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  • 1 Institute of Land Utilisation, Technology and Regional Development, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • | 2 Institute of Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi út 138, H-4032Debrecen, Hungary
Open access

Abstract

The presented research aimed to confirm that the differences in the lipid peroxidation of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes and maturity are due to different nitrogen levels, which was observed based on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) measured in the leaves at the main phenological stages of plants. The experiments were performed in a multi-factorial long term fertilisation field trial. In the study, phosphorus and potassium were constantly provided at the optimal level for the plants. The phosphorus and potassium fertilisation were applied in autumn. However, N levels varied from 0 to 300 kg ha−1. Sampling was done at different growth stages 5 times during the growing season (4 leaves, 6 leaves, 8 leaves, 14 leaves, silking). The 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA level), but not a statistically significant difference between the control (dose 1) and the 120 kg ha−1 (dose 2) N doses. The H1 hybrid had the lowest level of lipid peroxidation at the first sampling date. High volume nitrogen fertilisation (dose 3: 300 kg ha−1) increased lipid peroxidation in the hybrids. Averaging the values obtained for the same hybrid at the different sampling times, the medium (dose 2) 120 kg ha−1 N treatment had no significant effect on the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids compared to the values of the control plants. Based on the lipid peroxidation response of the hybrids to N treatment, the exact N dose inflection point can be determined to make the fertiliser utilisation of plants more efficient. Based on our results, we found that inadequate, low (120 kg ha−1) or high (300 kg ha−1) nitrogen fertilisation could affect the MDA levels of plants, thereby affecting the functioning of the lipid peroxidation mechanism.

Abstract

The presented research aimed to confirm that the differences in the lipid peroxidation of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes and maturity are due to different nitrogen levels, which was observed based on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) measured in the leaves at the main phenological stages of plants. The experiments were performed in a multi-factorial long term fertilisation field trial. In the study, phosphorus and potassium were constantly provided at the optimal level for the plants. The phosphorus and potassium fertilisation were applied in autumn. However, N levels varied from 0 to 300 kg ha−1. Sampling was done at different growth stages 5 times during the growing season (4 leaves, 6 leaves, 8 leaves, 14 leaves, silking). The 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA level), but not a statistically significant difference between the control (dose 1) and the 120 kg ha−1 (dose 2) N doses. The H1 hybrid had the lowest level of lipid peroxidation at the first sampling date. High volume nitrogen fertilisation (dose 3: 300 kg ha−1) increased lipid peroxidation in the hybrids. Averaging the values obtained for the same hybrid at the different sampling times, the medium (dose 2) 120 kg ha−1 N treatment had no significant effect on the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids compared to the values of the control plants. Based on the lipid peroxidation response of the hybrids to N treatment, the exact N dose inflection point can be determined to make the fertiliser utilisation of plants more efficient. Based on our results, we found that inadequate, low (120 kg ha−1) or high (300 kg ha−1) nitrogen fertilisation could affect the MDA levels of plants, thereby affecting the functioning of the lipid peroxidation mechanism.

1 Introduction

Precision crop production and precision nutrient replenishment are essential factors in modern agricultural practice. New maize hybrids can be classified with the help of accurate knowledge of plant nutrient requirements and responses. As our climate becomes extreme, the weather exposure to crop production will increase further, which will require the production of hybrid lines that successfully adapt to the environment. Different hybrids are bred to meet different environmental and cultivation technology needs, one of the most important demands being abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. Depending on the type, cultivar, age, and soil conditions, nitrogen is absorbed by plants in the form of ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3−) (Tömösközi-Farkas et al., 2014).

