., Carter, D. F., & Weber, J. (2004). What difference does it make? The influence of college major field on persistence by African American and White students. Research in Higher Education, 45(3), 209232. doi:10.1023/B:RIHE.0000019587.46953.9d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stinebrickner, R., & Stinebrickner, T. R. (2003). Working during school and academic performance. Journal of Labor Economics, 21(2), 473491. doi:10.1086/345565

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Svanum, S., & Bigatti, S. M. (2009). Academic course engagement during one semester forecasts college success: Engaged students are more likely to earn a degree, do it faster, and do it better. Journal of College Student Development, 50(1), 120132. doi:10.1353/csd.0.0055

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454458. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00460.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89125. doi:10.3102/00346543045001089

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toby, J. (2010). How scholarships morphed into financial aid. Academic Questions, 23(3), 298310. doi:10.1007/s12129-010-9174-y

  • Trent, W. T., & St. John, E. P. (Eds.). (2008). Resources, assets, and strengths among successful diverse students: Understanding the contributions of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program (Readings on Equal Education, Vol. 23). New York, NY: AMS Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wetzel, J., O’Toole, D., & Peterson, S. (1999). Factors affecting student retention probabilities. Journal of Economics and Finance, 23(1), 4555. doi:10.1007/BF02752686

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wesley, J. C. (1994). Effects of ability, high school achievement, and procrastinatory behaviour on college performance. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(2), 404408. doi:10.1177/0013164494054002014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Ziesat, H., Rosenthal, C., & White, B. J. (1978). Trait procrastination and the Big-Five factors of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4), 481490. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)00176-S

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, J., Robbins, S. B., Casillas, A., & Oh, I. S. (2008). Third-year college retention and transfer: Effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 647664. doi:10.1007/s11162-008-9098-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American College Health Association. (2013). National College Health Assessment II: Reference group data report spring 2013. Hanover, MD: American College Health Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, C. N., & Robnett, B. (2012). Race, social support and college student retention: A case study. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 325335. doi:10.1353/csd.2012.0025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(3), 610620. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.46.3.610

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, B. L., Koons, S. R., & Milgrim, D. L. (2000). Correlates and consequences of behavioural procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem, and self-handicapping. In J. R. Ferrari & T. A. Pychyl (Eds.), Procrastination: Current issues and new directions (special issue). Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 15(3), 313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23(2), 207217. doi:10.1080/00050068808255605

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boatman, A., & Long, B. T. (2016). Does financial aid impact college student engagement? Evidence from the gates millennium scholars program. Research in Higher Education, 57(6), 653681. doi:10.1007/s11162-015-9402-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R. T. (1991). Helping students confront and deal with stress and procrastination. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 6(2), 87102. doi:10.1300/J035v06n02_09

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coonrod, L. (2008). The effects of financial aid amounts on academic performance. The Park Place Economist, 16, 2425. Retrieved from www.iwu.edu/economics/PPE16/PPE2008-3.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeSimone, J. S. (2008). The impact of employment during school on college student academic performance (). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2002). Simulating the longitudinal effects of changes in financial aid on student departure from college. The Journal of Human Resources, 37(3), 653679. doi:10.2307/3069685

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DesJardins, S. L., McCall, B. P., Ott, M., & Kim, J. (2010). A quasi-experimental investigation of how the gates millennium scholars program is related to college students’ time use and activities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(4), 456475. doi:10.3102/0162373710380739

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Díaz-Morales, J. F., & Ferrari, J. R. (2015). More time to procrastinators: The role of time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; review, research and application (pp. 305321). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dynarski, S. (2000). Hope for whom? Financial aid for the middle class and its impact on college attendance. National Tax Journal, 53(3), 629661. Retrieved from https://users.nber.org/~dynarski/2000%20Hope%20for%20Whom.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dynarski, S. (2003). Does aid matter? Measuring the effect of student aid on college attendance and completion. American Economic Review, 93(1), 279288. doi:10.1257/000282803321455287

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Effert, B. R., & Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Decisional procrastination, examining personality correlates. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 4, 151156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York, NY: Signet Books.

  • Ferrari, J. R. (1995). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 455458. doi:10.2466/pr0.1991.68.2.455

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrari, J. R., & Emmons, R. A. (1995). Methods of procrastination & their relation to self-control and self-reinforcement. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 10(1), 135142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flet, G., Blankenstein, K. R., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Procrastination, negative self-evaluation, and stress in depression and anxiety: A review of preliminary model. In J. R. Ferrari, J. Johnson, & W. G. McCown (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment (p. 137). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gansemer-Topf, A. M., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Institutional grants: Investing in student retention and graduation. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 35(3), 520. Retrieved from http://www.nasfaa.org/research/Journal/Journal_of_Student_Financial_Aid.aspx

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goroshit, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 131142. doi:10.1080/10852352.2016.1198157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, L. (1982). Minority students’ self-control of procrastination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(6), 636644. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.29.6.636

