Authors:
K.O. Bartha Doctoral School of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, H-1085, Budapest, Hungary

Search for other papers by K.O. Bartha in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2988-1801
,
L. Csengeri Endocare Endocrinology Center, Bokor utca 17–21, H-1037, Budapest, Hungary

Search for other papers by L. Csengeri in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A. Lichthammer Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Vas utca 17, H-1088, Budapest, Hungary

Search for other papers by A. Lichthammer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A. Erdélyi Hungarian Dietetic Association, Kerék utca 80, H-1035, Budapest, Hungary

Search for other papers by A. Erdélyi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
J. Kubányi Hungarian Dietetic Association, Kerék utca 80, H-1035, Budapest, Hungary

Search for other papers by J. Kubányi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Zs. Szűcs Doctoral School of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, H-1085, Budapest, Hungary
Hungarian Dietetic Association, Kerék utca 80, H-1035, Budapest, Hungary

Search for other papers by Zs. Szűcs in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Open access

Abstract

COVID-19 lockdown affects people's daily routine and has an impact on their lifestyle. Recent studies documented associations between body weight changes and children's lifestyle during social isolation. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the effects of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on children's sleep, screen time, physical activity, and eating habits. 387 parents of five elementary school students between 16 and 26 June 2020 were interviewed through an online questionnaire. Physical activity level decreased (63.8%), sleep (60.9%) and screen (5.64 ± 3.05 h/day) times and food intake (39.8%) increased. 80.6% of parents reported changes in children's diet: increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (32.4%), breakfast (15.5%), water and sugar-free beverages (17.6%), snacks (40.4%), sugary drinks (9.9%) was observed. Body weight increased in 44.4% of children. The results of the survey conducted under GYERE®-Children's Health Program are in line with the international literature findings: body weight change during the quarantine is significantly associated with food intake, snacking, sugary drinks, and we also found association with fruit and vegetable consumption and lack of breakfast. Effective strategies and electronic health interventions are needed to prevent sedentary lifestyle and obesity during lockdown.

Abstract

COVID-19 lockdown affects people's daily routine and has an impact on their lifestyle. Recent studies documented associations between body weight changes and children's lifestyle during social isolation. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the effects of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on children's sleep, screen time, physical activity, and eating habits. 387 parents of five elementary school students between 16 and 26 June 2020 were interviewed through an online questionnaire. Physical activity level decreased (63.8%), sleep (60.9%) and screen (5.64 ± 3.05 h/day) times and food intake (39.8%) increased. 80.6% of parents reported changes in children's diet: increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (32.4%), breakfast (15.5%), water and sugar-free beverages (17.6%), snacks (40.4%), sugary drinks (9.9%) was observed. Body weight increased in 44.4% of children. The results of the survey conducted under GYERE®-Children's Health Program are in line with the international literature findings: body weight change during the quarantine is significantly associated with food intake, snacking, sugary drinks, and we also found association with fruit and vegetable consumption and lack of breakfast. Effective strategies and electronic health interventions are needed to prevent sedentary lifestyle and obesity during lockdown.

1 Introduction

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March, 2020 (WHO, 2021). The pathogen spread fast worldwide, causing states of emergencies, lockdowns, social distancing. It is affecting not only the healthcare system but has an impact on education and the daily lives of adults and children.

In Hungary, the government declared a state of emergency on 11 March 2020. The strict measures included: public gatherings in an enclosed space with more than 100 people were prohibited, universities, then elementary and high-schools (from 16 March) were ordered to suspend in-person classes and switch to online courses. All events were cancelled and restaurants and cafés were banned from operating beyond 3 p.m. The state of emergency lasted until 16 June 2020.

Social isolation can have a serious effect on the lifestyle of children. Decreased levels of physical activity, increased screen time, changes in nutrition (i.e. increased sugar intake, salty snacks, and total snacks) can result in body weight increase during lockdown (Pietrobelli et al., 2020; Ribeiro et al., 2020; Androutsos et al., 2021; Medrano et al., 2021). Obesity as a risk factor is associated with complications and high mortality in severe COVID-19 even in the paediatric population (Nogueira-de-Almeida et al., 2020; Agarwal et al., 2021).

