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M. SugárInstitute of Nursing Sciences, Basic Health Sciences and Health Visiting, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Vörösmarty út 4, H-7633, Pécs, Hungary

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K. FuszInstitute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Szigeti út 12, H-7624, Pécs, Hungary

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D. PusztaiInstitute of Nursing Sciences, Basic Health Sciences and Health Visiting, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Vörösmarty út 4, H-7633, Pécs, Hungary

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N. RozmannInstitute of Nursing Sciences, Basic Health Sciences and Health Visiting, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Vörösmarty út 4, H-7633, Pécs, Hungary

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J.M. MachariaDoctoral School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Vörösmarty út 4, H-7633, Pécs, Hungary

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M. PintérInstitute of Nursing Sciences, Basic Health Sciences and Health Visiting, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Vörösmarty út 4, H-7633, Pécs, Hungary

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B. RaposaInstitute of Nursing Sciences, Basic Health Sciences and Health Visiting, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Vörösmarty út 4, H-7633, Pécs, Hungary

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9551-8440
Open access

Abstract

A plethora of research and empiric observation supported the claim that–among other symptoms–diseases often affect the ability to smell and the sense of taste, possibly affecting the taste- and food preferences as well.

The aim of the present study was to shed light on the impact of COVID-related smell- (dysosmia/anosmia) and taste function-disorder/loss (dysgeusia/ageusia) on the food and taste preferences COVID-19 patients of different symptomatic and pre-existing conditions and demographic backgrounds.

The research based on a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. In total, 514 participants filled our self-administered online questionnaire. Thirteen participants were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test for correlation coefficient, were performed.

The most common long COVID symptom was fatigue/weakness (53.1%) followed by anosmia (50.9%) and tachycardia (33.5%). Many participants reported dysgeusia/ageusia during the acute phase of the disease, which sometimes prevailed as a long COVID symptom. A high percentage of participants reported that they rejected all kinds of meat of animal origin except cold cuts for their duration of recuperation, which proved to be the most common dietary change during the post-COVID period so far.

Abstract

A plethora of research and empiric observation supported the claim that–among other symptoms–diseases often affect the ability to smell and the sense of taste, possibly affecting the taste- and food preferences as well.

The aim of the present study was to shed light on the impact of COVID-related smell- (dysosmia/anosmia) and taste function-disorder/loss (dysgeusia/ageusia) on the food and taste preferences COVID-19 patients of different symptomatic and pre-existing conditions and demographic backgrounds.

The research based on a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. In total, 514 participants filled our self-administered online questionnaire. Thirteen participants were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test for correlation coefficient, were performed.

The most common long COVID symptom was fatigue/weakness (53.1%) followed by anosmia (50.9%) and tachycardia (33.5%). Many participants reported dysgeusia/ageusia during the acute phase of the disease, which sometimes prevailed as a long COVID symptom. A high percentage of participants reported that they rejected all kinds of meat of animal origin except cold cuts for their duration of recuperation, which proved to be the most common dietary change during the post-COVID period so far.

1 Introduction

The SARS CoV-2 infection based novel coronavirus (COVID-19) disease has a deep impact on almost every aspect of our life since the dawn of 2020. A plethora of research and empiric observation supported the claim that–among other symptoms–the disease often affects the ability to smell and the sense of taste of those who caught the virus. The dysosmia/anosmia (the disorder/loss of the ability to detect one or more smells), dysgeusia/ageusia (the disorder/loss of taste functions of the tongue, especially the inability to detect the basic flavours) are possible symptoms that usually occur before the airway-related symptoms as the very first sign of the disease. During the convalescence, according to previous studies, they cease to exist in almost every patient (Carfi et al., 2020; Gelardi et al., 2020; Moein et al., 2020; Moore and June, 2020).

During the review of the international literature, we found a substantial number of new studies about the impaired ability to perceive tastes and scents in relation to viral infections in general. The papers specifically focused on the impact of the COVID-19 on these attributes from the past year (Dell’Era et al., 2020; Eliezer et al., 2020; Gautier and Ravussin, 2020; Huang et al., 2020; Lechien et al., 2020; Mao et al., 2020).

With that being said, we found limited number of manuscripts that focused on the possible changes in food and taste preferences with characteristics of these changes being related to the COVID-19 disease in the post-COVID period, when the affected person had an impaired ability to taste and/or smell during the disease (Trachootham et al., 2021). The changes led us to the thought that it would be beneficial to carry out a research with relatively large sample size that focuses on the aspects of the changes of taste in the long COVID period (after the acute phase).

Through Delphi methodology, WHO developed a clinical case definition for post-COVID-19 conditions that included 12 domains. Patients, researchers, and others from many different WHO regions worked together to develop this first version. This definition is subject to change as new evidence emerges and our understanding of COVID-19 consequences evolves:

“Post COVID-19 condition occurs in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed SARS- CoV-2 infection, usually 3 months from the onset of COVID-19 with symptoms that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Common symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, cognitive dysfunction but also others which generally have an impact on everyday functioning. Symptoms may be new onset, following initial recovery from an acute COVID-19 episode or persist from the initial illness. Symptoms may also fluctuate or relapse over time.” (WHO, 2021).