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross, J. P. K., Hossler, D., & Ziskin, M. (2007). Institutional aid and student persistence: An analysis of the effects of institutional financial aid at public four year institutions. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 37(1), 2839. Retrieved from http://pas.indiana.edu/pdf/Institutional%20Aid.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamrick, F. A., Schuh, J. H., & Shelley, M. C., II. (2004). Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(19), 1. doi:10.14507/epaa.v12n19.2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haycock, L. A. (1998). Good teaching matters: How well-qualified teachers can close the gap. Thinking K–16, 3(2), 314. Retrieved from https://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/NES_Publications/1999_04Haycok_397_1.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counselling and Development, 76(3), 317324. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1998.tb02548.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hooda, M., & Saini, A. (2016). Academic procrastination; A critical issue for consideration. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 6(8), 9899. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327337740_Academic_Procrastination_A_Critical_Issue_for_Consideration

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunt, P. F., Boyd, V. S., Gast, L. K., Mitchell, A., & Wilson, W. (2012). Why some students leave college during their senior year. Journal of College Student Development, 53(5), 737742. doi:10.1353/csd.2012.0068

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurwitz, M. (2012). The impact of institutional grant aid on college choice. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(3), 344363. doi:10.3102/0162373712448957

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussain, E. W. (2006). Towards development an integrated research method in human sciences. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Research Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isakhanli, H. (2018, October 23). Financial aid. Retrieved from http://www.khazar.org

  • Kane, T. J. (2003). A quasi-experimental estimate of the impact of financial aid on college-going (). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J. (2012). Exploring the relationship between state financial aid policy and postsecondary enrollment choices: A focus on income and race differences. Research in Higher Education, 53(2), 123151. doi:10.1007/s11162-011-9244-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 2633. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuh, G. D., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., Andreas, R., Lyons, J., Strange, C. C., Krehbiel, L. E., & MacKay, K. A. (1991). Involving colleges: Successful approaches to fostering student learning and development outside the classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lay, C. H., & Burns, P. (1991). Intentions and behaviour in studying for and examination: The role of trait procrastination and its interaction with optimism. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 6, 605617.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leslie, L., & Brinkman, P. (1987). Student price response in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 58, 181204. doi:10.2307/1981241

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long, B. T. (2008). What is known about the impact of financial aid? Implications for policy (). Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/impact-financial-aid-ncpr.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCown, W., & Johnson, J. (1991). Personality and chronic procrastination by university students during an academic examination period. Personality and Individual differences, 12(5), 413415. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90058-J

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCown, W., Johnson, J., & Petzel, T. (1989). Procrastination, a principal components analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(2), 197202. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(89)90204-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgram, N. A., Batori, G., & Mowrer, D. (1993). Correlates of academic procrastination. Journal of School Psychology, 31(4), 487500. doi:10.1016/0022-4405(93)90033-F

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgram, N. A., Gehrman, T., & Keinan, G. (1992). Procrastination and emotional upset: A typological model. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(12), 13071313. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(92)90173-M

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgram, N. A., Yearwood, T., Khurgel, T., Ivy, G. O., & Racine, R. (1991). Changes in inhibitory processes in the hippocampus following recurrent seizures induced by systemic administration of kainic acid. Brain Research, 551, 236246. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(91)90938-R

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millea, M., Wills, R., Elder, A., & Molina, D. (2018). What matters in college student success? determinants of college retention and graduation rates. Education, 138(4), 309322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrow, J., & Ackermann, M. (2012). Intention to persist and retention of first-year students: The importance of motivation and sense of belonging. College Student Journal, 46(3), 483491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mumper, M. (1999). HOPE and its critics: Sorting out the competing claims about Georgia’s HOPE scholarship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, San Antonio, TX.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nonis, S. A., & Hudson, G. I. (2006). Academic performance of college students: Influence of time spent studying and working. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 151159. doi:10.3200/JOEB.81.3.151-159

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noran, F. Y. (2000). Procrastination among students in institutes of higher learning: Challenges for K-Economy. Retrieved from http://www.mahdzan.com/papers/procrastinate/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paludi, M. A., & Frankell-Hauser, J. (1986). An idiographic approach to the study of women’s achievement striving. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 10(1), 89100. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1986.tb00738.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pindyck, R. S., & Rubinfeld, D. L. (2005). Microeconomics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

  • Powell, R. L., & Manion, L. (1997). Basic research methods for librarians (3rd ed.). Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

  • Ramsey, J. (2010). Expanding access and opportunity: The impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., & Carlstrom, A., (2004). Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 261288. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.2.261

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387394. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.33.4.387

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rozental, A., Forsström, D., Tangen, J. A., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Experiences of undergoing internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: A qualitative study. Internet Interventions, 2(3), 314322. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2015.05.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samuel, J. (1751). As quoted in Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A metal–analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 6594. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott-Clayton, J. (2011). On money and motivation: A quasi-experimental analysis of financial incentives for college achievement. Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 614646. doi:10.1353/jhr.2011.0013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). What explains trend in labor supply among U.S undergraduates, 1970–2009? National Tax Journal, 65(1), 181210. doi:10.17310/ntj.2012.1.07