Positive changes in mental health have also been reported in a study by Zhu et al. (2021) during the pandemic: feeling more stressed, horrified, helpless were associated with more social/family support, increased concern for mental health. In Greece, positive eating behaviours were documented: more vegetables, fruit, fresh fruit juices and dairy products were consumed, the frequency of breakfast increased, and fast-food consumption significantly decreased (Androutsos et al., 2021).

Our descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted in the cohort of children of the GYERE®-Children's Health program. The community-based GYERE® program is a prospective study with a three school-year intervention, using the EPODE (‘Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants’, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) methodology (Borys et al., 2012) to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in three pilot towns in Hungary. The program was first launched in Dunaharaszti, consciously followed by two towns, Szerencs and Diósgyőr, located in North-East Hungary, which is a disadvantaged area from socio-economic and health point of view compared to the Middle-Hungarian region where the program started. After the intervention period, in Dunaharaszti the ratio of overweight and obese 6–12-year-old children decreased by 7%, in the other two towns mentionable reduction could hardly be found (explained by the composition of the population, lack of activity of the parents, socio-economic factors, COVID-19 pandemic restrictions). The latest results of anthropometric data (GYERE® Diósgyőr) revealed that the proportion of overweight was 20.0%, while that of obesity was 12.1% among children (n = 1,256) (Kubányi, 2021).

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Population characteristics and data acquisition

The current survey evaluated the responses of 387 parents of five elementary school students (mean age 10 ± 4 years) through an online questionnaire. All data were collected between 16 and 26 June 2020. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to school teachers who forwarded it to parents. The online survey included 20 questions about children's gender and age, place of residence, pupils' lifestyle and dietary behaviour, body weight, mental health compared to before the confinement. Three options were available to the majority of the answers: “decrease” (i.e. during lockdown the frequency of lifestyle habits was lower), “no changes” (i.e. same frequency of lifestyle habits before and during the lockdown), or “increase” (i.e. during lockdown the frequency of lifestyle habits was higher). The changes in children's weight were assessed by the parents, who reported body weight loss/maintenance/gain during confinement.

The study was conducted under GYERE®-Children's Health program, which was carried out with the ethical approval of the Ethical Committee of the Council of Health Sciences (TUKEB 52769/3260/2015/EKU).

2.2 Statistical analysis

All analyses were performed in IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Version 23. First, descriptive analysis methods were utilised. Data are presented as absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies for categorical variables, and for continuous variables as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Differences between gender and age categories (6–10 and 11–14 years) for sleep duration, physical activity, nutrition, screen time (classified into four groups: decreased/no change, 1–5 h/day, 6–10 h/day, 11–16 h/day), emotional status, and also body weight change and eating habits during confinement were evaluated with Chi-square test.

Spearman's correlations were used to assess the associations between body weight change and lifestyle factors. The results obtained were interpreted at a 95% confidence interval at a significance level of 0.05.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Children's characteristics and the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on their lifestyle and dietary habits

The majority of children lived in a city. Parents reported that they needed more support with their child's learning, improving their own computer skills and conflict management. 70.8% of children were supervised by their parents and 18.6% were alone or with their sibling without adult supervision during school closure (Table 1).

Table 1.