Previous research already made it clear that an interdisciplinary approach is needed to effectively treat both the acute and the chronic phases of a disease such as COVID-19 (Gemelli Against COVID-19 Post-Acute Care Study Group, 2020). The aim of the present study beside the support of previous research data concerning virus-related dysosmia/anosmia, dysgeusia/ageusia (Andrews et al., 2020; Galvan-Tejada et al., 2020; Garrigues et al., 2020; Horvath et al., 2020; Kamal et al., 2020; Tenforde et al., 2020; Zhao et al., 2020; Carvalho-Schneider et al., 2021; Townsend et al., 2021), was to shed light to the impact of these changes on the food and taste preferences of the individuals who have already passed through the acute phase of the COVID-19 disease with different symptoms, pre-existing conditions, and demographic backgrounds.

1.1 Aims

Our study focused on exploring food preferences and taste changes experienced by individuals suffering from COVID-19.

We also aimed to examine the number of long COVID symptoms of each participant, and whether there was a significant difference for former COVID-19 patients with more or less severe symptoms during the acute phase of the disease.

We also looked into potential connections between the olfactory loss and issues with taste in our research. Before starting the study, it was assumed that most people do not eat certain foods, because they taste and/or smell different, so a question was also added to our study form about the self-reported reason for the changes in food preference after the convalescence of the acute phase of the disease.

Therefore, our working hypothesis was that the COVID-19-related changes in sense of smell and/or taste had a long-term effect on the food and/or taste preferences of the individuals.

2 Material and methods

The research was started with an online questionnaire as a quantitative and cross-sectional descriptive study in May of 2021 in Hungary. The online questionnaire was shared on the social media platform Facebook with COVID closed groups. Before completing the questionnaire, participants were given a short briefing on how to answer the questions correctly, as well as the meaning of each concept. The anonymity of the participants was fully ensured in accordance with the current EU GDPR rules, as no personally identifiable information was requested. We aimed to measure the changes in taste and smell specifically for each food group and food type, similar to the existing non-neurologically inspired literature, without reference to basic tastes and food preparation methods.

Before the start of the data collection phase, at least 500 participants were planned. The statistical analysis was implemented with the SPSS software, including anyone who was willing to participate and already went through the COVID-19 disease. Applicants with still active COVID-19 disease as well as those who had an impaired ability to taste and/or smell before they fell ill with COVID-19 were excluded. All results are based on self-reported data.

When phrasing our questions during the data collection period, we only focused on the changes in taste and food preferences at the period following the acute phase of the COVID-19. It is an important methodological point, because other factors, such as smoking, head and neck cancer along with the therapy, chronic rhinosinusitis, etc., might also change the ability of taste and/or smell, henceforth the food and taste preferences.

Our dependent variable was the prevalence of smell and taste disorders among the participants. As independent variables sex, age, BMI, pre-existing conditions, allergies, the severity of the COVID-19, place of living, residual symptoms, taste preference, former taste preference, present ability to taste, the length of the impaired ability to taste and the self-reported reason of the altered taste preference were chosen.

During the data collection phase, 514 participants filled our self-administered online questionnaire in total. Thirteen participants were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, so in the end our sample consisted of 501 participants.

We found that 15.8% (n = 79) of our sample consisted of male participants and 84.2% (n = 422) were females. The average age of the participants was 40.09 ± 11.05 years. The average body mass index (BMI) was 26.29 ± 6.10 kg m−2 (Table 1). By residence, 19.4% of our participants were from the capital, 22% from a county seat, 19.2% from other bigger towns, 16.8% from small towns, and 22.8% from villages (Table 2).

Table 1.

Age and BMI of the participants (n = 501)

DemographyMinimumMaximumMeanStd. deviation
Age137140.0911.05
BMI16.1760.2126.296.10
Table 2.

Acute phase of COVID-19 and time since positive PCR (n = 501)

Acute phase of COVID-19MinimumMaximumMeanStd. deviation
Severity131.630.548
Time since positive PCR (months)1133.681.984

Severity: 1-mild; 2-moderate; 3-severe

During our statistical analysis, we performed descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test for correlation coefficient.

2.1 Ethics

Ethical approval for our research was sought and received from the Medical Research Council of Hungary (administration number: IV/3878- 3 /2021/EKU). At the first page of our online questionnaire, we informed all our participants that they would remain anonymous and their data would not be used individually, only as a part of the whole sample. Therefore, they gave their consent by starting the questionnaire. The questionnaire informed the participants that there were no right or wrong answers for the questions.

3 Results and discussion

Regarding the incidence of chronic diseases, 36.5% of the participants had one or more known chronic diseases, the most frequent being hypertonia (13.6%). Regarding allergies, 46.9% of the participants had one or more known allergies (Table 2).

Most of the participants had moderate acute phase symptoms (56.7%), 39.9% had mild symptoms and 17 people (3.4%) had severe acute phase of COVID-19. A total of 403 individuals reported loss of taste (80.9%). We also assessed the time that had passed since the first positive PCR test of the participants in months. The number of symptoms for participants ranged from 1 to 13 with a mean of 3.68 ± 1.984 (Table 3).

