Preserving functional compounds of food and fruits is a must. Loading different compounds in a contiguous capsule is known as encapsulation. The benefits of encapsulation include reducing the rate of environmental conversion, facilitating transport, especially in liquid and gases, and protecting desirable and covering undesirable properties during storage (Mortazavi et al., 2008). Two important encapsulating processes are spray drying and liposome entrapment. Spray drying encapsulation is a flexible, easy to use, and economical method (it costs 30–50 times less than freeze drying) to convert solutions into high quality powders. Maltodextrin as a carbohydrate is a proper wall material, which can protect oils from oxidisation, but its emulsifying capacity, emulsion stabilising ability, and core preserving properties are weak. Liposome is a special spherical structure composed of many phospholipid units. These units are located radially adjacent to each other. The hydrophilic heads of the molecules are located outside, and the hydrophobic tails point inwards. Therefore, a stable globule with a hydrophilic surface is formed in an aqueous solution. The size of capsules is in the range of micron to nanometre (Saenz et al., 2009; Fang & Bhandari, 2010).
This study was supported by the Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
ABDALLA, A.E. & ROOZEN, J.P. (2001): The effects of stabilized extracts of sage and oregano on the oxidation of salad dressings. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 212, 551–560.
AHMED, M., AKTER, M.S., LEE, J.C. & EUN, J.B. (2010): Encapsulation by spray drying of bioactive components, physicochemical and morphological properties from purple sweet potato. LWT – Food Sci. Technol., 43, 1307–1312.
BERENJI ARDESTANI, S., SAHARI, M.A. & BARZEGAR, M. (2016): Effect of extraction and processing conditions on anthocyanins of barberry. J. Food Process. Pres., 40, 1407–1420.
BSKOWSKA-BARCZAK, A.M. & KOLODZIEJCZYK, P.P. (2011): Black currant polyphenols: Their storage stability and microencapsulation. Ind. Crop Prod., 34, 1301–1309.
FAN, M., XU, S.H., XIA, S.H. & ZHANG, X. (2007): Effects of different preparation methods on physicochemical properties of Salidroside liposomes. J. Agr. Food Chem., 55, 3089–3095.
FANG, J.Y., HUNG, C.F., LIAO, M.H. & CHIEN, C.C. (2007): A study of the formulation design of acoustically active lipospheres as carriers for drug delivery. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 67, 67–75.
GIBIS, M., VOGT, E. & WEISS, J. (2012): Encapsulation of polyphenolic grape seed extract in polymer-coated liposomes. Food Funct., 3 , 246–254.
GORTZI, O., LALAS, S., CHINOU, I. & TSAKINS, J. (2006): Reevaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Thymus spp. extracts before and after encapsulation in liposomes. J. Food Protect., 69, 2998–3005.
GORTZI, O., LALAS, S., CHINOU, I. & TSAKINS, J. (2007): Reevaluation of bioactivity and antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis extract before and after encapsulation in liposomes. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 226, 583–590.
LITWINIENKO, G., KASPRZYCKA-GUTTMAN, T. & STUDZINSKI, M. (1997): Effects on selected phenol derivatives on the autoxidation of linolenic acid investigated by DSC non-isothermal methods. Thermochim. Acta, 307, 97– 106.
LU, Q., LI, D.C. & JIANG, J.G. (2011): Preparation of a tea polyphenol nano liposomes system and its physicochemical properties. J. Agr. Food Chem., 59, 13004–13011.
MOHAN, C. (2003): A guide for the preparation and use of buffers in biological systems . EMD Biosciences, Inc., An affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. p. 37.
MORTAZAVI, A., MOTAMEDZADEGAN, A. & ZIAOLHAGH, H.R. (2008): Non-thermal preservation of food. Ferdowsi university of Mashhad Publishing, Mashhad, Iran (In Farsi), 1st ed., pp. 219–291.
MOTALLEB, G., HANACHI, P., KUA, S.H., FAUZIAH, O. & ASMAH, R. (2005): Evaluation of phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in Berberis vulgaris fruit extract. J. Biol. Sci., 5, 648–653.
NAYAK, C.A. & RASTOGI, N.K. (2010): Effect of selected additives on microencapsulation of anthocyanin by spray drying. Dry. Technol., 28, 1396–1404.
PAIVA-MARTINS, F., GORDON, M.H. & GAMEIRO, P. (2003): Activity and location of olive oil phenolic antioxidants in liposomes. Chem. Phys. Lipids., 124, 23–36.
ROBERT, P., GORENA, T., ROMERO, N., SEPULVEDA, E., CHAVEZ, J. & SAENZ, C. (2010): Encapsulation of polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate (Punica granatum) by spray drying. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 45, 1386–1394.
ROBERTS, W.G. & GORDON, M.H. (2003): Determination of the total antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables by a liposome assay. J. Agr. Food Chem., 51, 1486–1493.
SAENZ, C., TAPIA, S., CHAVEZ, J. & ROBERT, P. (2009): Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). Food Chem., 114 , 616–622.
SHISHIKURA, Y., KHOKHAR, S. & MURRAY, B.S. (2006): Effects of tea polyphenols of olive oil in a small intestine model system. J. Agr. Food Chem., 54, 1906–1913.
TONON, R.V., BRABET, C. & HUBINGER, M.D. (2010): Anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of spray-dried acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice produced with Different carrier agents. Food Res. Int., 43, 907–914.