Children's demographic characteristics and social support for the families during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Hungary (n =387)

Variables n %
Gender Male 202 52.2
Female 185 47.8
Children's age (years) 6–10 201 51.9
11–14 186 48.1
Place of residence City 375 96.9
Village 7 1.8
Farm 1 0.3
Civil parish 4 1
Parents needed more support Yes 151 39.0
No 236 61.0
Parents needed more support with Learning 114 29.5
Conflict management 36 9.3
Improving parent's computer skills 73 18.9
Sports and activities for children 14 3.6
Other leisure activities 28 7.2
Cooking/Food delivery 18 4.7
Food recipes 11 2.8
Supervision 11 2.8
Internet 3 0.8
During closures children were with Parents 274 70.8
Other supervision 41 10.6
No supervision (alone or with brother/sister) 72 18.6

Parents reported an increase in children's sleep time and a decrease in physical activity. Our results are in concordance with international data, where the researchers documented low levels of physical activity and an increase in screen time and sleep duration. For 95.2% of Spanish children physical activity level decreased and for 69.8% screen time increased (±2.6 h/d). Sleeping time increased both on weekdays and on weekends (Medrano et al., 2021). Obese Italian children have reduced physical activity, increased sleep time and screen time (4.85 ± 2.40 h/day) during the COVID-19 confinement (Pietrobelli et al., 2020).

95.9% of Hungarian elementary school children spent significantly more time, 5.64 ± 3.05 h/day, in front of the screen due to online education and leisure activities, compared to literature findings. Screen time due to online education increased by 2.57 ± 1.71 h/day for the 6–10-years, and by 3.92 ± 1.78 h/day in the case of 11–14 year olds. Leisure activities increased the daily screen time by an average of 2.29 ± 1.91 h for the younger age group and by 2.49 ± 2.19 h for the older pupils.

41.5% of parents reported that the pandemic had an adverse impact on children's emotional status. The most common problems were the lack of social connections (42.6%), isolation (22.0%), and anxiety about changed educational methods (15.2%). Negative experience of social isolation was more common among Hungarian children, but study-related stress was lower than for students living in Hong Kong (Zhu et al., 2021).

Chi-square test showed that physical activity (P < 0.001), screen time (P < 0.001), body weight change (P = 0.038), and daily schedule (P = 0.013) were significantly associated with age. There was no significant association between lifestyle factors and gender.

The prevalence of body weight gain detected among Hungarian children (Table 2) is higher compared to previous study findings. In Greece, body weight increased in 35% of 2–18-year-old children (Androutsos et al., 2021). Galali (2021) reported weight gain in 32.4% of the Kurdish population. Excess weight gain among obese children can worsen COVID-19 mortality rates and their disease risk factors can be more severe in adulthood (Bass and Eneli, 2015; Nogueira-de-Almeida et al., 2020; Agarwal et al., 2021).

Table 2.

Lifestyle changes for elementary school children during the first COVID-19 lockdown (n =387)

Gender P Age P Total
% Male Female 6–10 years 11–14 years
Sleep time decreased 3.5 5.9 0.106 5.0 4.3 0.165 4.7
no change 39.1 29.7 38.8 30.1 34.4
increased 57.4 64.3 56.2 65.6 60.9
Physical activity decreased 65.3 62.2 0.797 55.7 72.6 <0.001* 63.8
no change 21.3 22.7 23.9 19.9 22.0
increased 13.4 15.1 20.4 7.5 14.2
Food intake decreased 12.4 11.9 0.989 11.4 12.9 0.900 12.1
no change 48.0 48.1 48.8 47.3 48.1
increased 39.6 40.0 39.8 39.8 39.8
Screen time decreased/no change 5.0 3.2 0.303 6.0 2.2 <0.001* 4.1
1–5 h 43.1 52.4 56.7 37.6 47.1
6–10 h 46.5 39.5 33.3 53.8 43.6
11–16 h 5.4 4.9 4.0 6.5 5.2
Body weight change decreased 2.0 4.9 0.285 1.5 5.4 0.038* 3.4
no change 52.5 51.9 49.8 54.8 52.2
increased 45.5 43.2 48.8 39.8 44.4
Emotional status decreased 39.1 44.3 0.442 44.8 38.2 0.376 41.5
no change 39.1 38.4 35.8 41.9 38.9
increased 21.8 17.3 19.4 19.9 19.6
Daily routine no 34.2 33.0 0.805 27.9 39.8 0.013* 33.6
yes 65.8 67.0 72.1 60.2 66.4

*Significant at the 0.05 level (2-sided).