Table 3.

Demography and medical history (n = 501)

Demography and medical historyFrequency%
Gendermale7915.8
female42284.2
Residencecapital9719.4
county seat (county administrative centre)11022.0
big town (over 20,000 prs.)9619.2
small town (under 20,000 prs.)8416.8
village (under 5,000 prs.)11422.8
Chronic diseaseone or more18336.5
Allergyone or more23546.9

It has been established that a substantial portion of the participants (88.8%) had long COVID symptoms, which means, they still had remaining symptoms even after the cessation of the acute phase of the disease, with a negative PCR-test. Among all long COVID symptoms, the most common symptom was fatigue/weakness (59.8%), followed by anosmia (57.3%), and tachycardia (37.8%). A surprisingly high percentage of our participants reported PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) as well (33.9%), dysgeusia (28.1%) and dyspnoe (25.6%) were also very common. We provided our participants with a list of options in our questionnaire that included the most common long COVID symptoms, and we also allowed the participants to add other symptoms they have experienced (Alimohamadi et al., 2020). The frequency and percentage of the long COVID symptoms can be found in more details in Table 4.

Table 4.

Long COVID symptoms with a mean of 3.68 months after the positive PCR test (Alimohamadi et al., 2020)

Long COVID symptomsFrequency% (n = 501)% (of those, who had at least one long COVID symptom) (n = 445)
Fatigue, weakness26653.159.8
Anosmia25550.957.3
Tachycardia16833.537.8
Posttraumatic stress syndrome15130.133.9
Dysgeusia12525.028.1
Dyspnoe11422.825.6
Brain fog11322.625.4
Joint and muscle pain/numbness336.67.4
Parosmia173.43.8
Headache112.22.5
Dizziness112.22.5
Hair loss102.02.2
Hypertension102.02.2
Cough91.82.0
Chest pain81.61.8
Gastrointestinal problems71.41.6
Menstrual disorder40.80.9
Other (1–3 people per example)tinnitus, oedema, bruising, nose bleeding, rash, itching, acne, phantom odour (phantosmia), sweating, thyroiditis, sinusitis, fever, blurred vision
The number of participants who have at least one of the above symptoms44588.8100

Beside the number of long COVID symptoms, factors influencing the severity of the acute phase were examined as well. Older individuals, women, those with higher BMIs, participants with allergy and chronic diseases also experienced more severe symptoms and more long COVID complaints (Tables 5 and 6).

Table 5.

Factors correlating with severity of acute phase (n = 501)

FactorSignificance
Ager = 0.22P < 0.001**
Female genderZ = −3.04P = 0.002*
BMIr = 0.10P = 0.021*
Chronic diseaseZ = −3.11P = 0.001**
AllergyZ = −3.54P = 0.001**

Asterisks indicate the strength of the significant relations; *: P < 0.05 – significant; **: P ≤ 0.001 – highly significant.

r: r-score (correlation coefficient – strength, direction); Z: Z-score (the distance of the mean from the data point).

Table 6.

Factors correlating with the number of long COVID symptoms (n = 445)

FactorSignificance
Ager = 0.14P = 0.002*
Female gendert = −7.64P < 0.001**
BMIr = 0.10P = 0.031*
Chronic diseaset = −4.57P < 0.001**
Allergyt = −2.52P = 0.012*
Severity of acute phaser = 0.29P < 0.001**
Time since positive PCRr = 0.19P < 0.001**
Time of dysgeusiar = 0.43P < 0.001**
There are foods that have not been liked since COVIDt = 4.93P < 0.001**

Asterisks indicate the strength of the significant relations; *: P < 0.05 – significant; **: P ≤ 0.001 – highly significant.

t = t-score (the difference between the observed and expected means divided by the standard error);

r: r-score (correlation coefficient – strength, direction).

Positive correlations were found between the number of long COVID symptoms and the following factors: severity of acute phase (r = 0.29, P < 0.001), time since positive PCR (r = 0.19, P < 0.001), and time of dysgeusia (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) (Table 6).

Associations between olfactory loss and taste perception problems were found (Table 7).

Table 7.

Associations between olfactory loss and taste perception problems (n = 255)

FactorSig.
Taste perception problem under COVID-19df = 1P < 0.001**
Taste perception has not yet returneddf = 2P < 0.001**
There are foods they have not like since COVID-19 infectiondf = 2P < 0.001**

Asterisks indicate the strength of the significant relations; *: P < 0.05 – significant, **: P ≤ 0.001 – highly significant; df: degree of freedom.

In Table 8, a list of foods is provided, which the participants did not reject before the COVID-19 disease, but they have since then.

Table 8.