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sirois, F. M., & Pychyl, T. A (2002, August 22). Academic procrastination: Cost health and well-being. Paper presented at APA convention, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://www.carleton.ca/~typcy1/prg/conferences/apa2002/apaslides2002/sld001.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioural correlates. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 31(4), 503509. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St. John, E. P., Hu, S., Simmons, A., Carter, D. F., & Weber, J. (2004). What difference does it make? The influence of college major field on persistence by African American and White students. Research in Higher Education, 45(3), 209232. doi:10.1023/B:RIHE.0000019587.46953.9d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stinebrickner, R., & Stinebrickner, T. R. (2003). Working during school and academic performance. Journal of Labor Economics, 21(2), 473491. doi:10.1086/345565

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Svanum, S., & Bigatti, S. M. (2009). Academic course engagement during one semester forecasts college success: Engaged students are more likely to earn a degree, do it faster, and do it better. Journal of College Student Development, 50(1), 120132. doi:10.1353/csd.0.0055

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454458. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00460.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89125. doi:10.3102/00346543045001089

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toby, J. (2010). How scholarships morphed into financial aid. Academic Questions, 23(3), 298310. doi:10.1007/s12129-010-9174-y

  • Trent, W. T., & St. John, E. P. (Eds.). (2008). Resources, assets, and strengths among successful diverse students: Understanding the contributions of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program (Readings on Equal Education, Vol. 23). New York, NY: AMS Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wetzel, J., O’Toole, D., & Peterson, S. (1999). Factors affecting student retention probabilities. Journal of Economics and Finance, 23(1), 4555. doi:10.1007/BF02752686

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wesley, J. C. (1994). Effects of ability, high school achievement, and procrastinatory behaviour on college performance. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(2), 404408. doi:10.1177/0013164494054002014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Ziesat, H., Rosenthal, C., & White, B. J. (1978). Trait procrastination and the Big-Five factors of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4), 481490. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)00176-S

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
The author instruction is available in PDF. Please download the file from HERE
 
The Submissions template is available in MS Word.
Please, download the file from HERE
Please, download the file from HERE (For book reviews).

 

 

Senior Editors

Founding Editor: Tamás Kozma (Debrecen University)

Editor-in-ChiefAnikó Fehérvári (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Assistant Editor: Eszter Bükki (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University)

Associate editors: 
Karolina Eszter Kovács (Debrecen University)
Valéria Markos (Debrecen University)
Zsolt Kristóf (Debrecen University)

 

Editorial Board

  • Tamas Bereczkei (University of Pécs)
  • Mark Bray (University of Hong Kong)
  • John Brennan (London School of Economics)
  • Carmel Cefai (University of Malta)
  • Laszlo Csernoch (University of Debrecen)
  • Katalin R Forray (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Zsolt Demetrovics (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Csaba Jancsak (University of Szeged)
  • Gabor Halasz (Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest)
  • Stephen Heyneman (Vanderbilt University, Nashville)
  • Katalin Keri (University of Pecs)
  • Marek Kwiek (Poznan University)
  • Joanna Madalinska-Michalak (University of Warszawa)
  • John Morgan (Cardiff University)
  • Roberto Moscati (University of Milan-Bicocca)
  • Guy Neave (Twente University, Enschede)
  • Andrea Ohidy (University of Freiburg)
  • Bela Pukanszky (University of Szeged)
  • Gabriella Pusztai (University of Debrecen)
  • Peter Toth (HERA Hungarian Educational Research Association)
  • Juergen Schriewer (Humboldt University, Berlin)
  • Ulrich Teichler (University of Kassel)
  • Voldemar Tomusk (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallin)
  • Horst Weishaupt (DIPF German Institute for International Educational Research, Frankfurt a.M)
  • Pavel Zgaga (University of Ljubljana)

 

Address of editorial office

Dr. Anikó Fehérvári
Institute of Education, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: 23-27. Kazinczy út 1075 Budapest, Hungary
E-mail: herj@ppk.elte.hu

2020  
CrossRef Documents 36
WoS Cites 10
Wos H-index 3
Days from submission to acceptance 127
Days from acceptance to publication 142
Acceptance Rate 53%

2019  
WoS
Cites
22
CrossRef
Documents
48

 

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Publication Model Gold Open Access
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge none
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency  
Further Discounts Gold Open Access
Subscription Information Gold Open Access
Purchase per Title  

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2011
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 11
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Nevelés- és Oktatáskutatók Egyesülete – Hungarian Educational Research Association
Founder's
Address
H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary Pf 17
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2064-2199 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Apr 2021 0 60 16
May 2021 0 48 51
Jun 2021 0 37 39
Jul 2021 0 17 12
Aug 2021 0 27 70
Sep 2021 0 37 36
Oct 2021 0 0 0