Table 3 presents children's eating behaviours during lockdown. A positive change in their diet was reported by 58.9% of parents, and 47.0% claimed that the confinement had a negative impact on their nutrition.

Table 3.

The effects of modifications in eating habits on 6–14-year-old's body weight change during COVID-19 confinement (n =312)

Eating habits Body weight Total (= 312) P
Decreased (n =11) No change (n =147) Increased (n =154)
Healthy eating habits % Had breakfast several times a week 1.0% 7.4% 7.1% 15.5% 0.510
Consumed more vegetables and fruits 1.0% 20.5% 10.9% 32.4% <0.001*
Ate more cooked food 1.0% 14.4% 18.6% 34.0% 0.388
Drank more water, sugar-free fluid 0.3% 9.6% 7.7% 17.6% 0.411
Snacked less 0.3% 4.2% 2.9% 7.4% 0.594
Less healthy eating habits % Skipped breakfast more often 1.0% 3.8% 2.6% 7.4% 0.023*
Snacked more 0.6% 16.3% 23.4% 40.4% 0.025*
Drank more sugary soft drinks 0.6% 2.2% 7.1% 9.9% 0.014*
Ate less vegetables and fruits 2.2% 2.2% 3.2% 7.7% <0.001*
Ate less cooked food 0.3% 4.2% 4.2% 8.7% 0.991

*Significant at the 0.05 level (2-sided).

During the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in body weight in the 6–14-year-old population were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (several times daily P < 0.00; less often P < 0.001), lack of breakfast (P = 0.025), snacking (P = 0.025), and sugary beverage consumption (P = 0.014) (Table 3), while in the studies published by Androutsos et al. (2021) and Pujia et al. (2021) weight gain was strongly related with frequent consumption of salty and total snacks, milk and dairy products, breakfast, sweets, processed meat products, bakery products, sugary beverages, and inversely with physical activity.

3.2 Correlations between lifestyle factors and body weight

Positive correlation was detected between food intake and body weight change (r = +0.353, P < 0.001) and sleep time (r = +0.134, P = 0.008). Physical activity level inversely correlated with food consumption (r = –0.108, P = 0.033), screen time (r = –0.227, P ≤ 0.001), but positively with emotional status (r = +0.214, P < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation was found between emotional status and daily routine (r = +0.154, P = 0.002) (Table 4). Similarly, negative correlation between physical activity and screen time and also the number of meals eaten per day had been reported by Pietrobelli et al. (2020).

Table 4.

Correlations between children's lifestyle habits and body weight change during COVID-19 confinement (n =387)

Spearman Correlation Coefficient P
Food intake: Screen time –0.045 0.381
Food intake: Physical activity –0.108* 0.033
Food intake: Sleep time 0.134** 0.008
Food intake: Body weight change 0.353** <0.001
Screen time: Sleep time –0.051 0.319
Screen time: Physical activity –0.227** <0.001
Screen time: Body weight change 0.088 0.085
Physical activity: Sleep time 0.047 0.356
Physical activity: Body weight change –0.088 0.083
Sleep time: Body weight change 0.088 0.085
Emotional status: Screen time –0.099 0.051
Emotional status: Sleep time 0.073 0.149
Emotional status: Physical activity 0.214** <0.001
Emotional status: Body weight change –0.072 0.155
Emotional status: Food intake 0.017 0.740
Emotional status: Daily routine 0.154** 0.002

*: Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed); **: Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

3.3 Strengths and limitations

The limitations of our study include: small sample was not representative of all children in Hungary, self-reported data, no quantitative measures were taken concerning weight change, and answers were given from parent's point of view. A strength of the study is that this was the first survey in Hungary to examine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the lifestyle of elementary school children. It was a complex survey that examined not only children's physical activity, sleeping, and eating habits, but their mental health too, and also explored how parents experienced the lockdown.