Foods that the participant rejected since their convalescence from COVID-19

Foods that are not liked after COVID-19 infectionFrequency% (n = 501)% (of those, who reject at least one of the listed foods) (n = 189)
All kinds of meat of animal origin except cold cuts (poultry, pork, beef, fish)11222.459.3
Coffee295.815.3
Citrus fruits275.414.3
Onions: onion, garlic265.213.8
Chocolate255.013.2
Alcoholic drinks255.013.2
Dairy products224.411.6
Other fruits (e.g.: apples, pears, plums)193.810.1
Egg142.87.4
Vegetables (e.g.: peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers)112.25.8
Meat products (only cold cuts)61.23.2
Spicy food61.23.2
Cola30.61.6
Other (1–2 people per example)cooked food, ketchup, oil, olives, legumes, porridge, vanilla, mayonnaise fish salad, baked goods, horseradish, melon
The number of participants who reject at least one of the above foods18937.7100.0

As it is apparent from the results that the type of food people who went through the COVID-19 disease most commonly reject is all kinds of meat of animal origin (poultry, pork, beef, fish) (hereinafter: meat) after the convalescence from the disease. Considering the taste of cold cuts and the differences in level and extent of processing, this food group is classified into a separate category (according to the literature). Of the participants, 22.4% reported this particular change in their dietary habits, 59.3% of the respondents who rejected at least one of the listed foods, and 61.7% of the respondents reported that they have an altered taste of food since the convalescence. Among those who rejected any type of food since the COVID-19-related dysgeusia, the most common self-reported cause of that was a different smell perception regarding the food, which altered their eating habits. This reasoning was reported by 57.9% of the respondents. The second most common justification was the different taste and the food being simply undesirable, with 40.1% for both of these explanations. The third most common reason was that the food causes complaints with 8.7%.

The correlation between avoiding meat eating after COVID-19, which was the most common dietary change during the long COVID period, and other factors was also examined, to get a clearer picture of the phenomenon, to find the factors that might contribute the most to the development of this change.

There was a correlation between the age of the participant and the prevalence of avoiding meat eating (t = 2.25; P = 0.025), and also between the severity of the COVID symptoms and the prevalence of avoiding meat eating (t = 2.18; P = 0.030). The same was true about the number of long COVID symptoms (t = −4.43; P < 0.001), time since the first positive PCR test (t = −2.16; P = 0.031), and the time of dysgeusia (t = −5.26; P < 0.001) (Table 9).

Table 9.

Factors correlating with avoiding meat (all kinds of animal origin except cold cuts) eating (n = 501)

FactorSignificance
Aget = 2.25P = 0.025*
Severity of COVID-19t = 2.18P = 0.030*
Number of long COVID symptomst = −4.43P < 0.001**
Time since positive PCRt = −2.16P = 0.031*
Time of dysgeusiat = −5.26P < 0.001**
The smell of food is differentdf = 1P = 0.001**
The food tastes differentdf = 1P < 0.001**

Asterisks indicate the strength of the significant relations; *: P < 0.05 – significant, **: P ≤ 0.001 – highly significant.

t: t-score (the difference between the observed and expected means divided by the standard error);

df: degree of freedom.

According to the currently accessible scientific evidence, it is already known that the COVID-19 disease might have long lasting effects on the affected individuals (Lopez-Leon et al., 2021). This phenomenon occurs in the long COVID period, and it might come with a collection of prevailing symptoms. It often includes a long-lasting dysgeusia/ageusia, suspectedly changing the individuals' taste of food. A study in 2020 examined the prevalence of post-COVID fatigue and found it to be of 52.3% on the studied population, using the CFQ-11 questionnaire (Townsend et al., 2020). A study on the persistent symptoms within the long COVID period found 87% prevalence of the fatigue 3 months after the infection, and the prevalence of anosmia (13%) and ageusia (11%) were also determined (Goërtz et al., 2020). As comparison, in our survey, 53.1% of the participants reported fatigue, 50.9% anosmia, and 25% dysgeusia as long COVID symptoms.

Positive correlations were found between the number of long COVID symptoms and the following factors: severity of acute phase, time since positive PCR, and time of dysgeusia. Elder individuals, women, those with higher BMIs, participants with allergy and chronic diseases also experienced more severe symptoms and longer COVID complaints.

Our working hypothesis was that the COVID-19-related changes in smell and/or taste perception might have a long-term effect on the food and/or taste preference of the individuals. The results of the statistical analysis of our survey supported this claim. We found several examples of food that people, who went through the COVID-19 disease with a deficient ability to smell and/or taste, started to find disagreeable after the convalescence. The most frequently reported ones were: meat, coffee, citrus fruits, onions, and chocolate in this order. Among these examples, there was an extremely wide gap between the first and the second most commonly rejected type of food, the rejection of meat was reported almost 4 times more frequently than the second most common, which was coffee. In light of these findings, it is safe to conclude that the COVID-19 disease can lead to developing a distaste for certain foods. In total, 37.7% of the respondents mentioned at least one type of food they dislikes since the convalescence after the disease.

A positive correlation was found between the age of the participants and the prevalence of avoiding meat eating, which means that according to the statistical analysis of our sample, elder participants were more susceptible for this particular long COVID symptom.

It was also found that if the COVID symptoms during the acute phase of the disease were more severe, the participants avoided meat eating during the long COVID period more frequently.

Negative correlation was found between the prevalence of avoiding meat eating and the number of long COVID symptoms, time since the first positive PCR test, and the time of dysgeusia.