Lipids and oils may be damaged during food storage. It can be caused by enzyme actions but also by temperature changes. Peroxide formation is the most significant out of the oxidative changes. Peroxidation of lipids takes place in a system with active oxygen that is associated with a high degree of instability of unsaturated fatty acids. Peroxidation of fatty acids in foods leads to undesirable changes in taste and odour, a decrease in enjoyment value (St Angelo et al., 2009). Studying lipid peroxidation that causes flavour degradation in raw materials and foods plays an important role in controlling quality in the food industry requires and plays an important role in flavour degradation in raw materials and foods (Kosáry et al., 2002). Oxidation products, when reacting with other food components, may cause several adverse changes (discolouration, digestibility of proteins, and loss of biological value). Odour and taste changes during the storage of cereals are due to lipid oxidation, during which volatile and non-volatile substances are formed (Doblado-Maldonado et al., 2012) Due to lipid peroxidation, volatile compounds with intense odour can be detected in foods. These include unsaturated acyl lipids, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The reduction or prevention of the oxidation of lipids increases the enjoyment value of stored crops significantly (Heiniö et al., 2003). Trans fatty acids in foods can pose a serious health risk, cardiovascular diseases may develop due to excessive consumption, and their legislation is of outmost importance inside and outside of the EU as well (Zuchowska-Grzywacz and Kowalska, 2019). Sargis and Subbaiah (2003) found that trans unsaturated fatty acids are less oxidisable than cis forms and protect endogenous lipids from oxidation in lipoproteins.

Plant stress means any change of the optimal growth and development factors, which may alter or damage the metabolic homeostasis of the plants. As a result of the changes induced by the stress factors, new metabolic and physiological pathways must be created to restore the metabolic balance of the plants. This process is called acclimatisation (Shulaev et al., 2008).

According to the findings of Larcher (1987), plant stress contains both constructive and destructive elements that act as selection factors and allow for better resistance, and together constitute the driving force for adaptive evolution. Under stress, plants produce signalling molecules that trigger a process that affects the ability of plants to acclimatise, but can also lead to programmed cell death (Nabi et al., 2019).

The correlation between the functioning of the antioxidant defence system of plants and the degree of lipid peroxidation has been the subject of several studies (Gossett et al., 1994; Hernández and Almansa, 2002). Lipid peroxidation is a marker process that can be used to monitor the stress status of plants. In the scope of the research of Bojtor and co-workers (2019) performed with edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), artificial biotic stress increased the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plants with an average of 14.03 nmol MDA/g FW to 76.78 ± 9.18, i.e., increased lipid peroxidation was observed. In the scope of the examination of lipid peroxidation, the degree of generated MDA indicates the degree of activity of the process (Heath and Packer, 1968). Research findings support the view that signalling mediated by reactive lipid forms is involved in some physiological processes, including, but not limited to, apoptosis and induction of antioxidant defence (Bhattacharjee, 2014). The present research aimed to evaluate the differences in lipid peroxidation of three maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) with different genotypes and maturity in the main phenological stages of plants based on the level of MDA measured in the leaves.

2 Materials and methods

The experiment was performed at the Látókép Crop Production Experimental Plant of the University of Debrecen with three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids of different genotypes (Hybrid 1: FAO 400, Hybrid 2: FAO 490, Hybrid 3: FAO 380). The long-term experiment started 1986 and has been running with unchanged nutrient supplementation since then. We measured the MDA levels of hybrids in 2019 growing season. In the studied experimental area, there was a positive temperature difference between April and September in the average of the summer periods of the last 5 years compared to the 30-year average (Gombos and Nagy, 2019).

The trial of multiple decades provides the possibility for the long-term study of the effects of nutrient supply, eliminating the discrepancy due to environmental and agro-technical variables. In the scope of base cultivation, autumn deep ploughing and autumn base fertiliser were applied. In the examined plots, phosphorus and potassium were constantly provided at the optimal level for the plant by autumn application, but the nitrogen supplementation varied between 0 and 300 kg ha−1 (Dose 1: 0 kg ha−1 N, Dose 2: 120 kg ha−1 N, Dose 3: 300 kg ha−1 N). There was no additional nutrient supplementation in the control plots either organic or inorganic for the last 30 years. From a pedological point of view, the area is calcareous chernozem soil formed on loess, Arany’s plasticity index is KA = 43–45, level of humus content is average (Hu% = 2.7–2.8), the thickness of the humus layer is around 80 cm (Nagy, 2019).