4 Conclusions

COVID-19 lockdown can cause significant changes in children's lifestyle. Positive modifications in nutrition were also captured beside less healthy lifestyle habits. Although school closure in Hungary lasted for 3 months, it had a negative impact on physical activity, body weight, and mental health of the majority of children. Body weight change had a high association with age, food intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, lack of breakfast, snacking, and sugary beverage consumption during social isolation. Therefore, effective measures and intervention programs for families are of great importance to prevent and tackle childhood obesity not only during a confinement or summer vacation, but in the long term. For this community interest partnership is required not just between families, schools, non-governmental organisations, but with political leaders, ministries, health-professionals, and private partners (food industry, sports facilities, etc.).

References

  • Agarwal, A. , Karim, F. , Fernandez Bowman, A. , and Antonetti, C.R. (2021). Obesity as a risk factor for severe illness from COVID-19 in the pediatric population. Cureus, 13(5): e14825. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Androutsos, O. , Perperidi, M. , Georgiou, C. , and Chouliaras, G. (2021). Lifestyle changes and determinants of children's and adolescents' body weight increase during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece: The COV-EAT Study. Nutrients, 13(3): 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030930.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bass, R. and Eneli, I. (2015). Severe childhood obesity: an under-recognized and growing health problem. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 91(1081): 639645. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2014-133033.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borys, J.M. , Le Bodo, Y. , Jebb, S.A. , Seidell, J.C. , Summerbell, C. , Richard, D. , De Henauw, S. , Moreno, L.A. , Romon, M. , Visscher, T.L. , Raffin, S. , Swinburn, B. , and EEN Study Group (2012). EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development. Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 13(4): 299315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00950.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galali, Y. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 confinement on the eating habits and lifestyle changes: a cross sectional study. Food Science Nutrition, 9(4): 21052113. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2179.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kubányi, J. (2021). Lezárult a GYERE®-Gyermekek Egészsége Program Diósgyőrben. (GYERE® programme on children’s health is over in Diósgyőr). Új Diéta, 30(3): 25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Medrano, M. , Cadenas-Sanchez, C. , Oses, M. , Arenaza, L. , Amasene, M. , and Labayen, I. (2021). Changes in lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 confinement in Spanish children: a longitudinal analysis from the MUGI project. Pediatric Obesity, 16(4): e12731. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12731.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nogueira-de-Almeida, C.A. , Del Ciampo, L.A. , Ferraz, I.S. , Del Ciampo, I. , Contini, A.A. , and Ued, F. (2020). COVID-19 and obesity in childhood and adolescence: a clinical review. Jornal de Pediatria, 96(5): 546558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2020.07.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pietrobelli, A. , Pecoraro, L. , Ferruzzi, A. , Heo, M. , Faith, M. , Zoller, T. , Antoniazzi, F. , Piacentini, G. , Fearnbach, S.N. , and Heymsfield, S.B. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors in children with obesity living in Verona, Italy: a longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 28(8): 13821385. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22861.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pujia, R. , Ferro, Y. , Maurotti, S. , Khoory, J. , Gazzaruso, C. , Pujia, A. , Montalcini, T. , and Mazza, E. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 on the eating habits of children and adolescents in Italy: a pilot survey study. Nutrients, 13(8): 2641. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082641.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ribeiro, K. , Garcia, L. , Dametto, J. , Assunção, D. , and Maciel, B. (2020). COVID-19 and nutrition: the need for initiatives to promote healthy eating and prevent obesity in childhood. Childhood Obesity (Print), 16(4): 235237. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2020.0121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHO . (2021). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 (Accessed 10 July 2021).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, S. , Zhuang, Y. , and Ip, P. (2021). Impacts on children and adolescents' lifestyle, social support and their association with negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9): 4780. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094780.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agarwal, A. , Karim, F. , Fernandez Bowman, A. , and Antonetti, C.R. (2021). Obesity as a risk factor for severe illness from COVID-19 in the pediatric population. Cureus, 13(5): e14825. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Androutsos, O. , Perperidi, M. , Georgiou, C. , and Chouliaras, G. (2021). Lifestyle changes and determinants of children's and adolescents' body weight increase during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece: The COV-EAT Study. Nutrients, 13(3): 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030930.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bass, R. and Eneli, I. (2015). Severe childhood obesity: an under-recognized and growing health problem. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 91(1081): 639645. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2014-133033.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borys, J.M. , Le Bodo, Y. , Jebb, S.A. , Seidell, J.C. , Summerbell, C. , Richard, D. , De Henauw, S. , Moreno, L.A. , Romon, M. , Visscher, T.L. , Raffin, S. , Swinburn, B. , and EEN Study Group (2012). EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development. Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 13(4): 299315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00950.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galali, Y. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 confinement on the eating habits and lifestyle changes: a cross sectional study. Food Science Nutrition, 9(4): 21052113. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2179.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kubányi, J. (2021). Lezárult a GYERE®-Gyermekek Egészsége Program Diósgyőrben. (GYERE® programme on children’s health is over in Diósgyőr). Új Diéta, 30(3): 25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Medrano, M. , Cadenas-Sanchez, C. , Oses, M. , Arenaza, L. , Amasene, M. , and Labayen, I. (2021). Changes in lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 confinement in Spanish children: a longitudinal analysis from the MUGI project. Pediatric Obesity, 16(4): e12731. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12731.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nogueira-de-Almeida, C.A. , Del Ciampo, L.A. , Ferraz, I.S. , Del Ciampo, I. , Contini, A.A. , and Ued, F. (2020). COVID-19 and obesity in childhood and adolescence: a clinical review. Jornal de Pediatria, 96(5): 546558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2020.07.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pietrobelli, A. , Pecoraro, L. , Ferruzzi, A. , Heo, M. , Faith, M. , Zoller, T. , Antoniazzi, F. , Piacentini, G. , Fearnbach, S.N. , and Heymsfield, S.B. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors in children with obesity living in Verona, Italy: a longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 28(8): 13821385. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22861.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pujia, R. , Ferro, Y. , Maurotti, S. , Khoory, J. , Gazzaruso, C. , Pujia, A. , Montalcini, T. , and Mazza, E. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 on the eating habits of children and adolescents in Italy: a pilot survey study. Nutrients, 13(8): 2641. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082641.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ribeiro, K. , Garcia, L. , Dametto, J. , Assunção, D. , and Maciel, B. (2020). COVID-19 and nutrition: the need for initiatives to promote healthy eating and prevent obesity in childhood. Childhood Obesity (Print), 16(4): 235237. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2020.0121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHO . (2021). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 (Accessed 10 July 2021).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, S. , Zhuang, Y. , and Ip, P. (2021). Impacts on children and adolescents' lifestyle, social support and their association with negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9): 4780. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094780.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Top