4 Conclusions

The most important finding of our study was that the most common type of food that people would reject after the COVID-19 disease was meat. The rejection of meat was significantly higher compared to other types of food in our survey. As a result of our research, the affected person may easily adjust their diet to include less or no eating this type of food once the virus has passed its acute phase.

According to the currently available scientific articles we can safely claim that the present study is the first to address taste and food preference changes in the population affected by long COVID in Hungary. Most likely, these changes are only temporary and they will cease after the complete return of the ability to smell and taste.

This hypothesis could be the basis of a new study that examines the duration of dietary changes due to the changed food preference, in relation to the COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, if the impairment of the ability to smell and taste becomes a chronic problem, the related dietary changes might become a chronic problem, too. The rejection of different food groups affects the individual's body weight and health state as well. The investigation of these claims requires further research.

4.1 Limitations

Due to the great variability of the possible symptoms during the long COVID period, we did not use any specific questionnaire or score system to assess the prevalence of these, so Table 3 consists only of self-reported post-COVID symptoms.

These results are based on an online survey answered by layman and this manuscript is a description of this survey (without medical supervision).

The COVID-19 only became a pandemic relatively recently, so with this study, we were only able to assess the existence of the long COVID symptoms within a relatively short time span. Naturally it includes the effects of the anosmia and dysgeusia, which are the two most important factors in relation to the change of taste of food and the consequential change in diet after the disease.

Our study only represents the sample group, not the whole Hungarian population of people, who already went through the COVID-19 disease.

Acknowledgements

Hereby, we would like to express our gratitude and appreciation to all our participants, who supported our study with their answers.

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  • Goërtz, Y.M., van Herck, M., Delbressine, J.M., Vaes, A.W., Meys, R., Machado, F.V., Houben-Wilke, S., Burtin, C., Posthuma, R., Franssen, F.M., van Loon, N., Hajian, B., Spies, Y., Vijlbrief, H., van ’t Hul, A.J., Janssen, D.J., and Spruit, M.A. (2020). Persistent symptoms 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 infection: the post-COVID-19 syndrome? ERJ Open Research, 6(4): 0054202020. https://doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00542-2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horvath, L., Lim, J.W.J., Taylor, J.W., Saief, T., Stuart, R., Rimmer, J., and Michael, P. (2020). Smell and taste loss in COVID-19 patients: assessment outcomes in a Victorian population. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 141(3): 299302. https://doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2020.1855366.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., Xiao, Y., Gao, H., Guo, L., Xie, J., Wang, G., Jiang, R., Gao, Z., Jin, Q., Wang, J., and Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 395(10223): 497506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kamal, M., Abo Omirah, M., Hussein, A., and Saeed, H. (2020). Assessment and characterisation of post‐COVID‐19 manifestations. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 75(3): e13746 https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lechien, J.R., Chiesa-Estomba, C.M., de Siati, D.R., Horoi, M., le Bon, S.D., Rodriguez, A., Dequanter, D., Blecic, S., el Afia, F., Distinguin, L., Chekkoury-Idrissi, Y., Hans, S., Delgado, I.L., Calvo-Henriquez, C., Lavigne, P., Falanga, C., Barillari, M.R., Cammaroto, G., Khalife, M., Edjlali, M., Carlier, R., Ris, L., Lovato, A., De Filippis, C., Coppee, F., Fakhry, N., Ayad, T., and Saussez, S. (2020). Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 277(8): 22512261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez-Leon, S., Wegman-Ostrosky, T., Perelman, C., Sepulveda, R., Rebolledo, P.A., Cuapio, A., and Villapo, S. (2021). More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 11: 16144. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95565-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mao, L., Jin, H., Wang, M., Hu, Y., Chen, S., He, Q., Chang, J., Hong, C., Zhou, Y., Wang, D., Miao, X., LiY., and Hu, B. (2020). Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurology, 77(6): 683690. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moein, S.T., Hashemian, S.M., Tabarsi, P., and Doty, R.L. (2020). Prevalence and reversibility of smell dysfunction measured psychophysically in a cohort of COVID‐19 patients. International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, 10(10): 11271135. https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.22680.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, J.B. and June, C.H. (2020). Cytokine release syndrome in severe COVID-19. Science, 368(6490): 473474. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8925.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenforde, M.W., Kim, S.S., Lindsell, C.J., Billig Rose, E., Shapiro, N.I., Files, D.C., Gibbs, K.W., Erickson, H.L., Steingrub, J.S., Smithline, H.A., Gong, M.N., Aboodi, M.S., Exline, M.C., Henning, D.J., Wilson, J.G., Khan, A., Qadir, N., Brown, S.M., Peltan, I.D., Rice, T.W., Hager, D.N., Ginde, A.A., Stubblefield,W.B., Patel, M.M., Self, W.H., and Feldstein, L.R. (2020). Symptom duration and risk factors for delayed return to usual health among outpatients with COVID-19 in a multistate health care systems network — United States, March–June 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(30): 993998. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6930e1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Townsend, L., Dyer, A.H., Jones, K., Dunne, J., Mooney, A., Gaffney, F., O’Connor, L., Leavy, D., O’BrienK., Dowds, J., Sugrue, J.A., Hopkins, D., Martin-Loeches, I., Ni Cheallaigh, C., Nadarajan, P., McLaughlin, A.M., Bourke, N.M., Bergin, C., O’Farrelly, C., Berger, C., O’Farrelly, C., Banlan, C., and Conlon, N. (2020). Persistent fatigue following SARS-CoV-2 infection is common and independent of severity of initial infection. PloS One, 15(11): e0240784. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240784.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Townsend, L., Dowds, J., O’Brien, K., Sheill, G., Dyer, A.H., O’Kelly, B., Hynes, J.P., Mooney, A., Dunne, J., Ni Cheallaigh, C., O’Farrelly, C., Bourke, N.M., Conlon, N., Martin-Loeches, I., Bergin, C., Nadarajan, P., and Bannan, C. (2021). Persistent poor health after COVID-19 is not associated with respiratory complications or initial disease severity. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 18(6): 9971003. https://doi.org/10.1513/annalsats.202009-1175oc.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trachootham, D., Thongyen, S., Lam-Ubol, A., Chotechuang, N., Pongpirul, W., and Prasithsirikul, W. (2021). Simultaneously complete but not partial taste and smell losses were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 106: 329337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.083.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHO. (2021). A clinical case definition of post COVID-19 condition by a Delphi consensus. World Health Organization. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Post_COVID-19_condition-Clinical_case_definition-2021.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, Y.M., Shang, Y.M., Song, W.B., Li, Q.Q., Xie, H., Xu, Q.F., Jia, J.L., Li, L.M., Mao, H.L., Zhou, X.M., Luo, H., Gao, Y.F., and Xu, A.G. (2020). Follow-up study of the pulmonary function and related physiological characteristics of COVID-19 survivors three months after recovery. EClinicalMedicine, 25: 100463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100463.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alimohamadi, Y., Sepandi, M., Taghdir, M., and Hosamirudsari, H. (2020). Determine the most common clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 61(3): E304E312. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.3.1530.