Sampling was performed 5 times during the growing season. Sampling times were based on heat sums and phenological phases: 1st sampling 4 leaves – 153 heat sum, 2nd sampling 6 leaves – 221 heat sum, 3rd sampling 8 leaves – 341 heat sum, 4th sampling 14 leaves – 630 heat sum, and 5th sampling silking – 779 heat sum. One gram of green plant leaf sample was collected without the leaf vein at the same time of day at 9 am after dew drying.

Samples were taken from the 4th adult leaf during the first three samplings, from the 10th adult leaf at the 4th samplings, and the leaf opposite the ear at the last sampling. After sampling, samples were transported in liquid nitrogen and stored in a −80 °C deep freezer until processing.

Concentrations of lipid peroxides were calculated from the MDA content. MDA was determined based on the description of Thomas et al. (2004), with an extinction coefficient of 155 mM−1 cm−1 given for 1 g fresh weight.
ConcentrationofMDA(mM)=(A532A600)/155

As for its design, the experiment is a two-factor, striped, four-replicate, small-plot, long-term field experiment that allows for appropriate statistical evaluation. Sampling was conducted in 5 replications. The statistical analysis was performed in R studio 3.2.4. The graphs were created with MS Excel 2019.

3 Results and discussion

The physiological responses of maize grown with the application of a large amount of fertiliser (300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3)) have long raised the question of how the antioxidant defence system responds and what effect it has on lipid peroxidation.

As a result of nitrogen fertilisation, the amount of MDA measured in maize leaves changed significantly during the growing season. Dose 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) resulted in a significant increase in MDA content, but there was no statistical difference between 0 kg ha−1 (dose 1) and 120 kg ha−1 (dose 2) N treatments. Between sampling times, MDA levels changed significantly at all three nutrient levels (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effect of different nitrogen fertilisation levels on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) of maize at different sampling dates (LSD5 = 0.207, n = 15) (Dose 1 = 0 kg ha−1 N, Dose 2 = 120 kg ha−1 N, Dose 3 = 300 kg ha−1 N)

Citation: Acta Alimentaria 50, 2; 10.1556/066.2020.00177

The amounts of MDA measured in the examined hybrids differed during the vegetation period. The H1 hybrid had the lowest level of lipid peroxidation at the first sampling time (Fig. 2). For H1 and H3 hybrids, the MDA content showed an increasing trend during the early stage of growing season and then for H1 it decreased from the 14-leaf stage, whereas for H3 hybrid it increased at the end of the growing season.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) of maize hybrids at different sampling dates (LSD5 = 0.020, n = 15) Hybrid 1: FAO 400, Hybrid 2: FAO 490, Hybrid 3: FAO 380)

Citation: Acta Alimentaria 50, 2; 10.1556/066.2020.00177

There was a statistically significant difference in lipid peroxidation between 4 leaf, 8 leaf, 14 leaf and silking in each hybrids. There was no difference between 0 kg ha−1 and 120 kg ha−1 in the lipid peroxidation of the H1 and H2 hybrids during the 6-leaf stage sampling.

In the early developmental phase, the H2 hybrid had higher MDA values than the H1 hybrid, but between the 8-leaf and 14-leaf stages, i.e. in the phenological phases, the stage of the ear formation (8 leaf – 14 leaf) was lower important on differentiation the level of MDA, as was lipid peroxidation. The MDA levels of H1 and H2 increased during the growing season until 8-leaf stage and then decreased as the growing season progressed (Fig. 3.)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effect of 120 kg ha−1 N on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) of maize hybrids at 5 development stages (LSD5 = 0.049, n = 15)

Citation: Acta Alimentaria 50, 2; 10.1556/066.2020.00177

On the average of nitrogen doses and sampling dates, the lowest MDA level was measured for the H3 hybrid, therefore this hybrid had the highest capacity for toleration of biotic or abiotic stresses (Fig. 4A).