 

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: András Salgó

Co-ordinating Editor(s) Marianna Tóth-Markus

Co-editor(s): A. Halász

       Editorial Board

  • L. Abrankó (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)
  • D. Bánáti (University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • J. Baranyi (Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK)
  • I. Bata-Vidács (Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • J. Beczner (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • F. Békés (FBFD PTY LTD, Sydney, NSW Australia)
  • Gy. Biró (National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science, Budapest, Hungary)
  • A. Blázovics (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • F. Capozzi (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
  • M. Carcea (Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics Rome, Italy)
  • Zs. Cserhalmi (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • M. Dalla Rosa (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
  • I. Dalmadi (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • K. Demnerova (University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • M. Dobozi King (Texas A&M University, Texas, USA)
  • Muying Du (Southwest University in Chongqing, Chongqing, China)
  • S. N. El (Ege University, Izmir, Turkey)
  • S. B. Engelsen (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)
  • E. Gelencsér (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • V. M. Gómez-López (Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, Spain)
  • J. Hardi (University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
  • K. Héberger (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, ELKH, Budapest, Hungary)
  • N. Ilić (University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia)
  • D. Knorr (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany)
  • H. Köksel (Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey)
  • K. Liburdi (Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy)
  • M. Lindhauer (Max Rubner Institute, Detmold, Germany)
  • M.-T. Liong (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
  • M. Manley (Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa)
  • M. Mézes (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)
  • Á. Németh (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • P. Ng (Michigan State University,  Michigan, USA)
  • Q. D. Nguyen (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • L. Nyström (ETH Zürich, Switzerland)
  • L. Perez (University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain)
  • V. Piironen (University of Helsinki, Finland)
  • A. Pino (University of Catania, Catania, Italy)
  • M. Rychtera (University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • K. Scherf (Technical University, Munich, Germany)
  • R. Schönlechner (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria)
  • A. Sharma (Department of Atomic Energy, Delhi, India)
  • A. Szarka (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • M. Szeitzné Szabó (National Food Chain Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary)
  • S. Tömösközi (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • L. Varga (University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary)
  • R. Venskutonis (Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • B. Wróblewska (Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences Olsztyn, Poland)

 

Acta Alimentaria
E-mail: Acta.Alimentaria@uni-mate.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Contents: Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences
  • Elsevier Science Navigator
  • Essential Science Indicators
  • Global Health
  • Index Veterinarius
  • Science Citation Index
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
  • SCOPUS
  • The ISI Alerting Services

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
856
Journal Impact Factor 1,000
Rank by Impact Factor Food Science & Technology 130/143
Nutrition & Dietetics 81/90
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,941
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,039
Journal Citation Indicator 0,19
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Food Science & Technology 143/164
Nutrition & Dietetics 92/109
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
30
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,235
Scimago Quartile Score

Food Science (Q3)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,4
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Food Sciences 222/338 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,387

 

2020
 
Total Cites
768
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
0,650
Rank by
Nutrition & Dietetics 79/89 (Q4)
Impact Factor
Food Science & Technology 130/144 (Q4)
Impact Factor
0,575
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
0,899
Impact Factor
Journal
0,17
Citation Indicator
 
Rank by Journal
Nutrition & Dietetics 88/103 (Q4)
Citation Indicator
Food Science & Technology 142/160 (Q4)
Citable
59
Items
Total
58
Articles
Total
1
Reviews
Scimago
28
H-index
Scimago
0,237
Journal Rank
Scimago
Food Science Q3
Quartile Score
 
Scopus
248/238=1,0
Scite Score
 
Scopus
Food Science 216/310 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank
 
Scopus
0,349
SNIP
 
Days from
100
submission
 
to acceptance
 
Days from
143
acceptance
 
to publication
 
Acceptance
16%
Rate
2019  
Total Cites
WoS
522
Impact Factor 0,458
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,433
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,503
Immediacy
Index
0,100
Citable
Items
60
Total
Articles
59
Total
Reviews
1
Cited
Half-Life
7,8
Citing
Half-Life
9,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00034
Article Influence
Score
0,077
% Articles
in
Citable Items
98,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,04267
Average
IF
Percentile
7,429
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,212
Scopus
Scite Score
220/247=0,9
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Food Science 215/299 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,275
Acceptance
Rate
15%

 

Acta Alimentaria
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 754 EUR / 944 USD
Print + online subscription: 872 EUR / 1090 USD
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 776 EUR / 944 USD
Print + online subscription: 896 EUR / 1090 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Acta Alimentaria
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1972
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia    
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0139-3006 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2535 (Online)

 

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Feb 2022 0 0 0
Mar 2022 0 0 0
Apr 2022 0 0 0
May 2022 0 0 0
Jun 2022 0 0 0
Jul 2022 0 122 54
Aug 2022 0 52 12