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  • Andrews, P.J., Pendolino, A.L., Ottaviano, G., Scarpa, B., Grant, J., Gaudioso, P., Bordin, A., Rosario Marchese-Ragon, R., Leoni, D., Cattelan, A., Kaura, A., Gane, S., Hamilton, N.J., Choi, D., and Andrews, J.A. (2020). Olfactory and taste dysfunction among mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19 positive health care workers: an international survey. Laryngoscope Investigating Otolaryngology, 5: 10191028. https://doi.org/10.1002/lio2.507.

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  • Carfì, A., Bernabei, R., and Landi, F. (2020). Persistent symptoms in patients after acute COVID-19. JAMA, 324(6): 603605. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.12603.

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    • Export Citation
  • Carvalho-Schneider, C., Laurent, E., Lemaignen, A., Beaufils, E., Bourbao-Tournois, C., Laribi, S., Flament, T., Ferreira-Maldent, N., Bruyère, F., Stefic, K., Gaudy-Graffin, C., Grammatico-Guillon, L., and Bernard, L. (2021). Follow-up of adults with noncritical COVID-19 two months after symptom onset. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 27(2): 258263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.052.

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    • Export Citation
  • Dell’Era, V., Farri, F., Garzaro, G., Gatto, M., Aluffi Valletti, P., and Garzaro, M. (2020). Smell and taste disorders during COVID ‐19 outbreak: cross‐sectional study on 355 patients. Head & Neck, 42(7): 15911596. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.26288.

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  • Eliezer, M., Hautefort, C., Hamel, A.L., Verillaud, B., Herman, P., Houdart, E., and Eloit, C. (2020). Sudden and complete olfactory loss of function as a possible symptom of COVID-19. JAMA Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 146(7): 674675. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2020.0832.

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    • Export Citation
  • Galván-Tejada, C.E., Cintya Fabiola Herrera-García, C.F., Godina-González, S., Villagrana-Bañuelos, K.E., De Luna Amaro, J.D., Herrera-García, K., Reyes-Escobedo, F., Celaya-Padilla, J.M., Galván-Tejada, J.I., Gamboa-Rosales, H., Martínez-Acuña, M., Cervantes-Villagrana, A., Rivas-Santiago, B., and Gonzalez-Curiel, I.E. (2020). Persistence of COVID-9 symptoms after recovery in Mexican population. International Journal of Environtal Research and Public Health, 17(24): 9367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249367.

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    • Export Citation
  • Garrigues, E., Janvier, P., Kherabi, Y., le Bot, A., Hamon, A., Gouze, H., Doucet, L., Berkani, S., Oliosi, E., Mallart, E., Corre, F., Zarrouk, V., Moyer, J.D., Galy, A., Honsel, V., Fantin, B., and Nguyen, Y. (2020). Post-discharge persistent symptoms and health-related quality of life after hospitalization for COVID-19. Journal of Infection, 81(6): E4E6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.08.029.

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  • Gautier, J. and Ravussin, Y. (2020). A New symptom of COVID‐19: loss of taste and smell. Obesity, 28(5): 848. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22809.

  • Gelardi M., Trecca E., Cassano M., Ciprandi G. (2020). Smell and taste dysfunction during the COVID-19 outbreak: a preliminary report. Acta Biomedica, 91(2): 230231. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i2.9524.