Fig. 4A.
Fig. 4A.

Average lipid peroxidation of maize hybrids during the growing season (LSD5 = 0.053, n = 75) (Hybrid 1: FAO 400, Hybrid 2: FAO 490, Hybrid 3: FAO 380). 4B. Average effect of different nitrogen fertilisation levels on the lipid peroxidation of maize (LSD5 = 0.053, n = 75) (Dose 1 = 0 kg ha−1 N, Dose 2 = 120 kg ha−1 N, Dose 3 = 300 kg ha−1 N)

Citation: Acta Alimentaria 50, 2; 10.1556/066.2020.00177

High level nitrogen fertilisation (dose 3) of 300 kg ha−1 increased the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids. In the average MDA values of the sampling times, the control (dose 1) and medium (dose 2, 120 kg ha−1 N) nitrogen fertilisation had no significant effect on the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids (Fig. 4A). For each examined hybrid, 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) fertiliser supplementation significantly increased the MDA content (Fig. 4B).

Nitrogen plays an important role in antioxidant defence enzymes of maize and lipid peroxidation metabolism of stress products (Zhang and Liu, 2001). Zhan and co-workers (2007) showed that high-dose macronutrient fertilisation, especially nitrogen, could influence the antioxidant enzyme system and the degree of lipid peroxidation. Depending on the amount of nitrogen fertilisation the extent of lipid peroxidation varies, thereby sharpening the effect of transition at the end of the growing season and having an effect on senescence. Similar results were obtained in the studies of Liu and co-workers (2012), where excessive nitrogen fertilisation increased the rate of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, moderate N application is an effective method to prevent the early senescence of leaves. Improper, low or high, levels of nitrogen fertilisation might interfere with the functioning of the antioxidant enzyme system and thereby increasing the amount of MDA. Excessive nitrogen addition can increase lipid peroxidation increasing the MDA content reducing leaf photosynthesis under water stress according to Kong and co-workers (2017). The results show that the addition of nitrogen increases the production and drought tolerance of products by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing lipid peroxidation as stated by Zhan and co-workers (2007).

4 Conclusions

The degree of nitrogen fertilisation had a significant effect on the measurable MDA content in the leaves at every sampling time. There was no statistical difference in the MDA levels between the control (dose 1) and the 120 kg N ha−1 (dose 2) nutrient level, but the high nutrient level of 300 kg N ha−1 (dose 3) significantly increased lipid peroxidation at every sampling time from the 4-leaf stage until silking. There was a difference in the degree of lipid peroxidation between the three examined hybrids. Averaging all obtained values from every sampling time and N supplementation levels, the lowest MDA level was obtained for the H3 hybrid. Overall, the examination of lipid peroxidation in the critical phenological phases of cultivation may provide information on the response of hybrids to stress conditions and may be suitable for indirect studies of the precise, in-depth physiological effects of fertilisation.

Acknowledgement

The research was financed by the Higher Education Institutional Excellence Programme (NKFIH-1150-6/2019) of the Ministry of Innovation and Technology in Hungary, within the framework of the 4th thematic programme of the University of Debrecen, and supported by the ÚNKP-19-3 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology.

