Some heteropterous insects (Eurygaster spp., Aelia spp.) called as suni-bug or wheat bug cause preharvest damage to wheat. They attack developing wheat kernels and leave their salivary secretions containing proteolytic enzymes in the grain. Damaged wheat results in a sticky dough and bread with low volume with poor crust and crumb (Karababa & Ozan, 1998).
The bug protease is active over a broad pH range (pH 3.0–11.0) and has maximum activity at pH 8.5. The optimum temperature of this protease is 35 °C (Sivri & Köksel, 2000). Heat treatment at 70 °C for 2.0–3.0 min and hot tempering applications at 70 °C for 30 min improved the quality of suni-bug damaged wheats (Dıraman & Demirci, 1997). Some natural and synthetic inhibitors, chemicals (NaCI, CaCI2, KH2PO4, organic acids), or additives (L-ascorbic acid, transglutaminase, glucose oxidase) in the bread formula resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity; and short-time fermentation and low temperature processing improved baking quality (Diraman et al., 1998; Sivri & Köksel, 2002; Olanca & Sivri Özay, 2015).
Sourdough bread making is an ancient method to improve bread quality and increase the shelf-life of bread (Arendt et al., 2007). L. sanfranciscensis, L. plantarum, and S. cerevisiae are the most frequently isolated species from sourdough, and they are positively related to the sensory quality of sourdough breads (Gobbetti et al., 2005). Liquid rye sour is a kind of additive used in the bakery industry in order to increase the acidity of the dough and bread with a specific light sour taste and pleasant aroma (Decock & Cappelle, 2005).
In this study, sourdough as an ancient technology and liquid rye sour were firstly used in bread formula in order to increase baking quality of bug-damaged wheat flours. Sourdoughs were prepared with L. plantarum (SD1) and L. sanfranciscensis (SD2), and liquid rye sour and proteolytic activity were monitored by SDS-PAGE. The applications having low protease activity were performed for high protease activity flour HPAWF in baking studies. In addition, effects of these applications were repeated for low protease activity flour (LPAWF).
The authors would like to thank Field Crops Central Research Institute, Ankara (Turkey); Plant Protection Research Station, Diyarbakır (Turkey); Ireks Food Industry (Turkey) for supplying research materials.
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)| false , … & , Di Cagno, R. , De Angelis, M. , Lavermiccocca, P. , De Vincenzi, M. Giovanni, C. ( Gobbettl, M. 2002): Proteolysis by sourdough lactic acid bacteria: Effects on wheat flour protein fractions and gliadin peptides involved in human cereal intolerance. Appl Environ. Microb., 68, 623- 633.
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