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  • Gemelli Against COVID-19 Post-Acute Care Study Group (2020). Post-COVID-19 global health strategies: the need for an interdisciplinary approach. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research ,32: 16131620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01616-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goërtz, Y.M., van Herck, M., Delbressine, J.M., Vaes, A.W., Meys, R., Machado, F.V., Houben-Wilke, S., Burtin, C., Posthuma, R., Franssen, F.M., van Loon, N., Hajian, B., Spies, Y., Vijlbrief, H., van ’t Hul, A.J., Janssen, D.J., and Spruit, M.A. (2020). Persistent symptoms 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 infection: the post-COVID-19 syndrome? ERJ Open Research, 6(4): 0054202020. https://doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00542-2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horvath, L., Lim, J.W.J., Taylor, J.W., Saief, T., Stuart, R., Rimmer, J., and Michael, P. (2020). Smell and taste loss in COVID-19 patients: assessment outcomes in a Victorian population. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 141(3): 299302. https://doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2020.1855366.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., Xiao, Y., Gao, H., Guo, L., Xie, J., Wang, G., Jiang, R., Gao, Z., Jin, Q., Wang, J., and Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 395(10223): 497506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kamal, M., Abo Omirah, M., Hussein, A., and Saeed, H. (2020). Assessment and characterisation of post‐COVID‐19 manifestations. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 75(3): e13746 https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lechien, J.R., Chiesa-Estomba, C.M., de Siati, D.R., Horoi, M., le Bon, S.D., Rodriguez, A., Dequanter, D., Blecic, S., el Afia, F., Distinguin, L., Chekkoury-Idrissi, Y., Hans, S., Delgado, I.L., Calvo-Henriquez, C., Lavigne, P., Falanga, C., Barillari, M.R., Cammaroto, G., Khalife, M., Edjlali, M., Carlier, R., Ris, L., Lovato, A., De Filippis, C., Coppee, F., Fakhry, N., Ayad, T., and Saussez, S. (2020). Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 277(8): 22512261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez-Leon, S., Wegman-Ostrosky, T., Perelman, C., Sepulveda, R., Rebolledo, P.A., Cuapio, A., and Villapo, S. (2021). More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 11: 16144. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95565-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mao, L., Jin, H., Wang, M., Hu, Y., Chen, S., He, Q., Chang, J., Hong, C., Zhou, Y., Wang, D., Miao, X., LiY., and Hu, B. (2020). Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurology, 77(6): 683690. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moein, S.T., Hashemian, S.M., Tabarsi, P., and Doty, R.L. (2020). Prevalence and reversibility of smell dysfunction measured psychophysically in a cohort of COVID‐19 patients. International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, 10(10): 11271135. https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.22680.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, J.B. and June, C.H. (2020). Cytokine release syndrome in severe COVID-19. Science, 368(6490): 473474. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8925.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenforde, M.W., Kim, S.S., Lindsell, C.J., Billig Rose, E., Shapiro, N.I., Files, D.C., Gibbs, K.W., Erickson, H.L., Steingrub, J.S., Smithline, H.A., Gong, M.N., Aboodi, M.S., Exline, M.C., Henning, D.J., Wilson, J.G., Khan, A., Qadir, N., Brown, S.M., Peltan, I.D., Rice, T.W., Hager, D.N., Ginde, A.A., Stubblefield,W.B., Patel, M.M., Self, W.H., and Feldstein, L.R. (2020). Symptom duration and risk factors for delayed return to usual health among outpatients with COVID-19 in a multistate health care systems network — United States, March–June 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(30): 993998. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6930e1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Townsend, L., Dyer, A.H., Jones, K., Dunne, J., Mooney, A., Gaffney, F., O’Connor, L., Leavy, D., O’BrienK., Dowds, J., Sugrue, J.A., Hopkins, D., Martin-Loeches, I., Ni Cheallaigh, C., Nadarajan, P., McLaughlin, A.M., Bourke, N.M., Bergin, C., O’Farrelly, C., Berger, C., O’Farrelly, C., Banlan, C., and Conlon, N. (2020). Persistent fatigue following SARS-CoV-2 infection is common and independent of severity of initial infection. PloS One, 15(11): e0240784. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240784.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Townsend, L., Dowds, J., O’Brien, K., Sheill, G., Dyer, A.H., O’Kelly, B., Hynes, J.P., Mooney, A., Dunne, J., Ni Cheallaigh, C., O’Farrelly, C., Bourke, N.M., Conlon, N., Martin-Loeches, I., Bergin, C., Nadarajan, P., and Bannan, C. (2021). Persistent poor health after COVID-19 is not associated with respiratory complications or initial disease severity. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 18(6): 9971003. https://doi.org/10.1513/annalsats.202009-1175oc.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trachootham, D., Thongyen, S., Lam-Ubol, A., Chotechuang, N., Pongpirul, W., and Prasithsirikul, W. (2021). Simultaneously complete but not partial taste and smell losses were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 106: 329337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.083.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHO. (2021). A clinical case definition of post COVID-19 condition by a Delphi consensus. World Health Organization. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Post_COVID-19_condition-Clinical_case_definition-2021.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, Y.M., Shang, Y.M., Song, W.B., Li, Q.Q., Xie, H., Xu, Q.F., Jia, J.L., Li, L.M., Mao, H.L., Zhou, X.M., Luo, H., Gao, Y.F., and Xu, A.G. (2020). Follow-up study of the pulmonary function and related physiological characteristics of COVID-19 survivors three months after recovery. EClinicalMedicine, 25: 100463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100463.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: András Salgó