References

  • Bhattacharjee, S. (2014). Membrane lipid peroxidation and its conflict of interest: the two faces of oxidative stress. Current Science India, 107(11): 18111823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bojtor, C., Győri, Z., Sipos, P., Radócz, L., and Tóth, B. (2019). Effect of bean rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Strauss] on photosynthetic characteristics, superoxide-dismutase activity, and lipid peroxidation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Acta Alimentaria, 48: 253259.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doblado-Maldonado, A.F., Pike, O.A., Sweley, J.C., and Rose, D.J. (2012). Key issues and challenges in whole wheat flour milling and storage. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2): 119126.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gombos, B. and Nagy, J. (2019). Weather evaluation based on long-term maize (Zea mays L.) experiment data. Növénytermelés, 68(2): 524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gossett, D.R., Millhollon, E.P., and Lucas, M.C. (1994). Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars of cotton. Crop Science, 34(3): 706714.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heath, R.L. and Packer, L. (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125(1): 189198.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heiniö, R.-L., Liukkonen, K.-H., Katina, K., Myllymäki, O., and Poutanen, K. (2003). Milling fractionation of rye produces different sensory profiles of both flour and bread. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 36(6): 577583.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández, J.A. and Almansa, M.S. (2002). Short-term effects of salt stress on antioxidant systems and leaf water relations of pea leaves. Physiology Plantarum, 115(2): 251257.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kong, L., Xie, Y., Hu, L., Si, J., and Wang, Z. (2017). Excessive nitrogen application dampens antioxidant capacity and grain filling in wheat as revealed by metabolic and physiological analyses. Science Report, 7(1): 43363.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosáry, J., Takács, M., and Siró, I. (2002). Intensive test for studying lipid peroxidation. Acta Alimentaria, 31: 5762.

  • Larcher, W. (1987). Streß bei Pflanzen. Naturwissenschaften, 74: 158167.

  • Liu, Y., Wang, R., Hua, L., and Xie, Z. (2012). Effects of N applied rate on leaf senescence and protective enzyme system at later growth stage of maize. (In Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Maize Sciences, 20(2): 124127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nabi, R.B.S., Tayade, T., Hussain, A., Kulkarni, K.P., Imran, Q.M., Mun, B.G., and Yun, B.W. (2019). Nitric oxide regulates plant responses to drought, salinity, and heavy metal stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 161: 120133.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagy, J. (2019). Complex long-term experiments on soil use, water and nutrient management at the University of Debrecen since 1983. Növénytermelés, 68(3): 528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sargis, R.M. and Subbaiah, P.V. (2003). Trans unsaturated fatty acids are less oxidizable than cis unsaturated fatty acids and protect endogenous lipids from oxidation in lipoproteins and lipid bilayers. Biochemistry, 42(39): 1153311543.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shulaev, V., Cortes, D., Miller, G., and Mittler, R. (2008). Metabolomics for plant stress response. Physiology Plantarum, 132(2): 199208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St Angelo, A.S., Vercellotti, J., Jacks, T., and Legendre, M. (2009). Lipid oxidation in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 36(3): 175224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, J.C., Perron, M., and Davies, E.C. (2004). Genetic responsiveness to copper in the ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Plant Science, 167(2): 259266.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tömösközi-Farkas, R., Berki, M., Nagy-Gasztonyi, M., Wolf, I., and Polgár, Z. (2014). Investigation of antinutritive components in Hungarian potato cultivars depending on production technology. Acta Alimentaria, 43: 188196.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, X.M., Han, X.R., Yang, J.F., Wang, S., Gao, M., and Zhao, L.Y. (2007). Effect of different fertilizer supply of maize on protective enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of leaves in latter stage. (In Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Maize Sciences, 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, L.X., Li, S.X., Zhang, H., and Liang, Z.S. (2007). Nitrogen rates and water stress effects on production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 193(6): 387397.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S.G. and Liu, G.L. (2001). Plant nutrition and drought resistance of crops. (In Chinese with English abstract). Chinese Bulletin of Botany, 18(1): 6469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zuchowska-Grzywacz, M. and Kowalska, M. (2019). Trans fatty acids in food – current legal regulations as protections for consumers and food manufactures. Acta Alimentaria, 48: 105114.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhattacharjee, S. (2014). Membrane lipid peroxidation and its conflict of interest: the two faces of oxidative stress. Current Science India, 107(11): 18111823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bojtor, C., Győri, Z., Sipos, P., Radócz, L., and Tóth, B. (2019). Effect of bean rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Strauss] on photosynthetic characteristics, superoxide-dismutase activity, and lipid peroxidation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Acta Alimentaria, 48: 253259.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doblado-Maldonado, A.F., Pike, O.A., Sweley, J.C., and Rose, D.J. (2012). Key issues and challenges in whole wheat flour milling and storage. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2): 119126.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gombos, B. and Nagy, J. (2019). Weather evaluation based on long-term maize (Zea mays L.) experiment data. Növénytermelés, 68(2): 524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gossett, D.R., Millhollon, E.P., and Lucas, M.C. (1994). Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars of cotton. Crop Science, 34(3): 706714.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heath, R.L. and Packer, L. (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125(1): 189198.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heiniö, R.-L., Liukkonen, K.-H., Katina, K., Myllymäki, O., and Poutanen, K. (2003). Milling fractionation of rye produces different sensory profiles of both flour and bread. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 36(6): 577583.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernández, J.A. and Almansa, M.S. (2002). Short-term effects of salt stress on antioxidant systems and leaf water relations of pea leaves. Physiology Plantarum, 115(2): 251257.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kong, L., Xie, Y., Hu, L., Si, J., and Wang, Z. (2017). Excessive nitrogen application dampens antioxidant capacity and grain filling in wheat as revealed by metabolic and physiological analyses. Science Report, 7(1): 43363.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosáry, J., Takács, M., and Siró, I. (2002). Intensive test for studying lipid peroxidation. Acta Alimentaria, 31: 5762.

  • Larcher, W. (1987). Streß bei Pflanzen. Naturwissenschaften, 74: 158167.

  • Liu, Y., Wang, R., Hua, L., and Xie, Z. (2012). Effects of N applied rate on leaf senescence and protective enzyme system at later growth stage of maize. (In Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Maize Sciences, 20(2): 124127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nabi, R.B.S., Tayade, T., Hussain, A., Kulkarni, K.P., Imran, Q.M., Mun, B.G., and Yun, B.W. (2019). Nitric oxide regulates plant responses to drought, salinity, and heavy metal stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 161: 120133.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagy, J. (2019). Complex long-term experiments on soil use, water and nutrient management at the University of Debrecen since 1983. Növénytermelés, 68(3): 528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sargis, R.M. and Subbaiah, P.V. (2003). Trans unsaturated fatty acids are less oxidizable than cis unsaturated fatty acids and protect endogenous lipids from oxidation in lipoproteins and lipid bilayers. Biochemistry, 42(39): 1153311543.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shulaev, V., Cortes, D., Miller, G., and Mittler, R. (2008). Metabolomics for plant stress response. Physiology Plantarum, 132(2): 199208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St Angelo, A.S., Vercellotti, J., Jacks, T., and Legendre, M. (2009). Lipid oxidation in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 36(3): 175224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, J.C., Perron, M., and Davies, E.C. (2004). Genetic responsiveness to copper in the ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Plant Science, 167(2): 259266.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tömösközi-Farkas, R., Berki, M., Nagy-Gasztonyi, M., Wolf, I., and Polgár, Z. (2014). Investigation of antinutritive components in Hungarian potato cultivars depending on production technology. Acta Alimentaria, 43: 188196.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, X.M., Han, X.R., Yang, J.F., Wang, S., Gao, M., and Zhao, L.Y. (2007). Effect of different fertilizer supply of maize on protective enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of leaves in latter stage. (In Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Maize Sciences, 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, L.X., Li, S.X., Zhang, H., and Liang, Z.S. (2007). Nitrogen rates and water stress effects on production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 193(6): 387397.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S.G. and Liu, G.L. (2001). Plant nutrition and drought resistance of crops. (In Chinese with English abstract). Chinese Bulletin of Botany, 18(1): 6469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zuchowska-Grzywacz, M. and Kowalska, M. (2019). Trans fatty acids in food – current legal regulations as protections for consumers and food manufactures. Acta Alimentaria, 48: 105114.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