Co-ordinating Editor(s) Marianna Tóth-Markus

Co-editor(s): A. Halász

       Editorial Board

  • L. Abrankó (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)
  • D. Bánáti (University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary)
  • J. Baranyi (Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK)
  • I. Bata-Vidács (Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • J. Beczner (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • F. Békés (FBFD PTY LTD, Sydney, NSW Australia)
  • Gy. Biró (National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science, Budapest, Hungary)
  • A. Blázovics (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • F. Capozzi (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
  • M. Carcea (Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics Rome, Italy)
  • Zs. Cserhalmi (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • M. Dalla Rosa (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
  • I. Dalmadi (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • K. Demnerova (University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • M. Dobozi King (Texas A&M University, Texas, USA)
  • Muying Du (Southwest University in Chongqing, Chongqing, China)
  • S. N. El (Ege University, Izmir, Turkey)
  • S. B. Engelsen (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark)
  • E. Gelencsér (Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Budapest, Hungary)
  • V. M. Gómez-López (Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, Spain)
  • J. Hardi (University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
  • K. Héberger (Research Centre for Natural Sciences, ELKH, Budapest, Hungary)
  • N. Ilić (University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia)
  • D. Knorr (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany)
  • H. Köksel (Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey)
  • K. Liburdi (Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy)
  • M. Lindhauer (Max Rubner Institute, Detmold, Germany)
  • M.-T. Liong (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
  • M. Manley (Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa)
  • M. Mézes (Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary)
  • Á. Németh (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • P. Ng (Michigan State University,  Michigan, USA)
  • Q. D. Nguyen (Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary)
  • L. Nyström (ETH Zürich, Switzerland)
  • L. Perez (University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain)
  • V. Piironen (University of Helsinki, Finland)
  • A. Pino (University of Catania, Catania, Italy)
  • M. Rychtera (University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic)
  • K. Scherf (Technical University, Munich, Germany)
  • R. Schönlechner (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria)
  • A. Sharma (Department of Atomic Energy, Delhi, India)
  • A. Szarka (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • M. Szeitzné Szabó (National Food Chain Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary)
  • S. Tömösközi (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary)
  • L. Varga (University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary)
  • R. Venskutonis (Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • B. Wróblewska (Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences Olsztyn, Poland)

 

Acta Alimentaria
E-mail: Acta.Alimentaria@uni-mate.hu

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2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
856
Journal Impact Factor 1,000
Rank by Impact Factor Food Science & Technology 130/143
Nutrition & Dietetics 81/90
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,941
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,039
Journal Citation Indicator 0,19
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator Food Science & Technology 143/164
Nutrition & Dietetics 92/109
Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
30
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,235
Scimago Quartile Score

Food Science (Q3)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,4
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Food Sciences 222/338 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,387

 

2020
 
Total Cites
768
WoS
Journal
Impact Factor
0,650
Rank by
Nutrition & Dietetics 79/89 (Q4)
Impact Factor
Food Science & Technology 130/144 (Q4)
Impact Factor
0,575
without
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
0,899
Impact Factor
Journal
0,17
Citation Indicator
 
Rank by Journal
Nutrition & Dietetics 88/103 (Q4)
Citation Indicator
Food Science & Technology 142/160 (Q4)
Citable
59
Items
Total
58
Articles
Total
1
Reviews
Scimago
28
H-index
Scimago
0,237
Journal Rank
Scimago
Food Science Q3
Quartile Score
 
Scopus
248/238=1,0
Scite Score
 
Scopus
Food Science 216/310 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank
 
Scopus
0,349
SNIP
 
Days from
100
submission
 
to acceptance
 
Days from
143
acceptance
 
to publication
 
Acceptance
16%
Rate
2019  
Total Cites
WoS
522
Impact Factor 0,458
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,433
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,503
Immediacy
Index
0,100
Citable
Items
60
Total
Articles
59
Total
Reviews
1
Cited
Half-Life
7,8
Citing
Half-Life
9,8
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00034
Article Influence
Score
0,077
% Articles
in
Citable Items
98,33
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,04267
Average
IF
Percentile
7,429
Scimago
H-index
27
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,212
Scopus
Scite Score
220/247=0,9
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Food Science 215/299 (Q3)
Scopus
SNIP
0,275
Acceptance
Rate
15%

 

Acta Alimentaria
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 1100 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2022 Online subsscription: 754 EUR / 944 USD
Print + online subscription: 872 EUR / 1090 USD
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 776 EUR / 944 USD
Print + online subscription: 896 EUR / 1090 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Acta Alimentaria
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1972
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia    
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0139-3006 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2535 (Online)

 

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