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Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: András Salgó

Co-ordinating Editor(s) Marianna Tóth-Markus

Co-editor(s): A. Halász

       Editorial Board

  • L. Abrankó (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)
  • D. Bánáti (University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • J. Baranyi (Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK)
  • I. Bata-Vidács (Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • J. Beczner (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Gy. Biró (National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science, Budapest, Hungary)
  • A. Blázovics (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • F. Capozzi (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
  • M. Carcea (Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics Rome, Italy)
  • Zs. Cserhalmi (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • M. Dalla Rosa (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
  • I. Dalmadi (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • K. Demnerova (University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • Muying Du (Southwest University in Chongqing, Chongqing, China)
  • S. N. El (Ege University, Izmir, Turkey)
  • S. B. Engelsen (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)
  • E. Gelencsér (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • V. M. Gómez-López (Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, Spain)
  • J. Hardi (University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
  • N. Ilić (University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia)
  • D. Knorr (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany)
  • H. Köksel (Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey)
  • K. Liburdi (Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy)
  • M. Lindhauer (Max Rubner Institute, Detmold, Germany)
  • M.-T. Liong (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
  • M. Manley (Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa)
  • M. Mézes (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)
  • Á. Németh (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • Q. D. Nguyen (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • L. Nyström (ETH Zürich, Switzerland)
  • V. Piironen (University of Helsinki, Finland)
  • A. Pino (University of Catania, Catania, Italy)
  • M. Rychtera (University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • K. Scherf (Technical University, Munich, Germany)
  • R. Schönlechner (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria)
  • A. Sharma (Department of Atomic Energy, Delhi, India)
  • A. Szarka (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • M. Szeitzné Szabó (National Food Chain Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary)
  • L. Varga (University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary)
  • R. Venskutonis (Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • B. Wróblewska (Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences Olsztyn, Poland)

 

Acta Alimentaria
E-mail: Acta.Alimentaria@uni-mate.hu

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2020
 
Total Cites
768
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
0,650
Rank by
Nutrition & Dietetics 79/89 (Q4)
Impact Factor
Food Science & Technology 130/144 (Q4)
Impact Factor
0,575
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
0,899
Impact Factor
Journal
0,17
Citation Indicator
 
Rank by Journal
Nutrition & Dietetics 88/103 (Q4)
Citation Indicator
Food Science & Technology 142/160 (Q4)
Citable
59
Items
Total
58
Articles
Total
1
Reviews
Scimago
28
H-index
Scimago
0,237
Journal Rank
Scimago
Food Science Q3
Quartile Score
 
Scopus
248/238=1,0
Scite Score
 
Scopus
Food Science 216/310 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank
 
Scopus
0,349
SNIP
 
Days from
100
sumbission
 
to acceptance
 
Days from
143
acceptance
 
to publication
 
Acceptance
16%
Rate
2019  
Total Cites
WoS
522
Impact Factor 0,458
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,433
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,503
Immediacy
Index
0,100
Citable
Items
60
Total
Articles
59
Total
Reviews
1
Cited
Half-Life
7,8
Citing
Half-Life
9,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00034
Article Influence
Score
0,077
% Articles
in
Citable Items
98,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,04267
Average
IF
Percentile
7,429
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,212
Scopus
Scite Score
220/247=0,9
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Food Science 215/299 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,275
Acceptance
Rate
15%

 

Acta Alimentaria
Publication Model Hybrid
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Subscription Information Online subsscription: 736 EUR / 920 USD
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Acta Alimentaria
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1972
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 50
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0139-3006 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2535 (Online)

 

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May 2021 0 35 33
Jun 2021 0 48 44
Jul 2021 0 24 23
Aug 2021 0 0 0